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Colonel in the Service of the Honorable East-India Compani/. 

With NOTES and OBSERVATIONS, and an 



JLonDon : 

Printed for Black, Parry, and Kingsbury, Booksellers to the Honorable East-Indi/^ 
Company, Leadenhall Street; and fur Sown Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place. 


London : 

P/iated by Cox, Son, and Baylis, Great Queeo St teef, 














Sfc. Sfc. Sfc. Sfc. 

My Lord; 

It is neither for the ostentatious purpose of 
gracing the front of my book with an illustrious name, nor, by thus 
giving it the apparent stamp of your approbation, to promote its 
favourable reception with the public, that the present work is dedicated 
to your Lordship. It is equally remote from my intention, either to 
offer it as a tribute of gratitude for former, or to employ it as a passport 
to future obligations. The first of these objects would be but feebly 
answered, and the latter could not, in any degree, be advanced, by such 
inadequate means. It is a principle of justice, and of justice alone, 
which has prompted me to address it to your Lordship. 

I am 



I am far from the vanity or presumption of imagining, that the 
introduction of your name, on this occasion, can be in the least 
flattering to your Lordship. No, my Lord; I am only anxious to 
avoid the manifest impropriety of which I should be guilty, if I were 
to dedicate to any but your Lordship, a Avork, which, in truth, owes, 
its existence to you. 

This is no compliment, my Lord, but a mere historical fact : for 
who does not know that it was your Lordship's political sagacity 
which penetrated, and your prompt and energetic measures which 
defeated, the hostile designs of Tippoo Sultan against the British 
Dominions in India? Who is ignorant, that it was those measures 
which led to the rapid annihilation of the most formidable power with 
whom we ever had to cope in that quarter of the globe, and which 
substituted in its place an order of things, redounding no less to the 
glory, than conducing to the solid interests, of your country ? 

To the complete success which, under Divine Providence, crowned 
the wise and vigorous conduct of your Lordship, in this short but 
arduous contest, is the public indebted, among other inestimable 
advantages of the most important and durable nature, for the posses- 
sion of the archives of Seringapatam. To whom, therefore, can a 
work, compiled from those archives, be so appropriately addressed, 
as to him who procured us access to whatever information they con- 
tain ? 

Having thus, I presume, satisfactorily established your Lordship's 
pubUc claim to the present humble tribute, it only remains for me to 


D E D r C A T I O N. lU 

shew, that you possess still another title to it, which though of a 
private nature, is equally imperative upon me, as the compiler of the 
following sheets : for if that tribute would have been due to your 
Lordship from any person whatsoever, who might have casually ob- 
tained possession of the documents composing this work, and have 
anticipated me in the publication of them, how much more is your 
Lordship entitled to receive such an acknowledgement from one, who 
is, in fact, indebted for his materials to the official situations in which 
he had the honor of being employed under your Lordship's administra- 
tion in India ? 

I have the honor to be, 

With the highest respect, 

My lord. 

Your Lordship's most ohedient 

and most faithful servant, 


\st February, 1811. 


. It is alreadi/ generally known, that upon the reduction of Serhgapatam, in 
the year 1/99, «^^ t^^ public records of the then existing Government of Mysore 
passed into the possession of the captors. It is also, however, but too certain, 
that many of these precious documents were accidentally bumf, or otherwise 
destroyed, in the confusion and disorder which tinavoidably ensued upon the 
assault of the fort : nor is it improbable, that some portion of them has disap- 
peared, in consequence of falling, on the same occasion, into the liands of private 
persons, ignorant of the value, and indifferent to the preservation of their prize. 
Mut tvhatever loss may have arisen frorn the last mentioned cause, if is, never- 
tlieless, owing to the active care, and intelligent research, of an individual, 'that 
several of the most important of the Mysore papers, now remaining, have been 
rescued from oblivion ; and, among the rest, the very Register of public Letters, 
from which the correspondence, contained in the present volume, has been extracted. 
The gentleman here alluded to is Lieutenant-Colonel Ogg, of the East-India 
Compafiy's Madras Establishment,* to wliose Mndness the Translator is indebted 
for the chief part of the interestijig ynaterials relative to Tippoo Sultan, of which 
he is in possession. Of 


• Lieutenant-Colonel (then Captain) Ogg held, at the period in question, an official 
situation under Viscount Wellington, at that time Commandant of Seringapatam. 


Of the state papers discovered at Serin gapat am, immediately after the capture 
of that place, many have been already communicated to the Public, through 
official and other channels.* Those, in particular, which served to develope the 
more recent intrigues of Tippoo Sultan with the enemies of Great-Britain, were 
jmblished, soon after his overthrow, by authority of the Supreme Government of 
India, and subsequently in this country. A report of the general nature of these 
documents was draivn tip, at an early period, in pursuance of directions from 
Marquis PVellesley, by the present writer, who had been employed to examine 
them, and who suggested, at the time, the expediency of having the whole trans^ 
lated, preparatory to a proper selection being made from them, for the information 
of the public-^ The great pressure of business in the Persian Department, 
prevented, however, the adoption of this recommendation, when first submitted to 
the Governor General; and the same cause has probably continued to operate, to 
the disappointment of the expectation which may be presumed to Imve been excited 
on the occasion. By none can this disappointment be more severely felt or regret- 
ted, than by the compiler of these sheets, who is too ivell acquainted with the 
eminent talents of the gentleman% then at the head of the Persian Office in Bengal, 
not to appreciate duly the heavy loss sustained by the literary world at large, but 
more especially by such as are fond of enquiries into the Modern History of India, 
in consequence of his having been precluded, by his official avocations, from under- 
tahing the task alluded to. 

But it may still, perhaps, be permitted us to hope, tliat this object has not been 
absolutely relinquished ; ami that some portion, at least, of the extensive and 


* Vide Asiatic Register for 1799, and Lieutenant-Colonel Beatson's " View of the Origin 
'♦ and Conduct of the War witli Tippoo Sultan." 

t Tiic substance of the report, here referred to, may he seen at page 179 of Colonel 
Beatson's publication. 

X N. B. Edmondstone, Esq. 


valuable docu)nents, enumerated in the report just referred to, may at no distant 
period, be submitted to the public eye, which, in the mean while, may possibly view 
with indulgence, the present specimen of the less copious, hut equally curious and 
interesting materials, discoi^ered subsequently to the date of that report. Cf those 
materials, (or, rather, such of them as have reached the Translator's hands) the 
fbllotving sheets constitute only a part. The remaining letters of Tippoo Sultan, 
to say nothing of other docuynents in the writer's possession, would, after due 
selection, furnish abundant matter for another volume : but enough, probably, is 
here done, for the immediate gratification of the public curiosity. It 7nust rest on 
the reception given to the present work, and on the state of the Translator's health, 
whether he shall hereafter attempt a continuation of it. However this may be, as 
the other materials, alluded to, have no necessary dependence, either upon those 
employed in the ensuing pages, or upon one another, 7io inconvenience ca7i 7'esuli to 
the reader or purchaser from their separate publication. 

The Translator icill probably have reaso7i to 7'egref, that he has allowed so lo7ig 
a period to intci'venc, betwee/i the publicatio7i of the prcse/if vohane a7id his acquis 
sition of the mate7'ials which principally compose it. If would, 7io doubt, have 
excited a stro77ger interest than it can now be hoped to do, if it had appeared, 
while the public curiosity, tvith regard to whatever related to Tippoo Sultan, was 
still eager, and ivhile the niemory of the events connected with his name was yet 
recent. But various coxunistances, with ivhich it is unnecessary to trouble the 
Reader, coynbl/ied to preve7it the Translator, fill ivithin the last twelve7no7ith, 
from tmdei-fahing to arrange the documents in his possession for the press. He 
loill only 7nention one ; ivhich is, that during the ivhole of the intermediate time, 
he ivas constantly in expectation that the work in his contemplation (for he co)i' 
f esses to have always had it in view) would be a7iticipatedfro7n sonie other quarter. 

Not withstanding. 


Noticithstandhig, however, the unfavourable effect, hut too likely to be produced 
by the delay which has occurred, the Translator is willing to flatter himself, that, 
even at this late period, the attempt to illustrate a character, so conspicuous in 
modern days as that of Tippoo Sultan, and to throw light on transactions, so 
closely connected, as those of his reign are, with the history of the British Empire 
in India, is in little danger of being deemed entirely destitute, either of interest 
or utility. In this humble confidence are the following sheets noiv presented to the 
Public, whose Judgmejit concerning them will be aivaited by the Translator with no 
inconsiderable anxiety. 


The Register from which the following letters have been taken, and 
which has been cursorily noticed in the Advertisement, is the fragment, 
only, of a record, which, if it had reached us in a perfect state, would 
probably have exhibited copies of all the public or official correspondence 
of Tippoo Sultan, from the commencement to the close of his reign. 
Unfortunately, however, the portion of these highiy interesting docu- 
ments which has been preserved, or, at least, hitherto discovered, is not 
so extensive as could have been wished; the correspondence, in question, 
not beginning till February 1785, and ending with November 1793. But, 
even in this period, considerable chasms occur; while, from 1794 to 
1799, is an absolute blank. In short, we are, at present, in possession 
of little more than a third part of the correspondence, which may rea-^ 
sonably be supposed to have taken place within the time spoken of: in 
which account, however, I do not include such detached letters of the 
Sultan as have come to us through other channels, and all of which are 
of a subsequent date to the latest of those recorded in the Register. 

But whatever cause we may have to regret the actual deficiency of our 
present materials, we ought not, perhaps, absolutely to despair of its 
being yet supplied by the successful diligence of future enquirers. Ad- 
verting to the extreme regularity observed by the Sultan in the registry 
of his official correspondence, little doubt can be entertained of the exis- 
tence of the now missing" part of it, at the time of his death. Supposing. 


it, therefore, to have escaped the destruction, which, as was stated in 
the Advertisement, swept away but too many of the archives of his go- 
vernment, it is still possible, that it may be recovered, out of the private 
hands into which it has probably fallen. In the mean while, the value of 
the portion actually preserved, is not, perhaps, essentially diminished, 
by the loss that appears to have been sustained. Enough remains, if not 
to elucidate every transaction of the Sulia7is reign, at least to develope 
his singular character in the most satisfactory manner. The importance 
of these letters, indeed, does not consist so much in the light which they 
are calculated to shed on several material occurrences of the period they 
relate to (though, in this respect, they will certainly be found a useful 
guide to the future historian of 3 ft/sore) as in the vivid illustration which 
they afford of the genius, talents, and disposition of their extraordinary 
author, who is here successively and repeatedly delineated, in colors from 
his own pencil, as the cruel and relentless enemy ; the intolerant bigot or 
furious fanatic; the oppressive and unjust ruler; the harsh and rigid 
master ; the sanguinary tyrant ; the perfidious negociator ; the frivolous 
and capricious Innovator ; the mean and minute economist ; the peddling 
trader ; and even the retail shop-keeper. The painter will not be suspected 
of overcharging the unfavorable traits of the picture, when it Is considered 
that that picture Is his own. 

In making the present selection from about a thousand letters,* I have 
confined myself, almost entirely, to such as either appeared to exhibit the 
Sullan in some new light ; to unfold some of his political, financial, or 
connncrcial views; or to elucidate some historical fact. Those which 
merely related to the details of ordinary business, without eliciting any 
thing peculiarly characteristic of the writer, have been passed over. I 
have also judged it unnecessary to insert any part of the Sultans cor- 

* Tlic Rcgibtcr comprises altogether about two thousand letters ; of wliieh number I have 
not yet arrainged above halt'. 


respondence with the several British Governors of India, as most ot these 
documents are aheady in the possession of the PubHc. 

I will now proceed to give some account of the rules, by which I have, 
in general, been guided in the course of the present translation. 

My principal object, in this work, being to present as striking a 
likeness of Tippoo, as the nature of my materials, and the extent of my 
ability to employ them advantageously, would admit, I thought it essen- 
tial to this end, to render his sentiments, on all occasions, as closely as 
the different idioms of the two languages would allow, without involving 
the sense in difficulty or obscurity. In short, what I wished, but cannot 
liope to have attained, is, that the reader, losing sight entirely of the 
translator, should fancy himself in presence of the Suliun, listening to the 
latter, w hile dictating to one or other of the different secretaries by whom 
he was usually attended. 

Proceeding on this principle, I have, for the most part, adhered more 
strictly to the phraseology or diction of my original, than is usually 
deemed necessary, or expedient, in translations from a foreign language ; 
and I am ready to admit, that my unwillingness to relinquish the slightest 
turn of expression, appearing particularly to denote the feeling which 
suggested it, may have sometimes led me too far. Still, however, my 
translation is not absolutely a verbal one ; since I have not scrupled to 
exercise a certain license, as often as either our language could not be 
easily bent to the form of the Persian, or ambiguity was likely to result 
from the attempt. There are, indeed, two points, in which I acknow- 
ledge to have uniformly deviated from the strict letter of the original, and 
on which it may not be improper, in this place, to submit a few obser- 
vations to the notice of the Reader. 

One of the points alluded to consists in my making the writer of these 
letters almost constantly use the first person plural, when speaking of 
himself : but though it is true, that the precise words, corresponding to 

b 2 we. 


wcj our, and us, are not employed by the Sultan, yet are the latter 
entirely agreeable to the genius of the language, in which nothing is 
more common than the substitution of the plural for the singular 
pronouns, unless it be that of the third for both the first and second.* 
In these letters, however, the pronoun of the first person, whether 
singular or plural, scarcely ever occurs,f the words j^.^^- Hiizoor (Pre- 
sence), and jly. Sircar (state or government), being eveiy where used 
instead of them. As, therefoie, the perpetual recurrence of such terms 
would have had a very awkward appearance in English, if it would not, 
also, have sometimes embarrassed the sense, I did not hesitate at con- 
verting them generally into pronouns. It may be further urged, in 
justification of the liberty I have taken, that while, on the one hand, the 
style of majesty, thus assigned to the Sullan, is in perfect conformity 
with the usage of the East, it is also the best suited to the mandatory 
nature of the chief part of the letters, and to the actual rank of the 
writer. In a few instances, Avhere the persons addressed are of a differ- 
ent description from the generality of his correspondents, I have judged 
it right to make the Sultan descend (as, indeed, he more or less does 
himself in the original) to the customary style of equality. 

The second point, in which I have ventured to depart pretty constantly 
from the manuscript, respects the tense, as the preceding one does the 
person. Instead of the perfect, or preterpluperfect tense, in which the 
letters of his correspondents are always spoken of by the Sultan, I have 


* Thus the third person is very commonly put for both the first and second (governing tlie 
verb accordingly) in sucli phrases as the following : , ,\_ , v -^ Vi.- •- ^ .1 - v- - -j ^ or j^,Asc* or k_.jUi^'/ 

A3l<i:; I.. ^^L or fj^,ji^ Ji ^j)>ijj\ '.-UjZJ or ^J^\ i.e. " this side, or person, or friend, 

(i.e. 1) IS sciUed in expectation of their, or that friend'' s (i. e. your) arrival." Where, 

t_-0UrT'3 &c. standing for the pronoun of the third person, takes the verb accordingly in tlie 
tliird person v.^-. , '■"i 

t I bave not met with more than two or three instances in the course of the follouing 


adopted, as more agreeable to the idiom of our language, the use of the 
present and compound preterite : thus, for Jjj izJ:>y it teas ivritten (by 
you), ov you wrote, I have put, you ivrite. In the same manner I have 
rendered t::.^j^^j\ passed under vieiv, by, has passed under CowJ 
view;* and so in other similar cases. 

With the exceptions which have been stated, and scarcely with any 
other, my general rule has been, to retain, as nearly as possible, every 
word and thought, that seemed to mark, in any prominent degree, the 
peculiar cast of the writer's mind. 

Tippoo Sultan, indeed, rarely took up his pen, without its laying open 
some recess or other of his various and irreg;ular mind. He seldom issues 
an order, that does not bespeak, either the general tone of his nature, or 
the particular iui pulse of the moment. He seems to have felt no hesi- 
tation in avowing, in the course of the letters which follow, the most 
flagitious sentiments ; and this may be accounted for on one or other, 
or on both, of these principles. The letters being, in the first place, 
addressed, with few exceptions, to persons in absolute dependence on 
him, he consequently would be wholly free from that sort of reserve, 
which arises from the fear of incurring the censure or reproach of the 
world. He knew his will to be a law, the propriety of which, as it 
might concern others, would never be canvassed or doubted bv any of 
his slaves. In the next place, he probably measured the sentiments in 
([uestion, by a different standard from that with which we estimate them. 
Thus, the various murders and acts of treachery, which we see him 
directing to be carried into execution, were not criminal, but, on the 
contrary, just, and even meritorious, in his eyes. They might, and 
most likely did, in a great degree, proceed from a disposition naturally 
cruel and sanguinary : but, perhaps, an intolerant religious zeal and 

c bigotry 

* To avoid tiring tlic eye or tlie car, by the perpetual recurrence of this mctapiior, I 
liavc sometimes substituted, in its place, tlic simple phrase, /las been rcecixed. 


bigotry were not less active motives to them. The Kormi taught him, 
that it was not necessary to keep faith with infidels, or the enemies of 
the true religion, in which class it was not difficult for him to persuade 
himself that it Avas right to include all who opposed, or refused to 
co-operate in, his views, for the extension of that religion ; or, in other 
words, for his own aggrandisement. Hence it was, that our Musulman 
allies and subjects were scarcely less obnoxious to his hatred and ven- 
geance than ouiselves. With regard to the secret murder of his English 
prisoners, his dreadful slaughter of the Koorgs and Nairs, and his 
forcible conversion of so many thousands of the two latter tribes to the 
Mahonuuedan faith, he most probably thought such enormities no less 
warranted, both by the example and precepts of the founder of his 
religion, than the infraction of oaths and engagements in transactions 
with unbelievers. 

It may be thought, that admitting the propriety of a close adherence, 
in general, to the original of a work of the peculiar nature of the 
present, still there was no necessity for retaining, so scrupulously as I 
may seem to have done, its numerous pleonasms and tautologies, both in 
matter and expression. With respect, however, to the former of these 
defects, (namely, the perpetual reiteration of the same opinion or direc- 
tion) I confess I did not deem it right to retrench superfluities, which 
did not appear as such to their author ; who, though he undoubtedly 
too often wearies us with a repetition of the same thing, might, never- 
theless, in so doing, have had it in view to stimulate the diligence and 
zeal of his servants : and where the fault may not seem to have proceeded 
from this cause, it at least marks an earnest solicitude of mind, for the 
accomplishment of the objects so incessantly impressed on the attention 
of the persons addressed. These observations will be found, perhaps, 
more especially apphcable to the letters written to Kumriiddeen Khan, 
to Biirhanuddecn, and to the diplomatic agents at Poonah. 



With regard to the mere verbal tautologies, 1 am ready to admit that 
they might have been considerably abridged, without any injury to the 
general sense of the original, and certainly with advantage to the style. 
As, however, they appeared to me, in many instances, strongly cha- 
racteristic of the genius and temper of the writer, I have, on such 
occasions, thought it right to preserve them in the translation, though 
somewhat at the expence of good taste and brevity. On the other hand, 
where the perpetual recurrence of an unmeaning form of sj)eech would 
have become grating to the ear, or tiresome to the eye, I have not 
scrupled to vary it occasionally. I shall be found to have exercised this 
Hberty most frequently in the introductory part of these letters, where, 
instead of " your humble address has passed under view, and the circum- 
stances set forth therein are manifest, or dull/ comprehended, §"<?." with 
which, or similar words, they usually begin, I have generally contented 
myself with a simple notification of the receipt of the letter referred to. 
Now and then, only, for the sake of variety, I have retained the cir- 
cuitous phraseology of the original. On the whole, however, I have no 
where, for the mere sake of improving the general style of the transla- 
tion, or of infusing more spirit into any particular passage or expression, 
deviated intentionally from my manuscript, of which my endeavour has 
been to give as faithful a version as was compatible with a due regard to 
perspicuity. If I have not always succeeded in this object, I am willing 
that the failure should, for the most part, be attributed to my incompetency. 
At the same time, I owe it to myself to observe, and trust my readers 
will believe, that it has sometimes proceeded entirely from the obscurity 
of the original, occasioned either by the carelessness of my author, or by 
the errors of transcribers. 

Notwithstanding the few redundancies of style which have been noticed 
as pervading the following letters, their general characteristic is cer- 
tainly brevity, which, perhaps, might proceed, in some degree, from a 

c 2 notion 


notion of the writer, that the laconic manner was the one best suited to 
the authoritative nature of his dispatches, as well as to the relative situa- 
tion of the persons to whom they were chiefly addressed. It was certainly, 
too, well adapted, if not absolutely necessary, to the purpose of one who 
had his pen for ever in his hand, and who himself (whether from inclina- 
tion, or from an universal distrust of all whom he employed, or from a 
passion to be thought, not only the jjrincipal, but the sole originator, of 
every thing) directed, either by writing or orally, the most minute details 
of his government. Such a one could not have had leisure to compose long 
letters, had they been necessary; which, however, would rarely be the case. 
But be this as it might, the Sultan does not appear to have possessed a 
sufficient stretch of thought upon any subject (even those that he most 
deliohted in or affected) to enable him to discuss it, either with logical 
force or precision. A consecutive train of argument was a thing of which 
he no where seems to have had an idea : yet some of the occasions, on 
which he wrote or dictated, certainly afforded ample scope for the display 
of the reasoning faculty. His writings, however, furnish as little proof 
of his having possessed this faculty, as his actions in general did. Even 
in his own Memoirs, which he did not begin to compose till he was past 
forty, we meet with nothing indicating capacity of any kind. He did 
not even write with facility. This is clearly shewn, by various memoran- 
dums in his hand-writing, Avhich, though very short, and on subjects of 
no difficulty, abound in erasures and corrections. One, in particular, 
relating to the question, whether Major Doveton should be allowed to 
accompany the hostage princes, on their return from Madras ? is nearly 
unintelligible, in consequence of the interlineations which disfigure, and 
the general confusion of ideas and dates which pervades it. As this cu- 
rious document, besides serving to establish the truth of the position just 
advanced, is, in some other respects, extremely interesting, the Persian 



reader may not be displeased to see a fac simile of it, which has been 
engraved for this work, and forms Appendix A. 

Ahhougli the authenticity of these letters will hardly be disputed, even 
by the most sceptical, yet the reader may hesitate to believe, that, with 
the exception, perhaps, of those addressed to the Emperor of Hindostan 
(the late Shah Allum), and a few others of the more elaborate or finished 
kind, if any of them may be so considered, they were either dictated by 
the Sultan, or actually proceeded from his pen. Nor, indeed, does this 
notion admit, at present, of any direct or positive proof. Its probability 
only can be contended for ; and that, I think, sufficiently deducible from 
the internal evidence aftbrded by these documents themselves. Their 
laconic and abrupt style, their commanding' and peremptory tone, and 
the asperity of language which distinguishes so many of them, all aijun- 
dantly indicate their origin. No Mitnshy, or secretary, in short, can 
be reasonably supposed to have drafted such letters; while, as to the 
labour attending the composition or dictation of so many dispatches, as 
sometimes appear under the same date, it will scarcely be thought to 
constitute any objection to the present hypothesis, in the case of one so 
addicted to writing, and so indefatigable in business, aS the Sultaji was. 

To return from this digression, to the account I proposed giving of the 
plan of the following translation. The notes which I have annexed to it 
are of two kinils : those merely explanatory of a single word, or phrase, 
or referring to other letters, or relating to dates, a[)j)ear at the bottom of 
the page. When, on the other hand, a particular letter or passage has 
suggested to me any reflections, to which I wished to draw the reader's 
attention, I have, instead of encumbering the page with then), placed them 
under the title of " Observations," at the end of the letter giving rise 
to them. Upon this conmientary, if I may so call those observations, I 
have taken occasion to engraft, besides other original matter, a con- 
siderable portion of a highly interesting manuscript, purporting to be a 



Memoir of Tippoo Sultan, written by himself. This curious document 
was among the numerous papers discovered by Colonel Ogg. The copy 
with which that gentleman favored me was entitled Tareekhe Kliodddddtf , 
i. e. the Khodddddi/ Annals, or History of the Khoddddd Sircar. The 
work was, from the beginning, in an imperfect state ; the narrative 
being brought down to no later a period than the termination of the Mah- 
rattah war, or the month of February 1787- JMy copy, however, has been 
rendered still more incomplete, by an unfortunate accident, which 
occasioned the destruction of several leaves of it. The original Memoir 
evidently formed, as far as it went, the ground- work of the more diffuse 
and elaborate history of Zynul Aabideen Shoostry, mentioned by Colonel 
Wilks, and called by its author, in allusion to his master's name, " the 
" Sultan of History." I am not enabled to say, whether the copy of 
the fragment found by Colonel Ogg was in the actual hand-writing of 
the Sultan: but, however this maybe, I venture to think, that no just 
doubt can be entertained of its genuineness. It was discovered in the palace 
of the Sultan, and along with other documents of unquestioned authen- 
ticity. The style and matter of it, moreover, abundantly support its 
claim to credit. It is written throughout in the fii-st person ; and while 
it states some facts which could be known only to the Sultan, it every 
where breathes the same over-weening spirit, which so strongly distin- 
guishes almost every production of his pen. The Persian scholar, how- 
ever, who may wish to judge on this point for himself, will have it in his 
power to do so, by inspecting the manuscript in question ; which, together 
with the original of the following letters, will be deposited in the East- 
India Company's Library.* 


* Thouo-h the Sidtari's own account of his operations against General Matthews, in Bid- 
nore, and of the subsequent siege of Mangidorc, belongs to a period antecedent to tlie com- 
mencement of the following correspondence, and could not conveniently be incorporated 
witli the Observations, in tlic manner that great part of his Memoirs has been, I have tiiought 
it too curious andinteresting a document lo be omitted in the present woii;, and iiave there- 
fore given a translation of it in article B. of the Appendix. 


Such technical terms (and especially the names of offices and employ- 
ments) as I could not render into English, with perfect reliance on the 
fidelity of my interpretation, I have retained in the original, and subjoined, 
by the way of notes, the best explanation of them in my power to give. 
I may add here, that whenever I have been in any doubt, with respect to 
the sense of a particular word or phrase, I have usually noticed it, offer- 
ing, at the same time, the interpretation that seemed to me to be nearest 
the truth, and not unfrequently putting the original Persian at the bottom 
of the page. Where the meaning, on the other hand, owing to some 
error in the manuscript, or to my insufficiency, has a])pcared utterly 
inexplicable, I have thought it best to pass over the unintelligible part 
altogether, but never without announcing the omission. 

This seems the proper place for apprizing the reader, that the words 
enclosed in hooks, or crotchets, are not strictly warranted by the origi- 
nal, but have been supplied, in order to complete the sense, and prevent 
the obscurity which their omission would have been liable to produce : 
for, however diffuse or exuberant the usual style of Persian composition 
may be, that language abounds in phrases and modes of expression, 
which, owing to their concise structure, leave much to be understood, 
and which can be rendered intelligible in English, only by such means 
as I have occasionally adopted. 

I could have wished it had been in my power to have elucidated the 
geography of the present work, in a more satisfactory manner than has 
been done. In fact, I have been enabled to afford the reader little or no 
additional information on this subject, in aid of what is to be obtained 
from the latest maps of Mysore, of which I consider the one, given in 
Colonel Wilks's valuable History of that state, as the best. What has 
increased my difficulty, on this occasion, is, that the names of many 
places, occurring in the Persian manuscript, are written so indistinctly, 
that I could only guess at them ; which, however, I have never done, 



without noticing the circumstance. Besides this, there are several forts 
and towns mentioned in the following pages, which would he sought for 
in vain in any map or gazetteer, hitherto published ; because, in the rage 
for innovation, which never ceased to actuate the Sultan, he was led, 
among other reforms of a similar nature, to change their ancient and still 
generally prevalent names. Thus, to Chiltlcdoorg he gave the name of 
Furrukh-1/dh Hisdr ; to Gooty, that of Fyze-Hisdr^ &c. Some of these 
innovations are officially announced, in the course of the present work. 
It appears somewhat singular, that in his childish eagerness to give new 
denominations to every thing, he should have suffered Serin gapatam and 
Bangalore to retain their old names ; especially as the former appellation, 
havino- been derived from an idol, might, on that account, be supposed 
to have been particularly offensive to a bigotted Musulman. It is not, 
therefore, improbable, that some superstitious notion may have restrained 
him in these instances, and saved those ancient cities from the transfor- 
mation experienced by so many others. 

On the subject of the oriental orthography of the present work, it is 
the more necessary to submit a few remarks to the reader's consideration, 
as these letters abound so greatly in proper names, and other Persian or 
Hindivi Avords. Such a diversity of opinion and practice prevails in this 
respect, that it would not be possible to adopt any scheme entirely accept- 
able to all. That which I have, for the most part, endeavoured to follow, 
is the one introduced at the College of Fort William, on the first esta- 
bhshment of that admirable institution, which appears to me better 
adapted than any other, to convey to the English reader an accurate 
notion of the pronunciation of the Persian language, as spoken in India. 
I have not, however, rigidly adhered to the scheme in question, having, 
for instance, rarely followed it, in opposition to any very prevalent or 
general practice, however incorrect the latter might be. Thus I have 
always, in compliance with the common usage, written Mahommed, in- 


stead of Muhummed ; Mysore, instead of Mysoor ; Bangalore, instead 
of Bungloor ; Seringapatam, instead of Sri-rung-putn, &c. On the 
same principle, I have preferred Tippoo Sultan to the more correct 
.spelling of Tipoo Sdltaun or Siiltdn j though I observe that the latter 
mode of writing the word Sultan has been adopted by Major Stewart and 
others. Still, however, as the short, or quick sound, of the last of the 
two syllables composing it, is almost in universal use, I have thought it 
right to preserve the spelling which best expresses that sound.* 

d Before 

* The following is a brief exposition of the plan on whicii I have usually expressed in 
Koman characters, the different Persian, Arabic, and Hindoostany sounds, or letters, com- 
posing the proper names, &c. which occur in tiie jjresent work. I say usually, because, aS 
already acknowledged, I have, in some cases, purposely deviated from the rule here exhibited, 
in deference to long established usage ; while, in others, I have done so throun-h inadvertency 
or oversight. It is hoped, however, that the instances of the latter kind will not be found 
numerous, no pains having been spared by the reviser to correct such as had escaped the 

There being no such sound in Persian or Arabic, or (I believe) in Hindoostany, as that of 
our a, in hat, cat, &c. I have, in consecjuence, rarely employed plain or unaccented a, con- 
fining the use of it to such words as Ahmed and Mahommed ; which orthography, as beino- 
the most familiar to Englisli readers, I have preferred to the more correct one of Uhmiid and 

A with a circumflex (a) invariably stands for | or alif viumdoodeh, and is always to be 
sounded like a, in the words ball, call, &c. It also represents the alif long by position, as 
in t_j\j tab, which differs nothing in sound from the alif mumdoodch in <_>1 db. 

Double a, or aa, represents c medial, as baad for ^ ; also c ending a syllable or word, 
as inJjkiMjfc written Jumaaddr, and ^,«^ written juma a. It likewise expresses c followed 
by I as in JU ili which written correctly should be, according to my scheme, ShahAalum. 
I have, nevertheless, followed the more usual orthography of Shah Allum. 

I no where use c to express j or li/or the corresponding Hindoostany letter; excepting 
in a few instances, as Calicut, Sircar, &c. where I have preserved the r, in conformity with 
general practice. "With these exceptions, both j and c/as well as the Hindoostany or 
Nagry letter ^ corresponding to the latter, are expressed l)y k. 

Ch, which represents the of the Persian, and the corresponding sound in the Hin- 
doostany, is to be constantly sounded as in church. 

1 think the sound of our e, in pen, hen, &c. is equally unknown to the Persian and Arabic, 
as that of our a, in hat, cat, &c.: when, therefore, I employ a single e, it is either in 


xxn P R E r A C E. 

Before I conclude these introductory remarks it may be proper to state, 
that my chief trouble, in the present work, has arisen from the difficulty 
I have had in adjusting the Kalendar introduced by the Sultan. On this 
subject I have found it necessary to enter into a distinct discussion, 
which, accordingly, immediately follows the Preface. It may here suffice 
to say, that though I am, by no means, confident of having completely 


compliance with established custom, or because I am uncertain whether the short vowel of 
the Persian and Arabic, which it represents, is a kusr or futha. The former I have generally 
expressed by 2 (having the sound of 2 in 5/«^; the latter by u (to be uniformly sounded as 
M in gun). The e, in hen, is a sound between the t'vo. 

Double c, or ee, denotes the long ^ of the Persian and Arabic (as well as the correspond- 
ino- Hindoostany indtra, or vowel) whether so by position, or by having kusr or %aii\ 

The ^ at the end of a word, as in ^Juja-1, i^^Jy*- &c. having nearly the same short 
sound as our j/, in needy, haity, &c. 1 have, for the most part, expressed it by that letter, 
which, at the end of a word, is accordingly to be always pronounced as the y in needy. 
The proper name ^ I have, nevertheless, written Ali, in conformity with general usage. 
When y, on the other hand, occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, it is to be sounded 
Wkc y'm yore, yes, &.c. as, in such cases, it represents initial ^ In all other situations, j/ 
(as representing the ^ preceded by futha) is to be pronounced as y in dying : thus the 
months ^Ls and 4j?jJu>- are written Bydzi/ and Ilydury. 

Double o, or oo, constantly represents j preceded by zum, or paiih, which has always 

the sound of oo, in doom, room, &c. 

l/with a circumllex (Ci) invariably stands for the short vowel zum or paish, and is always 
to be sounded like u in ruby. U without the circumflex, or plain u, constantly denotes futha 
or ^ubr, and is invariably to be sounded like u in fun. Thus j^o (far) is written door; jj 
(a pearl) dur ; and jj (in) dur. 

Ow, sounded as in gown, expresses ^ with futha or ztibr before it. Thus u^jj is written 


AVi uniformly denotes the ^ of the Persian and Arabic; and ^^A the i 2~/i denotes the 

Arabic lLj as in Uit which 1 write Othman, though the clj is usually pronounced in India 

as an s. G is always hard. 

The remaining letters require no particular remark, as they are to be always sounded as in 
English. Some writers distinguish between the ^^ and the ^ ; the L and the cy ; the ^o the j 
and the j; the j and the CS; the ^ and the *j but I have not thought it necessary to do so. 

It is only requisite lo add, that I express the ^ mujhool by our diphthong ai, as sounded in 
daily ; nnd the ^ mighool by open o or 6, sounded as in opeiu 


succeeded in my endeavors on this occasion, I nevertheless trust, that 
none of my dates will be found materially wi'ong. I also deem it requi- 
site to observe, that notwithstanding the pains which I have taken to 
arrange these letters in the regular order of time, I am apprehensive 
that some of them will be found out of their proper place. The reason 
of this is, that with a view to dispatch, the original was distributed, for 
copying, among several transcribers ; and that, on the completion of 
the work, the different portions of the copy, instead of being carefully 
disposed, according to their respective dates, were bound up promiscu- 
ously together. Owing to this inadvertency, I constantly found, when 
I came to examine them in a collected form, that two letters which, 
agreeal)ly to their dates, should have stood together, weie separated, 
perhaps, by a hundred pages : consequently, before I could proceed 
satisfactorily with my translation, I was obliged to reduce this chaos to 
some order ; and if I have not been entirely successful in the attempt, 
the indulgent reader will make due allowance for the difficulty and 
irksomeness of my task. 

Besides the extensive obligations which I have declared myself to be 
under to the liberal kindness of Colonel Ogg, it is incumbent upon me 
to acknowledge, on the present occasion, the great assistance I have 
derived, in several instances, from another source. I here allude to 
various valuable communications with which I have, at different times 
been favoured, by my very able friend, Lieutenant Colonel Colin 
M'Kenzie, of the Madras Engineers ; to whose indefatioable and 
laudable researches, respecting the History and Antiquities of the South 
of India, such just and honorable testimony has been borne by Colonel 
Wilks, in the valuable work which that accomplished writer has lately 
presented to the public. 

The list of those, however, to whom I owe the humble tribute of my 

J ^ thanks 


thanks on the present occasion is not yet closed. I am proud to add t» 
it the name of Dr. Wilkins, the learned and ingenious Librarian of the 
East India Company, to whose friendly assistance and advice, at the 
outset of my undertaking in particular, I consider myself to be much, 
indebted. I am also eager to acknowledge my obligations to Charles 
Stewart, Esq. the learned Professor of Arabic, Persian, and Hindostany, 
at the East-India Company's College at Hertford ; and to Sir Charles 
Warre Malet, Bart., who filled with distinguished reputation, during a 
period of ten years, the important station of Resident at the Court of 
Poonah. The nature of the communications with whicli I have been 
favored by the two latter gentlemen, will appear more fully in the sequel. 

But to none of my literary friends do I feel more deeply indebted, for 
aid afforded me in the conduct of the present work, than to John 
Shakespear, Esq. of the Honorable East-India Company's Military 
Institution at Croydon, in Surry ; for if that able OrientaUst had not 
most kindly undertaken to superintend it in its progress through the 
press, I must, of necessity, on account of my unavoidable absence from 
town, have postponed its publication to an indefinite period, if I had not 
even been induced, by the difficulties arising from this circumstance, to 
relinquish my design altogether. I would fain, therefore, enlarge, la 
this place, on the advantages which my book has derived, from the 
indefatigable care bestowed upon its revision ; but I am restrained from 
indulging my inclination, in this respect, by knowing that I shall best 
consult the satisfaction of the gentleman in question, by abstaining, on 
the present occasion, from any more particular acknowledgement of 
jny obligations to him. 

To the names of the persons already announced, as having contri- 
buted, by their communications, to whatever value the present work may 
l»e thought to possess, I am bound to add those of Lieutenant Colonel 



Thomas Munro and Lieutenant Colonel Mariott, both of the Madras 
establishment. I must, at the same time, lament, that circumstances 
should not have admitted of my profiting by their extensive infor- 
mation, in the degree which an earlier application to them might have 
enabled me to do. 



Before I could proceed in the translation of the following letters, it 
was necessary that I should acquire some insight into the construction 
of the Kalendar instituted by Tippoo Sultan, and always employed by 
him, excepting in his correspondence with persons not subjected to his 
authority, when he condescended to use the common Mahommedan 
reckoning. Till I could attain this knowledge, it would neither be possible 
for me to rectify the confusion in the arrangement of the manuscript, 
occasioned by the accident noticed in the Preface, nor to convert the 
Sultans dates into the corresponding English dates. Of the necessity of 
the first of these operations, or the classing of the letters in the order of 
time, there could be no doubt, since this was absolutely necessary to the 
rio-ht understanding of many of them ; while the utility of others, in an 
historical view, depended, in some measure, on the degree of accuracy 
with which the dates of the original might be reduced to our chronology. 
Wlien, however, I came to examine the means I possessed for this 
purpose, I found that they were much more scanty than I had supposed 
them to be : nor have I been so fortunate as to supply the deficiency, by 
such enquiries as it has been in my power to make in this country. No 
doubt, the requisite information might have been obtained from India ; 
but the fact is, that it was not until very lately that I discovered the want 
of any. As it is, I trust that I have, at least, made such an approx- 
imation to the truth (if I have not actually arrived at it), as will 
sufficiently answer the main ends in view. 

I have no means of ascertaining with precision, at what period of his 
reign Tippoo Sultan introduced his first innovation in the Kalendar ; 
but there is good reason to believe, that it was about a year after his 
accession to the Musnud. The earliest document in my possession, 
dated according to his new Kalendar, is an edict, or regulation, of the 




15th Jmifury of the year Vzl (or thirty-eighth of the cycle hereafter 
exphiined), corresponding, as I reckon, to the 10th of June 1^84 : 
hut another, issued about six months anterior to this, or in January 
1784, shows that the reformed Kalendar was not in use at the latter 
period, since the edict in question bears no other date than the Mahom- 
medan one of Zilhijjeh, A.H. 1197.^'^ From these data it may be inferred, 
that the new Kalendar was established some time between January and 
June 1781. 

There is no doubt, that this Kalendar was founded on the reckoning 
in common use in Jifi/sore, which was that of the Malabar cycle of sixty 
years. To the years composing this cycle, the Sultan gave new names ; 
as he did to the months of the year. But though he took the Hindoo 
computation for his ground-work, he would not appear to have adhered 
strictly to it, since disagreements between the two reckonings sometimes 
occur. Thus the 14th TUlooey (or 9th month of Tippoo Sultan's year), 
which was the Sulian's birth-day, did not coincide with the 14th, but 
with the 17th of Mdrgaiser or Ughun (9th month of the Hindoo year). 
The cause of this discrepancy may probably be traced in the following 
division of the year, according to the Sultans first regulation of it. 

Corresponding with the 
Hindoo Month, and .... . . Zodiacal Sign. 

Choiter, Aries. 

Bysdk, Taurus. 

Juister (\TaitJ, Gemini. 

ylsdr, Cancer. 

Sdwun or Srdwun, . . Leo. 

Bhddon or JBhdder, . . Tlrgo. 

A sin, Libra. 

Kdrtic, Scorpio. 

Order of 
the Month. 


of Days. 


^x^ Ahmedy, . . 



^h Behdry, . . 



^J*f ^aafury, . . 



^\j\j Ddrdey, .. 



j_5^li, Hdshimy,. . 



j_j*-)lj IVdsaaey,. . 



^ss^jj Zuhurjudy, 



^js^ Hydery, .. . 



^^ Tdlooey, . . 



J--A Yoosilfy, . . 



^jj\ Eezidy, . . . 



^L Bydzyp . . 


Mdrgaiser or Ughun,. 


Poos, Capricornus. 

Mdgh, Af/uarius. 

Phdgiln, Pisces. 


(1) Hyder AH died 011 tlic 1st of Mohnrrem of tliis year. 

(2) Should any disagreement occur bctwei n the ovthograpliy adopted in these remarks and 
tliat used in the body of tlic work, tlie former may be regarded as the most correct. 


■ Though the foregoing names are not absolutely unmeaning, yet they 
would not appear to have had any appropriate signification attached to 
them ; with the exception of the first, called by one of the names of 
Mahommed, and of the eighth, or Hydery, which might possibly have 
been so denominated in honor of the Sultans father, as Tiilooey might 
likewise have been, in allusion to its being the month in which the 
Saltan himself arose, or was born. Whether Behdry had any reference 
to the spring, in which season it always occurred, is uncertain. Of the 
whole of these months it is, however, to be observed, that the initial 
letter of each denotes its place in the Kalendar, according to the well- 
known notation called Jcs*^ or Ulrjud, which assigns a certain numerical 
power to every letter in the alphabet.*-^ There being no single letter 
to express either 11, or 12, the two first letters of Eezkly and Bydzy, 
added together, denote the place of each, respectively, in the order 
of months, viz. 1 + 10 = 11. 2 + 10 = 12. 

I cannot state positively, whether or not these months invariably 
consisted of the same number of days ; but, as far as the documents 
in my possession enable me to judge, it would not appear that any 
fluctuation took place in this respect. It is here, however, pioper to 
notice, that in the Appendix to Colonel Beatson's book, a memorandum 
of the Sultan's appears (respecting the battle of Suddasir), according 
to which the month of Bdzy would seem to have consisted of thirty, 
whereas my table assigns to it only twenty-nine days. I have not the 
means, at present, of consulting the original document ; but it occurs 
to me as being possible, that the Sultan may have written ^ Sulkh, 
or, " the last day," and that the translator may have supposed the 
thirtieth to be meant. If this should not be the case, it will not be easy 
to reconcile the disagreement in question. 

The names given to the years of the cycle were formed also on the 
principle of the Ubj'ud notation, with the exception of the two first 
years, which were denominated jc-\ yihd (one or unity), and ^u^\ 
Ahmed (Mahommed), in honor of God and the Prophet ; and implying 


(2) The nonsense verse (after the first word of wliich this notation is called) as well as the 
numerical power assigned severally to the letters composing it, may be seen in Richardson's 
dictionary, under the word j»^' 


that the hitter was the second, as the Ahnighty was the Jirst object of 
veneration. The rest of tlie names, though hke those of the months, 
not entirely destitute of njeaning-, had no specific import. They merely 
denoted the order of each year in the cycle, which was found by addino- 
together the numerical powers of the several letters composing the name, 
the amount being the number of the year. Thus Jjl Uzl (the name of 
the year with which the following correspondence commences) is equi- 
valent to 38 (1 -j- 7 + 30), and denotes that the year, so called, is the 
tliirty-eighth of the cycle (corresponding to A.D. 1784-5.) 

But this arrangement was, after some time, superseded by another ; 
the Sultan having, as there is reason to believe, made a second reform 
of the Kalendar, in the forty-first year of the cycle (or AD. 1787-8). 
The latter alteration, however, would not appear to have extended 
further than to the substitution of new names to the months and years, 
in the place of those first assigned to them. These new names pos- 
sessed the same property as the old ; namely, that of severally indicatino- 
the number of the year, and the order of the month, by virtue of tlieir 
numerical power. The notation, however, now used was different from 
the Uhjud, and Jias been called by some JJhtus (an unmeaning word, 
formed by a combination of the first four letters of the alphabet (^>); but 
is, by the Sultan himself, in one of the letters of the present collection, 
denominated (if there be no error in the manuscript) j\ Zur, and 
derived by him, but I do not distinctly understand how, from the Koran. 
The difference between the two schemes consists in this : in the Ufjjud, 
tlie numerical powers of the letters depend on the order of the latter in 
the arbitrary verse already referred to ; whereas, in the Uljtus, or Zur, 
they depend on the order of the letters of the alphabet : as 

oooo oooo oovooo ^jO\t^*». cow — 

OOOO OOOC oooo oooo OOOVO OC^OlCfl Jl^OtO — 

/^ r^' 

a^m^iwJ LJ^JJ^ tXsr * 

If, as there is reason to tliink, and as I shall presently endeavour to 
sliow, the new era invented by the Sultan, and which he sometimes called 

e the 

(i) The Persian letter <_> fpcj being excluded from tiiis scheme, as well as from the 

Ubjud. The Persian letters, ^^ (S"JJi r ('^l'<^'J} *"'' J (-l^^'Jt arc, in like manner, 
omitted in both. 


the era of Mahommed, and sometimes the Moivloody, or era of the birth 
(i. e. of Mahommed), was introduced at the same time with the change 
in the names of the years and months, just described ; his motive for the 
latter innovation was not, perhaps, entirely capricious, but may be 
safely referred, in some measure, to his zeal for the glory of his religion. 
As the new epoch was, no doubt, designed to do honor to the Prophet, 
whom he seems to have thought degraded by the designation given to that 
in common use,^^) so, probably, were the new names of the years and 
months, which, instead of being formed upon a vulgar or profane 
practice, were now constituted upon a principle, sanctified, as it would 
seem, by the word of the law. Be this, however, as it may, there are 
good grounds for believing, that the new era, and the second regu- 
lation respecting the names of the years and months, took place together, 
and that the use of both commenced with the forty-first year of the 
Malabar cycle. 

It happens unfortunately, that one of the chasms in the following 
correspondence occurs at that very period; there not being a single letter 
of the forty-first year in the collection, nor an) document whatever, of 
that date, among the papers in my possession. But though we are, by 
this means, deprived of any direct or positive proof on the subject, yet 
there are not wanting circumstances that afford, what will probably be 
deemed a sufficient presumption in favor of the opinion I have offered. 

1st. In a letter to his diplomatic agents at Dehli, dated in Hy- 
dery (or eighth month) of the fortieth year (Dullo), the Sultan 
enumerated the names of the years and months, according to the second 
or new arrangement, which he had then probably determined on, but 
which he certainly did not carry into effect during the remainder of the 
fortieth year, as abundantly appears from existing documents. The 
letter here referred to is manifestly imperfect ; otherwise we might have 
learnt from it, why the arrangement in question was announced so long 
before the period of its actual adoption. Possibly the great distance of 
Dehli may have suggested the expediency of an anticipated commu- 

2d. It 

(4) Iligera s\^n\?\cs flight. See the 5«//a7!'i letter, referred to in the subsetpcnt page. 


2d. It is established by a variety of documents, that both the new 
nomenclature and the new era uere in use in the forty-second year of tlie 
cycle, which was accordingly called Sdrd; whereas, under the preceding 
arrangement, it would have been named Kuhlc. 

3d. It is improbable, that the Julian, after announcing the new no- 
menclature, so early as Hijdery of the fortieth year, should have delayed 
the introduction of it till the forty-second year, or pdrd : it is, therefore, 
most likely, that it commenced with the forty-first year, which, in this 
case, would be called Shd, while, according to the form,er rule, it would 
be Md. 

4th. In a letter, dated the 29tli Eezidy (eleventh month) of Dullo, or 
the fortieth year, the Sul/an directs an enquiry to be instituted among 
the learned men in different parts of his dominions, for the ])ur- 
pose of ascertaining, with exactness, the respective dates of the birth, 
mission, and flight of the Prophet. An explanation of the cause of 
the Higeru, or fligbt, is also required by this letter. This investigation 
seems to have been preparatory to the establishment of the epoch under 

5th. But the most unequivocal proof of the Mowloody era having been 
established in the forty-first year, is furnished by a decree, or regulation, 
of the year lid.sikh, or forty-eighth of the cycle (corresponding to the 
1209th year of the Higera), to which a seal is affixed, bearing the date 
1215.("') Now as this date could not be meant for the Higera, it must, of 
necessity, have been intended to denote the year of Mahommed. The 
1215th year of Mahommed co-incided with the forty-first of the cycle : and 
as we know that the Moivloody era was not in use during the fortieth of 
the cycle (or Dullo), it necessarily follows, that the seal in question was 
engraved in the Jirst year of the institution of that epoch. 

1 will add here the few remaining observations that I have to make on 
the subject of the Mowloody era, and then return to the consideration of 
the KcJendar. 

e 2 As 

(5) It is usual in India to insert in the seal the year in which it is engraved. 


As this era was not adopted till after the time to which the letters in 
the present volume reach, it was not absolutely necessary to my imme- 
diate purpose, to have offered any explanation of it : but being upon the 
subject of the Sultaiis Kalendar, I thought it right to state what I knew, 
respecting so prominent an article of it. Even in the later documents, 
wherein it pretty constantly occurs, it is of little or no use in fixing the 
date of any letter, regulation, or transaction ; since it is generally, if not 
invariably, accompanied by the year of the cycle. The first time that I 
meet with it is in an edict of the year Sdrd, or forty-second of the cycle 
(and 1216 of Mahommed). It is continually employed, however, in the 
Sultans Memoir of his own reign, where it is applied even to events 
which took place many vears before its actual introduction. Thus, 
among other instances, Hydcr Ali Khan is said to have died on Satur- 
day, the 3d of Zdkmj " of the year of Mahommed 120.9." But of these 
Memoirs it is to be observed, that they bear internal evidence of having 
been composed subsequently to the peace of Seringapatam, in 1792. 

The term Mowloody, strictly considered, is certainly not applicable to 
the era in question ; according to which there would appear to have been 
no more than an interval of thirteen years between the birth and flight 
of Mahommed. It has been conjectured, that, instead of the birth, this 
era was, in fact, reckoned from the mission of Mahommed, or the period 
when he first announced himself as the messenger of God : and this 
notion receives some countenance, from the tenor of the enquiry spoken 
of above, which strongly implies a dislike of the term Higera, and an 
intention to sink the event it alludes to, in a reference to one of a more 
dignified and memorable kind. But, even in this view of the matter, it 
is diflicult to account for the new era being called Moioloodij, rather than 
Nuhoowet ; unless it be supposed, that the Z>/rM was put as a metonymy 
for the regeneration of the Prophet, which might be reckoned from the 
commencement of his mission. 

I now resume my account of the Kalendar, which was interrupted by 
this digression concerning the Mowhodij era. 

The names of the months, according to the second and latest arrange- 
ment, became as follows : 

1st month 



1st month 


T^ , > beincr the same as in the former scheme. 

Behdnj ) "= 











Jaafury, being the third month of the former scheme 



Hydery, being the eightli do. of do. 
















12th .... 



Name according to the First 

Name according to the Second 

The eleventh and twclftli months arc here indicated, as in the former 
scheme, by the first two letters of their respective names, \j (rd), being 
104-1 ; and ^j r(ujfi, 10+2. 

Although I could present the reader with a table, exhibiting the names 
of every year in the cycle, according to both the schemes which have 
been described, yet it would answer no useful purpose, that will not be 
equally accomplished by the following abridgement, including only the 
years of Tippoo Sultan's reign. 

Corresponding with 












Year of the 



Jebdl . 
Ziiky . 
UzL . . 
kJuIIo. . 
Dullo . 
Md. . . 
Kubk . 
Jam . . 
Jdm . . 
JVidy . 

Sukh. . . 
Ur- Siikhd. . 

jI^j Diirdz. 

li, Slid. . 
^L Sdrd.. 
Surdh . 

U Shetd . . . 

^jij Zuhurjud 

^ Sehr .... 

(t;) Whatever allusion tlicfc might be to the Sultan's birth in the name of the ninth moiitli 
of the former nomenclature, notliing of the kind is discoverable in the wortJ ^dkin/. 



Year of the 



Name according lo ihe First 

J, Wdhj . . . 
k^.<j^ Kuukub . 
u-^l/ Kuwdkib 
Yum .... 


l»y Duivdm 
j^,«c^ Huind . 
j^<U Hdmid. 

Name according to the Second 

^L Sdhir . 
■^\j Rdsikh 
oU Shdd . . 

wj^ Hirdset 

p Sdz 

J\^^ Shdddh. 

^_^\j Bdrish 

Corresponding with 







It is worthy of remark, that the name of the last of these years, or 
Bdrish, signifying rain, was changed by the Sultan, only a short time 
before his death, to Bdshir ;(^> which meaning joyful, or auspicious, he 
thought a word of better omen than the other. But it did not prove 
such to him ; for on the last day of Ahmedy (first month) of that very 
year, he lost his life, and the sovereignty of Mysore passed away from 
the Khoddddd Sircar,^^'^ to the hands of those, towards whom he ever 
cherished the most deep and irreconcileable hatred ; paralleled, perhaps, 
only by that borne, in ancient times, by Hannibal against the Romans. 

It will be seen, by the table of months inserted at page xxvii, that 
the Sidtan's year, though considered by him as solar, consisted of no 
more than three hundred and fifty-four days. In order, therefore, to 
correct this reckoning, and to approximate it to the true solar time, he 
occasionally added a thirteenth month to the year. I say, occasionally ; 
because I have not been able to discover (if, as is probable, there existed) 
any fixed rule for determining either the return of the leap year, or the 
period of such year, at which the intercalary or supplementary month 
was to be introduced. It is stated in some of my notes, collected at 
Seringapatam, tliat every third year was considered as embolismal, and 
that the supplementary month was always inserted, according to one 
account, after the tenth, and, according to another, after the eleventh 


(7.) Bdshir consisting of the same letters as Bdrish, has the same numerical power, both 
words standing for fifty-three. 

(8) i. e. ♦* the State or Government bestowed by God," which was one of the tcrmsby 
which the Sultan designated his government. The Ahmcdi/ Sircar was another. In some 
places he calls it the Hydeiy Sircar, and in others the Usud-Ilhye; the former of wliich 
might refer to his father's name : but it miglit, also, like that of Usud-Ilhye, allude lo Jli, 
one of whose appellations was H^yder. 


month. But each of these statements is clearly proved to be wrong by 
a variety of authentic documents, showing that the thirty-ninth, forty- 
fourth, forty-seventh, forty-ninth and fifty-second of the cycle were leap 
years. On what year, between thirty-nine and forty-four, leap year fell 
is not known, owing to the want of documents for that period : but 
whether we suppose it to have been the forty-first or forty-second year, it 
will be equally manifest, that the embolismal year did not uniformly 
occur every third year. The same thing is shown by the fact of the 
forty-seventh and forty-ninth years having both been leap years. 

It is a known rule, that to make the solar and lunar years accord, 
seven returns of the intercalary, or supplementary month, are required in 
the course of nineteen years, Now from the thirty-fifth to the fifty-third 
year of the cycle (both inclusive) is a period of nineteen years, in the 
course of which seven leap years occui-, (viz. five which are clearly ascer- 
tained, and two which have been assumed). But, notwithstanding this 
apparent conformity, the two reckonings do not co-incide, when, accord- 
ing to this rule, they might be expected to do so. The reason of this dis- 
agreement, no doubt, is, that though the months established by Tippoo 
were ordinarily called lunar, they were not strictly so ; six of the twelve 
months of the year having consisted of thirty, and the other six of 
twenty-nine days each : the common year, therefore, comprizing three 
hundred and fifty-four days, was, in fact, neither limar nor solar. 

The documents abundantly prove, that the intercalary, or supplemen- 
tary month, called by the Sultan s:\j Zdid (as zdid Ahnedy ; zdid 
Belidnj, &fc. according to the month before^^> which it was inserted) was 
not added at any fixed or regulated period of the year, but, apparently, 
according to his fancy : at least I have not met with any clue to the 
principle (if principle there was) on which it was arranged. All that is 
certain is, that in the thirty-ninth year the Zdid, or adscititious month, 
was Ahmedy ; in the forty-fourth year, Suynry ; in the forty-seventh 
year, Bekdnj ; in the forty-ninth year, Hydery ; and in the fifty-second 
year, Jaafm-y : by which unquestionable facts it appears, that in no 


(9) The extra, or supplementary moiitli, always preceded tlie regular nioiitli of the same 
name, for what reason does not appear. Its natural place one would suppose to iiavc been 
after, and not before, the month whose name it took. 


one instance, in so many years, did it happen to fall either on the tenth 
or eleventh month. 

But although so much uncertainty prevails on this article, yet being 
apprized, as we are, that the first day of the fifty-third year co-incided 
with the 6th April I7i^9, and knowing, also, both the names of the 
leap-years, and of the supplementary months which occurred between 
that time and the forty-fourth year, inclusive, we are fortunately enabled 
to convert the Sultan's dates, during that period, with sufficient accuracy, 
into our own. It is after passing, in a retrogade pi'ogression, the forty- 
fourth year, that the principal difficulty commences ; since there are, at 
present, no means of ascertaining in what year, between that and the 
thirty-ninth, the leap-year occurred, or at what period of such year the 
intercalary month was added. 

In this difficulty I could only arrive at the fortieth and thirty-ninth 
years (so essential to my immediate purpose, on account of the principal 
portion of the following letters belonging to those years) by assuming, at 
a venture, one of the intervening years, between forty-four and thirty-nine, 
as the leap-year. I therefore fixed upon Sdrd, or the forty-second year, by 
which means something like system and regularity is made to appear in 
the recurrence of the embolism ; which, by this distribution, would seem 
to have returned (as far as our materials enable us to judge) alternately, 
every tliird and every second year : that is to say, in the thirty-ninth, 
forty-second, forty-fourth, forty-seventh, forty-ninth, and fifty-second. 
"With regard to the supplementary month of the assxmied leap-year, I 
was obliged to resort to the same expedient ; and, accordingly, fixed on 
the third month, or Tiiki/. By this means, each of the first six inonths 
of the year (though not in regular succession) will appear to have served 
as the intercalary months, three of them being months of thirty days, 
and the three others months of twenty-nine days. Hence the leap years, 
thirty-nine, forty-four, and fifty-two, are made to contain each three 
hundred and eighty-three days ; and the leap years, forty-two, forty- 
seven, and forty-nine, each three hundred and eighty-four days.C"^ 


(10) According to this arrangement, it is evident tii;it, tliougli tlic Sultan's year was in 
general eleven days shorter than the common year in use with us, yet, owing to the frequent 
recurrence of his intercalary month (making his leap-year three hundred and eighty-three, 
or three hundred and tiglity-four days) liis reckoning must, in a series of years, have gained 
considerably upon ours ; apparently no less than at the rate of three days in five years. 


Having constructed my table of corresponding dates in the best manner 
I could, with the imperfect materials in my possession, I was, fortunately, 
enabled to verify or correct the same, by means of a practice occasionally 
observed by the Sulfaii, of giving the day of the week along with the 
day of the month. An instance of this kind occurs in Letter CCCIV, 
which led to the discovery of an error I had committed, in converting 
the 18th of Jaafury of the year Dullo into our reckoning. I had made 
it agree with the 20th June, which fell on a Tuesday ; while the 18th of 
Jaafury being expressly stated to have been a Wednesday, must, of course, 
have co-incided with the 21st June 1/86. The detection of this mistake 
necessarily led to an alteration of the whole series of my dates for the 
two years comprized in the present volume, every one of which it became 
requisite to advance one day. This correction leaves scarcely any doubt of 
the perfect accuracy of the dates as now adjusted. The only point in 
which any mistake can have occurred, is in the number of days assigned 
to extra Ahmedy of the yedcv Julio : for though it is known, that regular 
Ahmedy consisted of twenty-nine days, it is not certain, (however pro- 
bable) that the extra, or supplementary month, always had the same num- 
ber of days as the regular month of the like name. 

This is all that it has been in my power to do, with a view to the attain- 
ment of the accuracy so desirable on the present occasion. I trust I have 
not fallen into any material error. For the rest, I rely on the indulgence 
of the reader. 


^Vhere the spelling adopted here, and in the Index, differs from that used in the body 
of the work, the former may be considered as the most systematical and correct. 

Letter. Page. 

1 To Mirza Mahommed Ali, Superintendant of the Elephant Stables at 

2 — Meet Kdz\m, Commercial Consul, or Chief, of the Factori/ at Muscat 6 

3 — Mahommed Ghyas, Envoi/ to the Court of Poonah - - - 7 

4 — Turbiyut Ali Khan arid Rajah Ram Chundur, public Officers at 

Bangalore - - - - - - - - - -11 

5 — //i<? Governor o/" Pondicherry - - - - - - -13 

6 — Mahommed Ushruf, Ddrogha of the Dewdny Kuchurry at Gooty 14 

7 — Shah Noorullah - - - 15 

8 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Klian, Envoys at the 

Court of Poonah - - - - - - - - -l6 

9 — the same - - - - - - - - - - -21 

10 — Burhanilddeen ----------22 

1 1 — Meer Kumriidden Ah Khan - - - - 23 

1 2 — Turbiyut Ah Khan - - - - -■- - - -24 

13 — Mahommed Ghyas .--------25 

14 — Meer Kumruddeen Khan - - - - - - - 26 

15 — Mahommed Ghyiis a??rf Noor Mahommed Khan - - - - 27 

16 — Abdul Hukcem Khan, Nabob of Sdnoor, or Sdnore - : - 29 

17 — Biirhanuddecn - - - - - - - - -31 

18 — the Sipahddrs, Dilecr Dil Khan, Syed Humeed, and Syed Ghuffar 32 

19 — Rajah Ram Chundur _ - - 32 

20 — Meer Kumruddeen ___----- -34 

21 — //(c Governor o/' Pondicherry ------- — 

2'i — Meer Kumruddeen -..------- 36 

23 — Rajah Rum Chundur _-_ 38 

24 — Meer Kumruddeen ---------39 

25 — Burhanuddeen - - - - ~." " * " 

f 2 





26 To Meer Kumruddeen - - -- » . . . -40 

27 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan - - - - 40 

28 — Burhanuddeen »---_. ...41 

29 — Meer Kumruddeen -------..42 

30 — Burhanuddeen --„._-... 

31 — the same ------- .-.43 

32 — Meer Kumruddeen -.---.-..44 

33 — Burhanuddeen - _ . _ _. . . -45 

34 — Meer Kumruddeen ----_-.. -46 
S5 — Rajah Ram Chundur -----...47 

36 — Meer Kumruddeen and Burhanuddeen ----- 48 

37 — Mahommed Ghyas -___ 50 

38 — the same ---__-. -..53 

39 — Noor Mahommed Khan ---_-. --54 

40 — Burhanuddeen ---...... 

41 — the same -------...56 

42 — Ghulam Ahmed, Kdzy of Nugr - 

43 — Meer Kumruddeen ------ ..-60 

44 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 62 

45 — Kumruddeen -- - - - . - . - -63 

46 — the same ---..---..(Js 

47 — Mahommed Ushruf --.-.._.. 

48 — Meer Kumruddeen ._.-___.66 

49 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - . - -67 

50 — Mahommed Kazim --------_ — 

51 — Zynul Aabideen --___-.. .gg 

52 — Burhanuddeen ---___-__ — 

53 — Mahommed Ghyas --_.-___ 69 

54 — Chishty Yar Khan 74 

55 — Meer Kumruddeen -----___ 75 

56 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 77 

57 — Rajah Rflm Chundur ..----_ .73 

58 — Mohyuddeen AH Khan ---79 

59 — Meer Kumruddeen ----.-_. — 

60 — Burhanuddeen .---__--. 80 

61 — the same --.---_-__ 82 

62 — Rajah Ram Chundur .-.--_.. — 

63 — Chishty Yar Khin 83 


Letter. Page. 

64 To Mohyuddcen Ali Khan, Deicdn of Kurpak - - - - 84 

65 — Mahommcd Ushruf ------.-85 

66 — Mahommed Ghyas ---------86 

Gj — Mahommed Ghous --------- 8/ 

68 — Meer Kumruddeen --------- 88 

6q — the same _-.--_-_ 

70 — the same ---------- go 

~1 — //ie Badshah (l. e. the Emperor, Shah Allum) - - - - 91 

72 — Munzoor Ah Khan, ChieJ' Eunuch and principal Minister of Shdh 

Allum ---------- 95 

73 — yiodX Q,\\\inf\ and Su]kn ^diS, Agents at Dehli - - - - 100 

74 — Meer Kumruddeen - - - - - - - - -102 

75 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan _ ., _ joS 

76 — Shaikh Ahmed, a foreign Merchant - - _ _ _ — 

77 — Buihanuddeen --__--_-_ io5 

78 — the Nabob of Sanore ---.-__, 106 

79 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khdn _ . _ 107 

80 — Meer Moaala Khan, Kilaaddr of Mudgul - - - - - 108 

81 — Biirhanuddeen --------- 109 

82 — Mahommed Ghyas one? Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 110 

83 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - -- -111 

84 — the same - - - - - - - - - -112 

85 — the same • - - - - - - - - -114 

^6 — Meer Kumruddeen - - - - - - - -115 

87 — the Sipahddr, Mahommed AH - - - - - - -II7 

88 — Meer Kumrudeen - --«---._ — 

89 — the Sipahddr, Mahommed Ah - - - - - -118 

90 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -II9 

91 — Mahommed Ghyas a«£? Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 121 

92 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -122 

93 — Meer Kumruddeen - - - - - - - - -124 

94 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -125 

95 — Jusaretuddowlah - - - - - - - -126 

^6 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan - - - — 

97 — Meer Moaayenuddeen Khan - 128 

98 — Rajali Rfim Chundur - - - - - - - -I29 

99 — Meer Kumruddeen - - - -- - - - -131 


Letter. Page. 

100 To Meer KumrOddeen - - - - - - - -132 

101 — tke same ____-_-,-- 133 

102 — the Nabob of Kurnool - - - - ■■ - - - 135 

103 — Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 136 

104 — the same ___.-__--- — 
10.5 — Meer Kumruddeen -_-..---- 13/ 

106 — Rajah Ram Chundur ________ — 

107 — Mohyuddeen Ah Khan - - - - - - - - 138 

108 — the Governor of Pondicherry - - - - - - -13g 

109 — Meer Kumruddeen ________ 141 

110 — the same --______-- 142 

111 — Mahommed Ghyas a«<^ Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 143 

112 — the same ._..-__--- — 

113 — Meer Kumruddeen - - - -- - - -144 

114 — Meer Mahommed Saidik _-____- 145 

115 — Syed Mahommed Khan, Kilaaddr of Seringapatam - - - 146 

116 — Noor Mahommed Khan rtw^/ Mahommed Ghyas . _ _ 148 

117 — Meer Zynul Aabideen, Sipahddr of a Kushoon - - - - 150 

118 — Mahommed Ghyas cf««? Noor Mahommed Khan - • - 152 

119 — Mah MirzA Khan __-._---- 153 

120 — Biirhanuddeen -___-_--- 15/ 

121 — Mohyuddeen Ah Khan .---_--- 158 

122 — Meer Kumruddeen ..-.__-- — 

123 — Budeea uz ZumAn, Taahlkddr of Hdscofah - - - - 159 

124 — AW R^i?i\\ Beehy of Cannanore .-_--_ 160 

125 — Burhanuddeen _____---_ 161 

126 — Mahommed GhySs a?K/ Noor Mahommed Khan - - - — 

127 — the Sipahddr, Sycd Ghuffar - - - - - - - 162 

128 — Zynul Aabideen Shoostry - - - - - - -l63 

129 — Meer Kumruddeen ___-_-_ ^_ 164 

130 — Zynul Aabideen, Biikhshi/ of Ehshdm at Chittledoorg - - 165 

131 — Zynul Aabideen Shoostry - - - - - - -166 

132 — the same ---------- — 

133 — Mahommed Ghyas fln<Z Noor Mahommed KhAn _ _ _ 167 

134 — Ghuiam Hyder - - - - - - - - - iGS 

135 — Burhanuddeen -._------ — 

136 — Zynul Aabideen Shoostry - - - - - - - 170 

CONTENTS. xliii 

Letter. Page. 

137 To Zynul Aabidcen Shoostry ----_.» 170 

138 — Meer Kumruddeen ---.... 174 

139 — Zynul Aabideen Shoostry ---.-._ 

140 — Mahommed Ghyis OKt? Noor Mahommed KhAn - - . 175 

141 — Burhanuddeen ------.._ 

142 — MSh Mirza Khan I76 

143 — Ehsanullah Khan - - - - - - . ._177 

144 — R^jah Ram Chundur - - - - _ . . -178 

145 — the Governor of Fondicherry ---_-_. 

146 — Meer Zynul Aabideen, and the Sipahddr, Ahmed Baig - - 179 

147 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - _ _ . -180 

148 — ^/ie I maum o/" Muscat ------_. jgl 

149 — Mahommed Ghy^s a«rf Noor Mahommed Kh^n - - - 183 

150 — Me Nabob o/" Sanore - - - - _ - . -183 

151 — the same - - - - - - - - . -184 

152 — Turbiyut All Khan 185 

] 53 — Rajah Ram Chundur - . 

154 — Meer K^zim, Commercial Consul, or Agent, at Muscat - - — 

155 — the same - - - - - - - - . - ]86 

156 — the same - - - - - - - - - -187 

157 — ~ Burhanuddeen ----_.... 

158 — the same .--. ... -__]8S 

159 — Meer KAzim - - - — 

160 — the same - - - - - - - - - -I89 

161 — Budruz ZumAn KhAn - - - - - - -. . 

162 — the same - - - - - - - - - -191 

163 — Khiljeh Seth, and other Armenian Merchants - - - - 192 

164 — RAjah RSm Chundur I93 

165 — Maiiommcd Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Klian - - - — 

166 — Budruz ZumAn Khan - - - - - - - -194 

167 — Mahommed Ghyas an</ Noor Mahommed KhAn - - - — 

168 — Budruz Zuman Kh^n I96 

169 — Burhanuddeen --_.-._.. — 

170 — the Sipahddrs, Syed Humeed ««f/ Syed Ghuffar ... 208 

171 — Urshud Baig KhAn, Foiydar of Calicut - - - - - — 

172 — Meer KAzim 209 

173 — Shah Mahommed «rtf/ Khyrulhlh — 


Letter. Page 

174 To Rajah Ram Chundur 21O 

J 73 — Shumsuddeen Khan - - - - - - - -212 

176 — Budruz Zuman Kh^n -..-»--. — 

-^Tl — Shah Noorullah — 

178 — Rajah Ram Chundur 213 

179 — Mahommed Ghyas fl»^ Noor Mahommed Khan - - - 214 

180 — the Seven Super! ntendants of the Post at the Seven Capital Cities 

of the Sultanut (Circular) - - -- - - -215 

181 — Ah RSjah Beeby 2l6 

182 — //le DewSn awrf Bukhshy of each of the Seven Kuchurries of Se- 

ringapatam (Circular) - - - - - - - -217 

183 — Eaatumady Khojeh Firasut - - -- - - -218 

184 — Ah Ri'ijah Beeby -_.-.---. 219 

185 — Shumsuddeen Khan one? of/je^* -.-_._ 220 

186 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -221 

187 — Budruz Zuman Khan .-.._-.- 222 

188 — Burhanuddeen ...--.._. — 

189 — Mahommed Ghy as an£? Noor Mahommed Khan ... 223 

190 — Mohyuddeen Ah Khan flW Urshud-ullah Khan - - - 224 

191 — GhulAm Ali Khdn — 

192 — Meer Kazim Ah Khdn, Postmaster at Gooty - . - - 226 

193 — Burhanuddeen ...... ... — 

194 — Budruz Zum^n Khan ._----.. — 

195 — Mohyuddeen Ah KhSn ------.- 227 

196 — the Nabob, Runmust Khan (of Kurnool) 228 

197 — Mecr Ahmed Ah, Taahikddr of Nursipoor - . _ - 230 

198 — Shumsuddeen - - - - - - - -- — 

199 — Ghulam Ah KhAn -231 

200 — Meer Kazim, Commercial Agent at Muscat - - . - — 

201 — the Nabob, Runmust Kh^n .----.. 236 

202 — Meer Moaayeniiddeen -------- 236 

203 — the actual and future Aumils of the Port of Cahcut - - - 237 

204 — the actual and future Aumils of the Ports in general - - . 238 

205 — the Aumils, actual and future, of the Port of Mangalore - - — 

206 — Mao Seith, Dulldl at Muscat 239 

207 — the Imaum of Muscat - - - - - - - -241 

208 — Budruz Zuman Khan - - -242 


Letter. Page. 

209 To Meer Moaala Khan _.-_---_ 243 

210 — Mahommed Ushruf -. - - - -- - - 244 

211 — /^e Rajah o^ Pegu --------- 245 

212 — Ehsanullah Khan - - .. - - - _ - . 247 

213 — Shah Noorullah _-------- — 

2J4 — GhulamAUKhan - - - 248 

215 — the saine --..----■- — 

216 — the same _.---..--. — 

217 — Burh-Snuddeen - - - - - - - - -252 

218 — Sycd Peer, Kilaaddr of Bangalore - — 

219 — Shah Noorullah ---_ 253 

220 — Burhanuddeen .-«----.- — 

221 — Turbiyut Ah Khan ^. .----. 254 

222 — Rajah Ram Chundur .---.--. 255 

223 — Rajah Ram Chundur fl«c?Turbiyut Ali Kh^n - - - - 256 

224 — Budruz Zuman KhAn ------_. — 

225 — Burhanuddeen .-.----.. 257 
22C — the same - -«----.. 258 

227 — Chishty Y^r Khan ..---... 259 

228 — the Nabob of Sanore -_----.. 260 

229 — Nuwazish AU KhAn, *o» o/'Shujaa ud Dowlah - - - - 26 1 

230 — Budruz ZumAn Kh-^n .-.--... 262 

23 1 — Urshudullali KhSn - — 

232 — Kutf Ah Khan and ShAh Noorullah Kh^n (proceeding on an Em- 

lassy to Constantinople and France) - - - . . 263 

233 — GhulAm Ali Kh5n, Lutf Ali KhAn, &c. Embassadors to Constanti- 

nople, S^c, .-------._ 264 

234 — Budruz Zuman Khan - - 267 

235 — the same ------.-_. — 

236 — Mahommed GhyAs ---------_ 

237 — Budruz Zuman Khan 269 

238 — Zynn\ Ao.h\dc<:n, Buhhshi/ of Ehshdm at Gnoti/ - - - — 

239 — BurhAnuddcen ...--.._. 270 

240 — the same ----.-._.. — 

241 — RAjah Ram Chundur ----.-.. 271 

242 — Mahommed Wasil, Kilaaddr of Tdrmurry - - . . — 

243 — Meer Mohib Ali, Buhhshy of Ehshdm at G*)oty - - - — 



Letter. Page. 

214 To GhulAm Ahmed, Kdzy of Nugr ---«-. 272 

245 — Burhanuddeen _.--...__ 273 

246 — the same - - - - - - - -- - — 

247 — the Nabob of Sanore -^- . - - - - . 274 

248 — Burhanuddeen _.-.-_.-. — 

249 — ISIahommed Ah, Aiimil of Ufzuldbddy Nugr - - - - — 

250 — Mahommed AabduUah, Cidivdl of the Army - - ■ _ 275 

25 1 — the Darogha of the Post Office at Putii . - . . _ 276 

252 — Shumsuddeen Kh^n -^, .----. — 

253 — Meer Mohib Ali .--_-..«-. 277 

254 — the Nabob of Sanore --.-_-.._«. 

255 — Shumsuddeen Khan -.-..«_^ 278 

256 — Burhanuddeen ----..--. 280 

257 — Mirza Mahommed KMn Behadur Sumsrim ul Mulk - - - — 

258 — Meer Kazim, Muscat - - - - -.- - - 282 

259 — Ghulani Mahommed, Auynil of Mangalore - - _ - 284 

260 — the Sipahddr, Syed GhufFar - 285 

261 — Burhanuddeen 286 

262 — the same 288 

263 — Dileer Khan Behadur Dileer Jung _-.--- — 

264 — Burhanuddeen . . - - 289 

265 — the principal Oflficers of the Government (a circular) accompanied 

by a Manifesto or Proclamation addressed to Mahommedans in 
general - - - - - - - - - -291 

266 — the Commandant, Aabdul Nubby ..--_. 297 

267 — Ali RAjah Beeby .--.----- — 

268 — Ghiilam Munsoor, Aumil of Silcotah - - - - - — 
259 — Fuzl Ah Khan . - - 298 

270 — the Sipahddr, Mahommed Ali .--..- — 

271 — Burhanuddeen 299 

272 — Meer Kazim (Muscat) . - _ 300 

273 — Meer Moaayenuddeen ..------ — 

274 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -SOI 

275 — M*tev Gh\\\dm'Mo\\yviMccn, Kilaaddr of Kuvjun-good - -302 

276 — Mahommed Mehdy, BuhJishy of Ehshdm at Putn - - - 303 

277 — GhulAm Husain, at Aurungdhdd, and others (Circular) - - 304 

278 — Burhanuddeen 3^^ 

CONTENTS. xlvii 

Letter. Page. 

279 To Meer Moaayenuddeen -.---_-. 307 

2/80 — the Commanders of the Five BArgeer Kuchurries and Suwar Ku- 

churry - . 308 

281 — ^Ae Commanders q/' #Ae T/to Jyshe Kuchurries - - - _ — 

282 — the Bukhshies of the Ehsham Kuchurry - - - - - — 

283 — Syed Mahommed Khan, Buhhshj of the Usiid Ilhyes - - 309 

284 — Urshud Baig Khan, Foitjddr of Calicut - - - - - 310 

285 — Chishty Yar Khdn and Zynul Aabideen - - - - - — 

286 — Mahommed Yoosuf, Cutwdl of the Bdxdr, accompanying the Pre- 

sence - - - - - - - - - -311 

287 — Mahommed Hyder, Dewdnof Nugr 312 

288 — Syed Mahommed Khan, third Dewdn at Nugr - - - 313 

289 — Burhanuddeen - - - -314 

290 — Budruz Zuman KhAn ..._.--. — 

291 — AH Rajah Becby — 

292 — Budruz ZumAn Khan ---.-._. — 

293 — Aabdul Kurecm, Sipahddr of a Jushe Kuchurry - - - - 315 

294 — Rajah Ram Chundur - - - - - - - -316 

295 — Ghulam Husain Khan, second. Munshoor of Bangalore - - 317 

296 — Burhanuddeen 318 

297 — Mahommed Ghyas o«rf Noor Mahommed KhAn - - -319 

298 — Rujub Ah, Kilaaddr of Gujundur Gurrh - - - - 321 

299 — Turbiyut AH Khan and Rajah Ram Chundur - - - - — 

300 — MahommedShufeea, Ddrogha of the Artillery - - - 322 

301 — Usud AH Khan, yroTW AH RizA awi Bal Mukn Doss - - - — 
802 Fro7n the same to the same - - - - - - - -333 

303 From the same to the same - - - - - - - -335 

304 From the same to the same ...-.--- 336 

305 To BurhAnuddeen 337 

306 — Ten SipahdArs (Circular) ..--_-. — 

307 — Budruz ZumAn KhAn 338 

308 — BurhAnuddeen - — 

309 — MeerTurabAH - - . 341 

310 — the Sipuhddr, Mahommed AH .._.>- — 

311 — BurhAnuddeen -- 342 

312 — Zynu\ Aahklccn, Bukhshy of Ehsfulm at Chittkdoorg - - — 

313 — BurhAnuddeen 343 

314 — RAjah RAm Chundur 344 

g 2 


xlviti CONTENTS, 

Letler. Page. 

315 To Runinust Khtin, Nabob of Kurnool - - - - - * - 344 

316 — R.ijah Ram Chundur 346 

317 — Khajeh Ibiid Kh^n, andjour otliers (Circular) - - . . — . 

318 — Meer Mahommcd SSdik, Deivdn of the Hdzocr, or Presence - 347 

319 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - .. - - — 

520 — Shumsiiddeeu Khan and Ghulam Hyuer, Ddroghds of the losheh- 

Khdnek 348 

521 — Rumnust Khan, Nabob of Kurnool - - - . - - 319 

322 — Burhanuddeen -----..,. — 

323 — the Sipahddr, Mahommed Ali - - - - - - -350 

324 — Ghulam Hiisain Khan, Mtinshoor of Bangalore - - - S5L 

525 — Kutbul Miilk -.--__... 352 

526 — Mahmood AH Khan - 356 

3'23 — Burhanuddeen 357 

328 — Kutbul Mulk - - — 

329 — Meer Moaayenuddeen - 358 

330 — Runmust Khan, Nabob of Kurnool ------ — 

331 — Kutbiiddeen Khan 359 

332 — Budruz Zuman Khan ----.--. 351 

333 — Moal Chund and Sujan Rae, Agents at Dehli - - - - 362 

334 — Mahommed Baig Humdany ------- 357 

5S5 Zynul Aabideen, Biiklishy of the Ehshdm at ChUtledoorg - - 368 

•SS6 — the Rajah of the French 3G9 

337 — Monsieur Cossigny, Governor of Pondicherry - - . - 375 

338 — the Hdvo'gUI^^ of the i'msy .-.--. -379 

339 — Burhaniiddeen - - - 380 

340 — Shah Aabdullah Saheb — 

341 — Ehsanullah Khan 381 

342 — Budruz Zuman Khan ._.----- — 

S43 — the Nabob of Sinore 382 

844 ~ the Bukhshy of the Ehsham at Chittlcdoorg - - - - 383 

•345 — Meer Futah Ali, Taahihddr of Chik Balapoor - - - - — 

34(5 — Meer Jaafur WuffA-KhAny .._---- — 

547 — Burh'Anuddeen _....---- 384 

348 — SyedGhuffir 385 

349 — Burhanuddeen --------- 386 

350 — Budruz Zum^n Khan 390 

351 — rtf KilaadSr of Seringapatam - - 391 


Letter. Page. 

352 To Burhdnuddecn 393 

353 — the same -_-..-____ 39^ 

354 — Ghous Mahommed Khan mid Mahommed Aka, Ddroghus of the 

Jinsy Tosheli-khdneh - - -- - - - _ 395 

353 — Monsieur Cossigny -------. __„ 

356 — Miildim Jung 





357 — Biirhanuddeen ... . . _ . . _ . 39^ 

358 — Budruz ZuniAn Khan -----.._ 393 
559 — RAjah Ram Chundur 399 

360 Mahommed Ibraheem, Amn'd of Ndgniungul - - - . 40O 

S61 — Burhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -401 

362 — Budriiz Zuman Khan - - -.- - . _ . 402 

363 — the Kazy of Bangalore - -- - . - . . 40J 

364 — the Kilaadar of Seringapatam --._._. 405 
^65 — Nubby Shah, at Bangalore -.-.__. 40s 
Z(i6 — Musheor 61 Mulk - - - -- - - - . 407 

367 Syed Mohyuddeen, Aumil of Huscotah - - - - -4ll 

368 — Shumsuddeen KhAn a«£^Ghulam Hyder ----- 412 

369 — Syed Ahmed Saheb .-_--... 453 

370 — Runmust Khan Bahadur -------- — 

371 — Meer Ghiilam HCisain - - - - - -- - -414 

372 — Burhanuddeen awrf Budr6z Zuman Kh^n - - - - - 415 

373 — Biirhanuddeen - - - - - - - - -416 

574 — RAjah RAm Chundur - - -417 

75 — Syed Mahommed - -.- - 418 

376 — BurhAnilddeen - - - - - - - - -419 

377 — Meer AH .-----.... — 

378 — Syed Mahommed --.. _ 420 

379 Mahommed Ushruf - - - -■- - - - 421 

330 — Monsieur Cossigny ,- 422 

381 — Mahommed Baig Khan Humdany, and others (Circular) - - 423 

382 — Meer Ah 432 

383 — Budruz Zuman Kli^n .-----.. 433 
584 — Monsieur Cossigny .--._.-. 435 
385 — Syed Ahmed Saheb, Boodhun Shiih, Nubby Sh4h, Kuleemiillah 

Shilh, arid others (Peer Zadehs, or Devotees) - - - 435 

3«G — Mohyuddeen Ah Khan (Dewdn of Kurpah), Chishty YAr Khftn, 

Rajali Rdm Chundur, Nursia, and others (Circular) - - 4S6 



Letler, Page. 

387 To AbdiM Hukeem Khan 437 

388 — R^jah Rdm Chundur 438 

389 — the Biikhshy of Ehsh4m at Gooty — 

390 — Rajah Ram Chundur 439 

391 — MohyiVldeen Ah Khan — 

392 — Meer Moaayenuddeen Kh^n _---... 440 

393 — Mahommed Ushruf — 

394 — Zynfil Aabideen 441 

395 — Soqjan Rae and Moal Chund, Agents at Dehli - - - . 442 

396 — Mahommed Ushruf -. 443 

97 — Rajah Ram Chundur -._.-.._ 444 

398 — Boodhun Shah -. — 

399 — Monsieur Moneron ----------_ 

400 — Shumsuddeen, and otJia'S --.«... 4.4.Q 

401 ^ Ghiilam Ah KhH Lutf Ah KhSn, ««<^ ShSh Noorfillah - -447 

402 — Urshud Baig Khan ---_ 449 

403 — Mahommed Eesau, Jiimil of Ufzuldbdd Nugr - - - 450 

404 — the Dewans of ZuferabSd - - - - - - -451 

405 — Mahommed Durwaish, &c. -__--.. 452 

406 — Ghulam Ghuzunfur _>.,--_- 453 

407 — Budriiz Zuman Klian _-«_-..- — 

408 — TurbiyutAh Khan _.-.-..- 454 

409 — Mahommed Durwaish, and others -..--- — 

410 — /Ae Dewan 0/' Chittlcdoorg, and others - ... - 455 

411 — Monsieur Lai ly ,-_-----.- -k— 

412 — Monsieur Cossigny, the Governor of Madras ; Gh£iWra Ah Khan ; 

the Imam of Muscat, and others (Circular) - _ - - 456 

413 _ Ghulam Ah Khan , i - -458 

414 — Chishty Yar Khan awi Zynul Aabideen ----- — 

415 — MohyCiddccn Ah Khan, jDeit'fi^rt, anrfGh61am Ghuzunfur, at Kurpah 459 

416 — Shumsuddeen KhSn 460 

417 — Monsieur Cossigny .-------- 462 

418 — Urshud Baig Khan .._->--- 463 

419 — ^/;e Dowans o/" Cahcut 464 

420 — Monsieur Cossigny __._.--.__ 

421 — Shumsuddeen Kh^n ..-.---- 465 

422 — Miisheer dlMulk — 

423 — Ghuiam Hyder 466 


Letter. P.ige. 

424 To Syed Mahommed -_.. 466 

425 — YAkoob, ami other Armenian Merchants ----- 457 

426 — Mcer Moaayeniiddcen, BCirhiinuddeen, Mah Mirza KhSn, and 

Husain Ali Khan 468 

427 — Shumsiiddeen KhAn, &c. - - - — 

428 — the DewAns of ZuferAbad -..._.. 459 

429 — Rajah Ram Chundur -----_-_ — 

430 — BudrCiz Zuman Khan ---_-.._ 470 

431 — Meerlbraheem - - - - - - - - -471 

432 — Urshud Baig Khan — 

433 — Kureem Saheb --.. 472 

434 — Mahommed Dunvaish 473 

435 — KCitbul Miilk Mahommed Kiitb6ddeen KhAn Behadur - - - 474 
Postscript ------------ 484 


A. Tippoo Sultan's Memorandum, with Translation ; referred to in the 

Preface _--_---.-_ i 

B. Extract from the Sultan's Memoirs, relative to the Expedition against 

General Matthews ; referred to in the Preface - - _ . ][{ 

C. Tippoo's Agreement with his Father ; referred to under Letter I. - xi 

D. Historical Sketch of the Shanoor Afghans; referred to at Letter XVf. xi 

E. Edicts, or Commercial Regulations ; referred to under Letter XIX. xxxiii 

F. Regulations resjjecting Spies ; referred to at Letter XL. - - xlviii 
F.* Explanation of the Cypher ; referred to at Letter LX VI I. - - xlix 

G. Historical Sketch of the Patau Principality of Kurnool ; referred to 

under Letter CIL ....-..- li 

H. Agreement of Meer Sadik ; referred to under Letter CXIV. - Ixiii 
I, Extract from the Futhul Miijahideen ; referred to at Letter 


K. Marine Regulations ; referred to at Letter CC. ... - Ixxvii 
L, An Outline of the Sultan's Military Establishment ; referred to at 

Letter CCLXX. -...----- xcii 



To MiRZA Mahommed Alt, Sivperintendant of the Elephant Stables at 
Nugr;'^^^ dated Putn Cor SeringapatamJ, 2d of JBrJzr, Year Uzl. 
(17th February 1785.) 

The humble address [you] sent [us] has passed under [our] view, 
and the circumstances submitted [therein] are duly comprehended/^) 
You write, " that the Mittmuddies^^^ attached to you have adopted habits 
" of ease and of lounging in Nugr, pretending that it is necessary for 
•* them to see and confer with the Taalukdai<*^ of Nugr; the conse- 
" quence of which is, that fifteen days are consumed in preparing the 
" accounts of one,(^) and that nothing is done excepting at Nugrj 

" though 

( 1 ) i.e. Bidnore. 

(2) This may serve as a sample of the manner in which most of these letters commence : 
in those that follow, I shall cither abridge, or entirely omit, the introductory part. 

(;j) Clerks or Accountants. 

(4) The Manager of a District. 

(5) Or the meaning may be, " neglect their ledger for fifteen days ata time. " 



" tliough a Kiinri/ Mi'dusuddi/^'''^ (agreeably to our orders) attends on the 
" part of Nursia<") to assist in the business." 

This [representation] has caused [us] the utmost surprize. When- 
ever the MiltmialdieshfAongingio your department cease to yield you pro- 
per obedience, you must.give them a severe flogging;'^) and making them 
prepare, with the greatest dispatch, the lists and other papers required by 
our former orders, transmit the same duly to the Presence/^) 


To understand the foregoing letter properly, it is necessary to suppose, what, 
indeed, is most probable, that the Elephant Mews, or Stables, were situated at 
some distance from the town of Nugr. 

This letter furnishes a proper occasion for cautioning the reader, who may 
not be conversant in the historj^, or acquainted with the genius, or frame, of the 
native governments of India, against hastily drawing any general conclusions, with 
respect to the latter point, from the particular practice, or maxims, of Tippoo 
Sultan. The conduct of this prince was too commonly governed by caprice, and 
was too often the mere result of individual feelings and character, to afford a just 
criterion of the generality of Asiatic sovereigns, or Asiatic states. Thus, any one 
who should be led to infer, from the punishment here directed to be inflicted 
on the idle clerks of the elephant department, that it is customary in India (as 
in China and Russia) to flog any but the menial servants of government for 
neglect of duty, would be greatly mistaken : as he would, also, if he supposed 
that castration was no uncommon penalty in that country, for corruption, or other 


(6) A Caiiaresc Clerk. 

(7) The name of the Manager. 

(8) Original ^jjiijXip ldzianeh'ka)y. 

(9) There js considerable obscurity in tliat passage of the original, which I have rendered, 
" though a A'uHry-jl/H^K«<rf(/y attends, &c." I am, therefore, not certain of having under- 
stood it rightly. 


misdemeanors in the administration of public affairs, because the ^'w/^aw sometimes 
thought proper to threaten official delinquents with that punishment. The fact 
is, that all his Hookm-ndmehs, or instructions to the governors of provinces, and 
others, conclude with a denunciation of the penalties to which they will be liable, 
in case of disobedience or disregard of the orders contained in them. Sometimes 
these are generally stated, under the vague, but emphatic, term of " the worst 
of punishments : " at others, they are specifically named ; as crucifixion, in one 
or two instances, and emasculation, in others. Whether or not the latter menace 
was ever, in any case, actually executed, I am not able to determine ; but 
there is nothing in the character of Tippoo Sultan to render the aftirmative 
unlikely. Colonel Munro assures me, that it is an absolute fact that on one 
occasion he ordered all the male population of a particular village, which had 
given him offence, to be castrated. 

What the practice of Hyder Ali was on similar occasions, I have not the 
means of stating ; but there is sufficient reason to suspect, that the example 
of the father was not much calculated to restrain the severity, or cruelty, of 
the son. It is certain, indeed, as I learn from Colonel Wilks, that Tippoo 
himself was once publicly bambooed (or caned) by order of Hyder, in whose 
good graces he would never appear to have stood very high. This opinion is 
strongly confirmed, by a most curious original document, which I met >vith at 
Sen'ngapatam, in the year 1/99, vvhile employed in examining the mass of 
papers discovered more immediately after the capture of the place. I found it 
amongst a variety of other papers of the time of Hyder, deposited in a basket or 
box, where it had probably remained undisturbed and forgotten ever since his death. 
It is a narrow slip, about twelve inches in length : is entitled, at top, .uU.IjI 
or " an agreement ;" beneath which words is the imjjression, in ink, of a small 
square seal, resembling, in all respects, the usual signet, or ring-seal, of the 
Sultan, and bearing, together with the name " Tippoo Sultan, " the date " 1184 " 
(liigera)^'" The instrument itself is without date ; but it must, of course, have 

B 2 been 

(10) The existence of this seal satisfactorily proves tliat Sultan was not a title assumed by 
Tippoo (as cominonly supposed) upon succeeding his father, l)ut made part of the name 
given him, probably, at his birth. 


been executed some time between the year 1769 (the period when the seal was 
engraved) and 1782, in which last year Hyder died. On the back of this paper 
is a short endorsement of two or three words, in Canarese, which, I am sorry to 
say, I cannot explain. 

1 am equally unable to determine, whether this interesting document is in the 
hand-writing of the Sultan. It certainly bears but little resemblance to the 
specimens exhibited in a great variety of notes and memorandums, written by him 
in the latter part of his life. But his hand-writing might well undergo a material 
change in a period of twenty or thirty years : besides which, I suspect that most 
of the articles of his writing which happen to be in my possession, were written 
with a gold or silver pen, which he was much in the practice of using, and of 
which I obtained two or three at Serlngapatam that had belonged to him. This 
occasioned his later writing (at least what I have seen of it) to have an air of 
stiffness and crabbedness, of whirh there is not near so great an appearance in the 
document under consideration. 

But it is not essential to the authenticity of this paper that it should have been 
written in the Sultans own hand. The place in which it was discovered, joined 
to the seal and internal evidence furnished by its extraordinary tenor, sufficiently 
establishes its genuineness ; but whether the engagement it contains was voluntarily 
entered into by the Sultan, or exacted by Hyder, does not appear. The latter, 
however, is not unlikely to have been the case, notwithstanding what the writer 
himself declares in the eighth article. After this general account of the document 
in question, I proceed to present the reader with a translation of it ; and, for the 
satisfaction of those conversant in the language of the original, a fac-similc of it 
is given in article C. of the Appendix. 


" 1."" I will not do [any] one thing without the pleasure of your blessed Ma- 
" jesty. Lord of Benefits [or my bountiful Lord] : if I do, let me be punished, in 

" whatever manner may seem fittmg to your auspicious mind. One article."-' 

« 2. If 

(11) The articles are not numbered in the original, but divided by lines drawn under each 
of them. 

(12) Original JwiJ/j which is repeated at the end of each article. 


" 2. If, in the affliirs of the Sircar, I should commit theft, or be guilty of 
" fraud, great or small, let me, as the due punishment thereof, be strangled."" 

" One article. 

"3. If I be guilty of prevarication, or misrepresentation, or of deceit, the 

'■' due punishment thereof is this same strangulation. One article. 

" 4. Without the orders of the Presence, I will not receive from any one, 
" Nitzzers, &c. ; neither will I take things from any one [meaning perhaps for- 
" cibly] : if I do, let my nose be cut off, and let me be driven out from the city. 

" One article. 

" 5. If, excepting on the affairs of tlie Sircar, I should hold conversation 
" [probably cabal or intrigue] with any person, or be guilty of deceit, &c., let 

" me, in punishment thereof, be stretched on a cross. One article. 

" 6. Whenever a country shall be committed to my charge by the Sircar, 
" and an army be placed under my command, I will carry on all business regard- 
" ing the same, with the advice, and through the medium of such confidential 
" persons as may be appointed [for the purpose] by the Sircar ; and if I transact 
" such affairs through any other channel than this, let me be strangled. One 

" article. 

" 7. If there should be any occasion for correspondence by writing, or to buy 
" or give [away] any thing, or any letters should arrive from any place, I will do 
" nothing [in such matters] without the concurrence and advice of the person 

" appointed by the Sircar. One article, 

"8. I have written and delivered these few articles of my own free will: 
" keeping the contents whereof in my heart's remembrance, I will act in each 
" article accordingly. If I forget this, and act in any other [or different] manner, 
" let me be punished, agreeably to the foregoing writing." 

It will not, perhaps, be wondered at, that one, to whom the idea of corporal 
punishment, even in his own person, would seem, from the preceding instrument, 


(13) Original oljjubj^ of the meaning of wliich expression I am far from being 
certain. It may possibly signify, ♦' to extinguisli," and hence, figuratively, " to put to 


as well as from Colonel Wilks's report, to liave been familiar, before his accession 
to the Musnud, should, after that event, have applied the practice, with similar 
disregard to the rank or station of offenders, to those then subjected to his 

Before I dismiss this subject it may be proper to notice, that the style of the 
foregoing document (and especially of the seventh article) is extremely perplexed 
and indistinct : but, even at a more advanced period of the Sultans life, most of 
the productions of his pen (as was observed on a former occasion) were charac- 
terized by the same involved structure of sentences, frequently creating considerable 
obscurity in the sense. 


To JMeer Kazim, Commercial Consul, or Chief of the Factort/ at Mus- 
cat; ivritte7i in the Night of the 5th of Byazy. (20th Fehruary.') 

Propose to the merchants of Muscat, (and get the Imaum^^^ to issue 
orders to the same effect,) to bring hither, on the empty Ditigies,^^^ such 
horses as they may have for sale ; which being sold to us, the owners can 
carry back the produce in rice. 


Several letters in this collection, as well as the present one, are dated at ni^ht 
a circumstance that does not denote them to be of any urgency or particular 


(1) The Prince, or Sovereign, of Muscat. 

(2) A small vessel employed in the traJe between the Malabar Coast and the Gulfs of 
Pcrsia&nA Arabia : the same name is given to a kind of canoe used on the Ganges. By empty 
Dingies, may be meant cither Dingics of Miucat, proceeding in ballast to the Coast of 
Malabar ; or A>i;g^J« belonging to the ports of Maiigalore or Calicut, and returning thither 
from Muscat, alter discharging their cargoes at the latter place : but it is most probable that 
the former are intended. 


importance (as one might be led to suppose), but merely shows the diligent 
application of the Sultan to business ; the word 7iigJit here implying some time 
after midnight. (3) Its insertion in such a dispatch as the preceding one, certainly 
carries with it an air of affectation. 

If Tippoo Sultan was very desirous of establishing a commercial intercourse with 
Muscat; not, perhapSj without some ulterior view to a political connexion with 
that petty state. The encouragement which he held out, for this purpose, to the 
merchants of Muscat, as well as his own particular notions of trade, will appear in 
the sequel. 


To Mahommek Ghyas; dated 6fk of Byazy. (2\st February^ 

Your letter of the 19tli of Eezudy [5th of February] has been re- 
ceived, and the whole of its contents are comprehended. The Jixed or 
regulated money is ready. Whenever the chiefs of that place \Poonih~\ 
demand it, bankers' bills to the amount shall be forwarded. 

Representations of the contumacious conduct of the Zeminddr oi Ner- 
guild were frequently transmitted [by us], in the course of last year, to 
Noor Mahommed Khun, who, no doubt, communicated the same to all 
the chiefs there [Poonah~\. If a petty Zeminddr, and a subject of our 
government, like this, may not be punished, how shall our authority be 
maintained ? The justice of this argument was admitted, even by Rao 
Rasta.^'^ Thus the chastisement of this Zeminddr became necessary. If 
he is brought to reason from thence [/. e. by the Mahiattah chiefs] it will 
be well ; otherwise he will be exterminated. 


(3) For some further account of the manner of ilividing the night, see Letter CCCLXII. 
(1) For an account of this personage, see Letter VIH. 


Let the Gumdshteh (^^ of Apajee Rao receive a monthly stipend of four 

You must not admit the Brahmens^^'^ to a participation in the conduct 
of any secret negotiation. You and Noor Mahommed Khun [alone] are 
jointly to transact [all such affairs]. 

If the chiefs of that place, forgetting our past favors, should dispatch 
an army to the assistance of the Zeminddr of Nergiind, what will it 
sio-nify ? We have, under the divine blessing, sent a strong force to 
reduce Nergund, and are in no fear of its suffering any misfortune from 
their armv. 

N.B. A letter, to the same effect as the above, and of the same date, vi^as 
written to Noor Mahommed Khan (the colleague of Mahommed Ghyas) with an 
immaterial addition, respecting some bills of exchange. 


Mahommed Ghyas Khan and Noor Mahommed Khan were, at this time, the 
diplomatic agents of Tippoo Sultan, at Poonah. The former of them was, 
probably, at the head of the mission, since many of the letters are addressed 
singly to him, and in all of them his name stands first. Noor Mahommed Khan, 
however, would seem to have resided longest at the Mahrattah court, to >vhich, 
there is reason to believe, he had been originally deputed by Hyder AH. 

The present correspondence commences just at the period when the war of 

1785 broke out between the Sultan and the Mahrattahs ; the latter of whom were, 

after some time, joined by Nizam Ali Khan, who sent a considerable body of 

troops to act with their army. 


(2) An Agent. Apajcc Rao was i>robably a Mulirattah Chief, in the interest of Tippoo 

(3) i. e. the Brahmens attached to the Mission. For further particulars respecting whom, 
sec Letters CLXV. andCLXVIL 


The ostensible, or more immediate cause of the present Pupture, is to te traced, 
on the one hand, to the right which tlie Sultan assumed of chastising a contu- 
macious tributary ; and, on the other, to the protection which the Mahrattah 
Government thought, or affected to think, it incumbent on them to extend to tliis 
offender ; who was, perhaps, a feudatory of the Malirattah Empire, in Hke 
manner with many other Zeminddrs and Polygdrs, who depend, in various shapes, 
and at the same time, on different superiors ; rendering to one Puishaish, or tribute 
and to another mihtary service.*' 

But it was not merely, or perhaps principally, for the purpose of supporting the 
Zemituldr of Nergdnd, that the Mahrattah Government took up arms a^^ainst 
the Sultan. They had claims on him for considerable arrears of tribute, the 
discharge of which he had hitherto refused or evaded ; and it was, probably, less 
with a view of befriending the obnoxious Zeminddr, than of enforcing these claims, 
that they appealed to the sword. 

It will be seen in the sequel, that though the Sultan succeeded in inflictino- a 
signal chastisement on his rebellious tributary, he was, nevertheless, oblio'ed to 
pay the Mahrattahs a considerable sum of money ; not less, according to some 
accounts, than forty lachs of rupees."^ Whether this was the whole, or only part 
of the arrears of tribute claimed by them, is unknown to the translator, who has 
never met with the treaty concluded between the belligerent powers, about the 
beginning of the year 1787. The Nlzdm, during this war, \oit Adoni ; which, 
however, was restored to him by the peace. 

By the Jixed, or regulated sum, sjjokcn of by the Sultan in the present letter, 
he means the Palshcush, or tribute, which he was bound by former treaties to iiay 
to the Government of Poonah ; but which he does not think proper to recognize, 
or designate, by any term denotive of inferiority, v\hich the word Pahlieush 
certainly is. Those who negociated our first treaty with the court of Hyderabad 
were less nice, since they agreed to pay an annual Palshcush to the Nizam : by 
which concession they virtually, but, no doubt, unconsciously, placed the East- 
India Company in the situation of a vassal to that chieftain ; the term Paishmsh, 

C in 

(4) Tlie Sultan' s own Memoirs arc entirely siioiit on the subject of Nogund. 

(5) The Sultan himself, in his Memoirs, states the sum at twelve lads of nipres. 


in its restrained sense, and as used in India, signifying tribute ; and in no case 
being applied to presents, excepting to those of a subject to liis lord, or from an 
inferior to a superior. It might be difficult now, and may be deemed needless, to 
obtain the suppression of this degrading appellation. The usurpers of this, and 
similar vain distinctions and marks of preeminence,"" in proportion as they have 
lost, in the revolutions of time, the substance, may be more safely indulged in the 
possession of this shadow of power. There is, happily, no longer any danger of 
the abuse being extended : this is equally precluded by our increased political 
consideration throughout India, and by our improved knowledge of its languages 
and usages. The time is past, when the general ignorance that prevailed, in these 
respects, among the Company's servants, placed the interests and the honor of their 
employers and of the nation, but too much at the mercy of native agents and 

There is only one more remark suggested by the preceding letter. If the Sultan 
be allowed credit for sincerity, when he declares himself ready to pay the arrears 
due by him to the Mahrattahs, immediately on demand, it will necessarily follow, 
that the question of tribute was not the principal one with that state, any more 
than with its ally the Nizdm, whom, indeed, it could only remotely concern. 
Both governments, possibly, thought to oppose some check to the rising power 
of the Sultan, whose ambitious views had begun to develope themselves, in a 
manner that might well awaken the jealousy, and excite the fears of his neighbours. 
In this case, it will be easy to account for the Mahrattahs not being satisfied 
with the Sultans professed readiness to discharge their pecuniary demands 
(however sincere they might think him in that respect), but insisting on his 
relinquishing his designs against Nergiind. On the whole, it seems highly 
probable, that he would have avoided a war at this time, if he could have done 


(6) Amongst these, the modes of address empIoyeJ by many of the Pseudo-princes of 
India, in writing even to the Enghsh governors, and otlier persons in high official situations 
under the British Government, deserve to be particularly noticed ; some of them being such 
as would not now be tolerated, if attempted to be introduced for the first time. The same 
advantage was taken of our inexperience in other matters of a ceremonial kind ; with regard 
to many of wiiich, I am inclined to think, wc do not occupy the station to which we are 
entitle J. 


SO consistently with the " maintenance of his authority" (as he himself expresses 
it), or without submitting to the disgrace of being prescribed to by a forei^-n 
power. His favorite object, and most ardent desire, was to resume, at the earliest 
possible moment, hostilities against the English ; and though he might think 
himself equal, without the help of the INIahrattahs and Nizdm, to the successful 
prosecution of that design, yet he would, at least, wish for the neutrality of those 
powers during its progress. With a view to the undertaking alluded to, he had 
already resolved upon reverting to his former alliance with the French ; and he 
cherished the hope of being soon enabled, by the renewal of his connexion with 
that nation, to give vent to his always ill-concealed hatred of their rivals. To 
this ever-predominating bias of his mind, and to his eager anticipation of the 
period, when the successful termination of his negociations with France would put 
him in a condition to execute his projects against the English, may, perhaps, in a 
great measure, be ascribed the advantageous peace which he granted to the courts 
of Poonah and Hyderabad, at the end of a war, in which he certainly gave such 
proofs of military superiority, as made his enemies very wilHng to retire from the 
contest. The reader already knows, that his expectations from France, and his 
hopes of conciliating his neighbours, proved alike fallacious ; and that, in the 
end, he was compelled, prematurely and single-handed, to commit his fortunes in 
an unequal struggle with the combined forces of all the })Owers of the Peninsula. 


To TuRBiYUT Ali Khan and Rajah Ram Chundur j<:') dated \2th 

of Byazy. (2'Jth Fehruary.^ 

Your letter has been received. You write, *' that the European 
*' [formerly] taken prisoner in the Pdi/en-ghaiU,^'^^ and whose original 

C 2 " allowance 

(1) These were officers at Bangalore. Ram Chundur was the Deudn of tlic Kuchuny ; 
Turbiyut Ali KhTin (wlio, I believe, was a grjuid^oii of tlie MCirtuza Ali of yinuf, nisn- 
tioiied in Oiinc's History) ajjiiears to have been the Chief Collector of tiie District. 

(2) The country below the Chants. 


'* allovA-ance of two fanams^^^ a day had been, in consequence of his 
*' misbehaviour, reduced to one, being skilled in the mortar practicCj^*) 
*' you proposed converting him to the faith, and wished for our orders 
** on the subject." It is known (or understood). 

Admittino- the aforesaid to the honor of Islamism, you will continue 
to pay him, as before, iwofanams a day. Let him also be employed in 
firino- at the flag.^^^ We have ourselves, however, brought the mortar 
practice to that degree of perfection, that children, of ten and eleven 
years of age, are taught to hit the point of a spear. 

You may, as you propose, engage a sweeper, at the monthly wages of 
ten or twelve /owo?/?5, and employ him in sweeping out the jRung-nmhl,^^l 
and the public halls of the Deivdny and EhshdmS'^ 


The European licre spoken of was, no doubt, one of those unhappy British 
soldiers who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of this cruel enemy ; and 
numbers of whom he forcibly detained, in spite of the stipulations of the treaty 
of Mangalore. It is not quite clear, whether the subject of the present letter 
was to be compelled to embrace Mabommedanism, or had expressed a readiness 
to do so. The latter, however, is not so likely as the former ; though there is 
reason to believe, that some few of our wretched countrymen were induced to 
npostatize, with the view of alleviating the intolerable hardships of their situation. 


(3) A favam is equal to about eighupence. 

(4) Original JjJ^j\S)\iJ\LJ ^ i. e. The art of firing at a flag [with] mortar shells (or 

(5) It is not distinctly said that he was to be employed in /eac/uV?^" the mortar-practice, 
but this was probably meant. 

(6) A painted apartment. Most palaces, as well as that at Bangalore, contain one. 

(7) DeuHiny is the revenue department. The Ehshdm were a description of guards, or 
state retinue, as the term implies. 


The reader will be amused by the ostentatious boast made by the Sultan, of 
the perfection to which he had brought the practice of gunnery : but though there 
is, probably, some exaggeration in his statement, it cannot be denied, that he 
had accomplished much in this respect. 

The directions, relative to the sweeper, show to what low and minute objects, 
particularly in matters of economy, the mind of the Sultan was accustomed to 
stoop. Other instances, of the same kind, will appear in the course of tliess 
letters ; but a still greater number are omitted. 

It may seem rather extraordinary, that a Hindoo (as Rajah Ram Chundur was) 
should be joined with a Mahommedan, in a commission for converting a Christian 
to the Mussulman faith : but this proceeding, however strange, will probably be 
thought much less so, than another of a somewhat similar nature, noticed under 


To the Governor of Pokdicherry, dated I9th Byazy. (6th 3Iarch.') 

We have had the pleasure to receive your agreeable letter, informing 
us that peace has lately been concluded in Europe, between the King of 
France and the English, in consequence of which the port of Pondichcny 
has been restored to the French. This information has afforded us much 
satisfaction. You must let us know [what you learnj] respecting the 
[expected] arrival of ships belonging to you [_i. e. your nation], as well 
as how far Monsieur Suffrein is advanced in his voyage. 


1 believe this letter contains almost the only instance in which the title of 
Bddshdh, or King, is bestowed upon any European sovereign by Tippoo Sultan, 
who appears, on all other occasions, to have thought as if this designation would 



be degradedj by being applied to any but a prince professing the Mahommedan 
faith : he, therefore, generally affected to call, not only the King of England, 
but his own friend and ally, the King of France, Rdjah ; intending, by this 
ingenious contrivance, to intimate (though, of course, not to those so addressed) 
that he considered them as nothing superior to the petty Hindoo Rdjahs of India, 
and, in fact, as Idolaters. What rendered this appellation the more insulting 
was, that though originally, and strictly, signifying a King, it had now become 
extremely common, the title being borne, as has been seen, by one Hindoo, at 
least, in the service of the Sultan himself, and being frequently bestowed on 
their subjects of that religion, by the different upstart rulers of the dismembered 
empire of Hindostan. 

For a more distinct view of the sentiments entertained by Tippoo Sultan, with 
respect to Christians in general, the reader is referred to the Preface to Colonel 
Wilks's History of Mysore, where they are exhibited in the most undisguised 
manner, in an extraordinary letter from the Sultan to the late General Macleod, 
The same letter occurs, with very little variation from Zynul Aabideen's copy, 
in the Sultans own Memoirs. 


To Mahommed Ushruf, DaroghJ^^^ of the Deivaxy Kuchujiry of 
GooTY ; (Idled 16lh of Byazy. (3d March.') 

Your letter has been received, and its contents are duly understood. 
You write, " that the JBdzdr price of Kiirg pagodas was thirteen 
" faiunns and three-quarters, but that you had advanced the same one 
" fanam and four annas, and issued them, at this rate, to the Piddehs 
" of the Ehshdmr<?^ It is known. You will fix the value of the 


( 1 ) A superintendant or overseer. 

(2) See Note 7 of Letter IV. Pidcleh means a foot soldier ; but the term is almost 
exclusively applied to infantry, or foot soldiers formed on the irregular plan of the natives. 


pagoda at one fanam above the market price, or exchange, and issue 
it, at that rate, to the servants of the State. There is no necessity for 
raising the exchange higher than this standard ; and, accordingly, 
this has been heretofore repeatedly signified to you. It surprises us 
extremely, that you should nevertheless pursue the suggestions of your 
own fancy. 


No prospect of advantage could tempt the Sultan to wink at any contravention 
of his positive orders. The financial operation, here spoken of, is not an 
uncommon one in India. The Sultans displeasure was not occasioned by the 
oppression, hut by the disobedience, of which the Darogha had been guilty. 


To Shah Noorullah ; dated 22d of JByJzv. (9th March.') 

Enclosed is a letter which has been received from Othnian Khan, 
&c. reporting their arrival at JBu.ssorah, and subsequent departure from 
thence for the presence of the King.(') You will learn [further] from 
its perusal. The Governor of Su^sorah has likewise written an answer 
to our letter to him, saying that he had sent forward the aforesaid Khdn 
and the others [i. e. his colleagues]] to the Court of the King. 

Such being the case, that eminent person^-> must use the utmost 
expedition, agreeably to our former orders, in docking the ship 
FukhurUhnUbdruk, and giving it such repairs as may be required. 

(1)1 suppose the Grand Signior to be Iiere meant. 
(2) Originul ^^Ijjti-vwi^jl meaniijg Sliah Noordlliili. 



The embassv, here alluded to, was that which the Sultan dispatched to Con- 
stantinople, some time in the year 1784. At the head of it was Mahommed 
Othman Khan, who had formerly filled the station of Hyder Ali Khan's f^'aheel 
at Madras, and was afterwards associated with Mahommed Durwaish Khan, and 
the other ambassadors, sent in the year 1 787, by sea, to France. What was the 
object of his mission to Constantinople, I am not able to state, having met with 
no documents regarding it. On the return, or recall, of Othman Khan, Ghulam 
Ali Khan, together with Shah Nooriillah, was dispatched ostensibly to supply his 
place; but, in fact, with instructions to proceed from Constantinople to France. 
This design, however, was subsequently relinquished by the Sultan, who substituted, 
in its stead, the more direct mission by sea, noticed above.'" 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 1st of 
Extra Ahmedy, Year Jvllo. (\%lh March?) 

In consequence of the chiefs of that place [PoonaJi] forgetting their 
obligations to us, Ave have come to the positive determination of taking 
possession of the territory situated on the banks of the KishnaS^^ It is 
therefore written, that if your ncgociation proceeds according to our 
heart's desire, it is well : if not, you and Noor Mahommed Khan, taking 
leave of Rao Riista, must repair to tiie Presence. 


(3) Major Stuart relates, on tiie authority of a French writer, that Othman Khan, and 
one of his coliia;:;ues, were put to death by the Sultan on their return from France. A great 
part, if not the whole of the correspondence of Othman Khan, during his rcsiden( e at 
Madras, was found at Seriiigapatam, amongst tlie records of ilyder Ali's time. These letters 
would throw considerable liglit on many of the political transactions of that period. 

(1) That is, all the country as far as the Kishna. 


The 14th of Ahmcdi/'-'> is fixed on for our marchnig ; in case, therefore, 
of ungraciousness'') [on their part], you will proceed with all haste to 
our Presence. 

You write, that Peer Mahomnied JMiinshy (who, when he accompanied 
the Mahrattah minister in the field received sixty rupees) being now 
reduced to forty rupees a month, and having the incumbrance of a large 
family, finds his salary inadequate to their support. It is known. If the 
aforesaid should intend to accompany you to the Presence, let him be 
paid sLxty rupees a month ; but, otherwise, forty rupees is sufficient.<^^> 


The Sultans instructions to his envoys at Poonah will be found to be marked 
throughout with considerable indecision. In speaking of the Mahrattah Govern- 
ment, he assumes, in general, a very lofty and menacing tone ; it is, notwith- 
standing, pretty evident, that he is not averse to reconciliation. He frequently 
betrays the irritation of his mind, and, in these moods, issues the most peremptory 
orders to his agents to quit Poonah. They, nevertheless, remain at their post, 
where they appear to have continued till the month of May of the following year 
(1786), or during the greatest part of the war. The reason of this fluctuation in 
the conduct of the Sultan, would, no doubt, be more intelligible than it is, if we 
were in possession of the dispatches of the envoys, as well as those of their master. 
It is true, that the substance, and perhaps the entire contents of many of the 
former, is (agreeably to the common practice in the epistolary correspondence of 
India) recited in the answers to them ; but still it is reasonable to suppose, that 

D many 

(2) i. e. Of the second, or ensuing Ahmcdjj. Yet he would not appear to have followed 
up this resolution. 

(3) Original i^JL^aSa also incivility, unkindncss, &c. 

(4) Tlu; Sultan was at all times desirous of drawing Mussulmans, of every description, to 
his court ; but not equally liberal of pecuniary aid to such adventurers, as will be seen, on 
more occasions than one, in the course of these letters. 


many particulars are unnoticed in these brief capitulations, or summaries, the 
knowledge of which would materially elucidate the transactions in question. 

The Rastas are a family of considerable eminence and weight in the Mahrattah 
(Unpire, being nearly allied to the Paiskwa. They have, generally, been distin- 
guished for their favourable disposition towards the Mysore ruler, in consequence 
of which, it was usual for most negociations between the latter and the government 
of Poonah to be conducted through them. 

The obligations of the Mahrattah state to Hyder Ali Khan and his successor, 
are often alluded to in the course of the following letters. They are more particu- 
larly stated in his letter to the King of France ; ^' and he thus expresses himself, 
on the subject, in his Memoirs. 

" Previously to the resolution of making war against the Nazarenes (i. e. before 
" the commencement of hostilities against the English by Hyder Ali Khan) the 
" Mahrattahs being reduced to great straits, and defeated by the English, had 
" [actually] filled their houses with straw, and prepared to burn the city of Poonah. 
" In this situation they dispatched four of their principal and confidential people 
" to our late father, with letters, accompanied by oaths and deceitfid engagements, 
" soliciting the grant of a fort within our dominions, wherein they might lodge 
*•■ their chief (more worthless, in truth, than a horse keeper).^"*^ Accordingly these 
" trusty persons (who, in fact, were not to be trusted) arriving in the presence of 
" our deceased father (whose place is in Paradise) represented, that being broken 
" down [or discomfited] by the English, they were on the point of abandoning their 
" country, within eight coss of [the capital of] which the Nazarenes were arrived : 
" that, in these circumstances, they could look for help to no one but his High- 
" ness; that their master was a child, the preservation of whose life, honor, 
" country, and wealth, by the Ussiid Ilhye "' state, would confer an obligation, 

" which 

(5) See Letter CCCXXXVI. 

(6) la the original j») ^_^,Ujl jJJj i^-ju to - j^^ i^ ^^ ^j^'j ^jj}':^ji Iw where the word 
Syie (or horsc-keepcr) is introduced for the sake of a jingle witli tlie word Btjsc (a chief 
or leader). 

(7) The Sultan gave various denominations to liis government or state. It was sometimes, 
as in this place, the Ussud Ilhyc Sircar : at otliers, the Hydcry, the Ahmedy, and tiie Klio- 
ddddd Sircar. 


" which would continue to be acknowledged, as long as any of the Madho Raos 
" existed ; and, finally, imploring his Highness to consider their chief in the light 
" of a son. These representations were seconded, on the part of Nizam Ali 
" Khan,'*' whose country had also been threatened by the English, and whom 
" the Mahrattahs had prevailed on, by promises and engagements, to espouse 
" their cause, and to interest himself in their favour (with our late father) ; in 
" consequence of which he, accordingly (through the Mahrattah Vukeeh), made 
" certain proposals, ratified on the Koran, to his Highness, our father. Hereupon 
" our father (who reposes in Paradise) agreed to their propositions, and resolved 
" on war with the English, notwithstanding the opposition made to the measure 
" by the chiefs of the state, who represented that the war would prove arduous 
" and tedious; that there was no necessity for his drawing the misfortunes of 
" another's house upon himself; that these two impure ones (namely Madho Rao 
*' and Nizam Ali) were both of spurious origin, and neither their words nor actions 
" entitled to the least credit or faith. Our illustrious father replied, ' that it was 
" ' a traditionary saying of the Prophet : — " Verily only by deeds, and not by 
" ' " thoughts, [shall ye judge]." We lay them under this obligation: if they 
" ' have any evil designs in their hearts, the Almighty will requite them with evil:' 
" and, so saying, he prepared for war. 

" It was further stipulated by the treaty concluded [on this occasion] between 
" these two bastards and the Hydery state, that no peace should be entered into 
" with the English, except with the knowledge of all three. Accordingly, while 
" Sadlier was still on his way, we wrote to the chiefs who accompanied him, 
" desiring that his progress might be retarded, by amusements and entertainments 
" at every stage. In the interim, we wrote ten or twelve letters to Miidho Rao, 
" the chief of the Mahrattahs, stating, that though he had, upwards of a year 
" ago, and during the life-time of our illustrious father (who reposes in Paradise) 
" secretly, and without our knowledge, concluded a separate peace with the Eng- 
" lish, yet he had not, to that moment, made any communication on the subject 
" to us. ' It is well [we proceeded] : our pleasure is yours. The confidential 

D 2 « ' agents 

(S) Called, iatlic original, Hiijj^m Nully Kiiaii : for an explanation of Avliich see Letter 


' agents of the English are on the way from their own country to our Presence, 
' to sohcit peace : if such be your pleasure, signify your demands to us by 
' letter, that we may treat for you at the same time that we treat for ourselves. 
' If, on the other hand, you should have actually concluded a separate peace 
'^>dthe«t our knowledge, let us be informed thereof, in order that we may set 

* about a peace for the Hydery Sircar.' To no one of our letters was any answer 
sent : neither did they write a word to their own f'akeel, residing with us, 
though he was a kinsman of theirs [i. e. of the PaisJnvas].'-^^ 
" In this manner did we, for six months, contrive to put off the arrival 
of the English ambassador ; at the end of which we wrote to the Mahrattah 
VaTieel at our court to this effect : * We have, by different means, managed 
' to detain the English ambassador six months on the road; in which period 
' we have written about fifteen letters, on the subject of peace, to your 
' master. You, also, have repeatedly written ; but to neither has any answer been 
' given. Now that the English ambassador is at hand, what would you advise 
' to be done ? Let us know your opinion.' To this the Mahrattah P^aheel, who 
was among the nearest of [the] relatives [of the Paishwa], replied by letter : 
' that his master was an infant ; that his ministers, &c. were whoresons,""' on 
' whose words and actions no reliance was to be placed ; and that six months 
' had already passed, in expectation [of hearing from thence]. ' How much 
' longer [continued he] are you to wait ? Conclude your peace w ith the 
' English ; and, dismissing me, let me proceed to those good-for-nothing 

* fellows,'"' in order that I may be enabled to deal with them personally, either 
'by reproaches or a sound bastinade; ''■' and, by this means, bring forward 
' some jierson, who shall prevent, for the future, the recurrence of snch 
' shameful conduct.' " 

" After this, we protracted the negociations for peace with the English for two 

' months longer, during which time we again wrote [to Poonali], but without any 

" better 
(9) This Vakeel was probably one of the Rasta family. 

(10) Original ..V..". >^,ag^^,jj ^ ^^yU and ^J^' jJj 

(11) Original JJLJi 

(12) Original j>»Uii 


" better success than before : whereupon \vc proceeded to conclude the treaty with 
" the English, &c." 

Such, according to his own account, were the grounds of Tippoo Sultan's 
complaints against the Mahrattah Government, at the period of the treaty of 
Mangahre, and it would not appear that any attempts were subsequently made, 
either by the court of Poonah, or by that of Hyderabad, to appease him. At this 
rate, it would be difficult to acquit these courts, and especially the former, of the 
charge of bad faith towards their ally : but we must not, too hastily, give credit 
to the Sultans statement of facts. Some of these are manifestly exaggerated, and 
others may be misrepresented : but however this may be, it is pretty clear, that 
the Sultan really thought himself the aggrieved party ; and this being the case, it 
is not, perhaps, so much to be wondered at, that he should have taken up the 
question concerning the Zeminddr of Nergiind in the manner he did, as that he 
should have so long repressed the resentment he appears to have felt at the conduct 
of his late allies. 

I abstain from many other reflections, naturally suggested by the curious extract 
just given from the Sultans own Memoirs ; both because a fitter opportunity than 
the present may hereafter ofler for them, and because it is time to proceed with 
the correspondence. 


To the satne ; dated 6(h of Extra Ahmeby, Year Jvllo. 

(2^d March.) 

Two letters from you liave passed under our \\ew. The note containing 
sundry propositions, which you addressed to Rao Rasta, and of which 
you transmitted a copy [for our information], was highly proper, and 
is much approved by us. Both of you arc experienced in tlie business, 
and in the paths [of politics] ; and we are persuaded that there is no 
point, however minute, that will he neglected by you. 



2b BiRHANUDDEEN, dulcd <'^ Exfru Ahmedy. 

FAfter some immaterial directions, the letter proceeds as follows :] — 
If you should receive inteliig'ence of the approach of any considerable 
force of the enemy, you must raise the siege of the fort, and taking 
your heavy ordnance with you, proceed and encamp near Dhdnvdr. 
With the will of God the helper, we also shall march on the 14th of 
Ahmedy, and soon anive there, when what may be proper shall be done. 
Nobody is going to lift the hill of Nergund to [his] head and carry it 
away : it is where it is. [/. e. it will remain where it is.]*^^) 


Burhanuddeen was the brother-in-law of Tippoo SuUan, who had married a 
sister of his. He appears to have possessed a great share of the confidence of the 
Sultan, who frequently intrusted him with important military commands, but not 
without placing him (at least at this period) in a certain degree of tutelage. 
He lost his life in the battle of Sattimimgalam, in the year 1 790. Of that battle 
the Sultan has given a partial and exaggerated account in one or two letters; in 
which it is remarkable, that he speaks of the death of this gallant commander 
without a single expression of regard or regret. 

The fort, the siege of which is here provisionally directed to be relinquished, 
was no doubt Nergiiiid. 

(1) The day of the month is uncertain. 

(2) Original c: — fc u — i -^^uS^ ^j:^ <Ui<bj j^j ^^ I'-^jJ -^ 



To Meer Kumruddeen Ali Khan ; dated 11th Extra Ahmedy, 

(28fh Murch.^ 

Your letter, inforiuing- us of your arrival at CheJcry,^^^ and applying 
for a supply of gun-flints, powder, &c., has been received, and its 
contents arc duly understood. Send to Burhanuddeen for gun-flints, 
powder, and whatever else you may want. The S'lpahddr^-^ Mahonnned 
Ali, has no doubt joined you by this time with the troops under his 
command, orders for this purpose having been repeatedly dispatched to 
him. That part of your forces which was at Knrpah (^^ has also marched 
from thence, and will soon join your army. What more ? 


Meer Kumruddeen Ali Khan was the son of Meer Ali Riza Saheb, commonly 
called Meer Saheb, who fell at the battle of Porto Novo, in the year 178I. 
Hyder Ali Khan, who was married to his sister (the mother of Tippoo Sultan), 
is reported to have immediately conferred all the honors and appointments enjoyed 
by his brother-in-law upon his son, Kumruddeen, then a young man, whom he, 
at the same time, committed in a very public manner to the especial care and 
favor of his cousin, Tippoo Sultan. The latter, however, would not appear to 
have had much confidence in him at any period of his reign. He was sometimes, 
indeed, ostensibly placed at the head of an army ; but he was always under the 
direction of some more experienced person. Upon the death of the Sultan, the 
British Government, in conjunction with the Nizdin, provided for Kumruddeen 


(1) Name uncertain. 

(2) The commander of a Kuslwon, or brigaiJe. 

(3) A town and district bortlciing on the C'a/«a/u-, ceded in 1792, by Tippoo Sultan, to 
the Kizdm, and by the latter to the East-India Company, in ISOO. 


Khan in the most liberal manner. He did not, however, long svirvive his cousin 
and master, dying very soon after he had taken possession of the Jagire bestowed 
upon him. 


To TuRBiYUT Ali Khan ; dnled lUh Extra Ahmedy. (28ih March?) 

It has been represented to us, that Tumana Naikwary,^') the warden 
of the Kurhndth Pass, receiving bribes [for his connivance], suffers 
people to proceed to the Pdyen- Ghaut : we therefore write, to desire 
you will station two respectable and sensible men, with some trust- 
worthy Pidde/is/^^ in one of the forts [commanding the said pass] for 
the proper care and regulation of the same. This guard must be relieved 
every three months. 


This letter furnishes one among numerous proofs, of the unceasing jealousy and 
dislike, with which the Sultan viewed any sort of communication between his 
territories and those of the British Government, or of the Nabob of the Carnatic. 
He anxiously laboured to keep all his neighbours (but particularly the English) in 
as complete ignorance as possible of every thing that passed in Mi/sore : and to this 
object he unreluctantly sacrificed whatever advantages, either his subjects or himself 
might have derived, from a free commercial intercourse between the countries. 

(1) Those at the head of the Kundachdr, or militia, were'called Ndikwdrics. 

(2) A sort of irregular foot soldiers, armed usually with a matclilock and Tulwar, or sabre. 



To Mahommed Ghyas ; dated 18th Extra Ahmedy. (4th April.') 

You wrote stating, " that Rao Rasta had said, ' that if the design 
" ' against Nergihid were relinquished, the Vakeel ^""^ of the Zemhiddr 
*' ' of tliat place was empowered to pay us a certain fine ; by which 
" ' mode of adjustment we should not only be the gainer, but 
" ' appearances would likewise be saved with the world.' " It is known. 
You must say, in answer to Rao R;Vta, that what we demand is, that not 
only the Paishcush due by the said Zemhiddr be discharged, but that he 
shall also make due compensation for the ravages he has committed 
within our dominions ; and that, on this condition, we will wave our 
purpose of reducing the place. 

You further write, " that Riio Rasta had told you, ' that you must 

" ' apply to have the amount of the arrears due for past years remitted 

" ' in specie, as bills would not be accepted by the bankers there.' " It 

is understood. AVc wrote before, and We now write again, to desire that 

Noor Mahommed Khan, who is well acquainted with all matters in that 

quarter, may be dispatched to the Presence. A Verbal communication 

from him will best enable us to judge of the truth of their professions, 

and the rectitude of their' proceedings, as well as to ascertain the extent 

of the Durhdr charges ; after which we can consider what is to be done. 

What more? 



By " DurMr charges " is here meant the douceur to be paid to the MaUrattuh 
ministers upon the conclusion of a settlement. This is a matter of course in the 

E nesociation 


(1) Ambassador or Envoy : diplomatic agent. 


iiegociation of all treaties, and in the adjustment of differences between the native 
powers of India. Sometimes the presents, or largesses, made on these occasions, 
are, to a certain degree, reciprocal ; but it is generally on the weaker, or yielding 
party of the two, that the chief burthen falls. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated I9th Extra Ahmedy. (5fh ApriL) 

Your two letters, dated the 14th and 16th instant, informing us of 
the junction of i\\e Sipahddr, Mahommed AH, with his Kmhoon, have 
been received. Wliat you write, respecting the audacity and contuma- 
cious conduct of the Zeminddr of Surhnlfi/, and your receipt of letters 
from Ghuliim Hiisain and Ghidam Mohyiiddeen, the KUladdr o{' Zukh- 
maiscr, on the subject of chastising the said Zeminddr, is comprehended. 

Notwithstanding the said fort is situated in your road, yet as you have 
no heavy [or battering] ordnance with you, it is to be apprehended, that 
if you were to attack it, you might be detained before it, and thereby 
prevented from advancing. We write, tlierefore, to desire our dear 
Son(') will merely encamp his army near the fort, and endeavour, by 
striking an awe into the garrison, or by stratagem, to get possession of 
it. If this should not appear to be practicable, you must proceed 
straight forward, without making any delay. 

(1) In the original, j^UjJUl Ukbdl-nishdn, '* of liappy or fortunate mark," " giving 
" or containing signs of prosperity:" a term of endearment, exclusively applied to one's 
own children or younger relatives. 



To INIahomjied Ghyas and Noor Maho3imed Khan ; dated 2\st 

E.itni Ahmedy. (jtli April?) 

Your letter of the 9tli instant was received this day, and the whole 
of its contents are understood. The translation of our Persian letter/') 
which that friend/-^ of his own suggestion, made and sent to Rao Riista, 
and a copy of which was enclosed for our information, was a highly 
judicious and commendable proceeding. What you say in so much detail, 
respecting the comnumicatioos of Riio Rasta on the subject of Nergund, 
and [particularly] of his proposal that we should, for the present, 
accept, in the way of mulct, and as an adjustment [of the past], eighty 
thousand rupees, with an assurance of being paid hereafter, year by 
year, the established Paishcush of former times, is understood ; and, 
together with your account of his importunate instances for our raising 
the siege of the place, has been duly considered. 

The friendship we bear Rao Rasta makes us willing- to remit the pro- 
posed mulct on the aforesaid Zeminddr ; but let the latter make due 
compensation for the ravages he has committed within our dominions, 
and let him pay up the arrears of Paishcush due to us : we will then 
send the necessary order to our commanders for raising the siege of 
Nergund, which, by the divine favour, is on the point of being- 
reduced. ^-^^ 

You must not communicate in writing to Rao Riista every proposition 
you may have to make to him, or transmit to him copies of our dis- 
patches to you. On such occasions you are to send for Rao Rasta's 

E 2 Miitusuddi/, 

(1) i. c. its translation into the Mahraltah or Ilindivy dialect. 

(2) Original fJ^jit.^J^ t)" tl'is passage sec the second para^-raph of tlie foliowin-j obser- 

(3) Yet it was uol reduced till July following. 


Mutusuddi/, and make blin commit to paper whatever may be proper to 
be written : by this means you will avoid pledging yourself under your 
own hand/^) 

You judged right, in keeping back the letter which we enclosed for 
Rao Rasta, and which you must return to us. We now send [instead of 
that letter] one framed agreeably to your suggestion, which you will 
deliver to him. 

What you have stated so much at length, by desire of Rao Rasta, on 
the subject of our remitting specie [and not hills], in discharge of the 
yearly money, ^^^ and for the Durhdr charges, is understood. As Noor 
Mahommed Khan is well acquainted with all the circumstances of that 
quarter, as well as with whatever relates to the subject of Durhdr 
charges, he must be dispatched to us ; in order that, ascertaining from 
him the true state of things, we may pursue such measures as shall be 
necessary. ^''^ 

We hear that eight or ten thousand of their horse have crossed the 
Kishna, with hostile intentions against our army. Hitherto, notwith- 
standin«y their forgetting what they owe to our kindness, we have not in 
a single article broken the treaty [subsisting between the two govern- 
ments] ; but if, in spite of the numberless favours we have bestowed 
upon them, and contrary to their solemn engagements, they become the 
aggressors, and proceed to improper lengths, it will then behove us to 
repel such aggression. After repulse and chastisement, there will no 
longer remain any appearances of good-will or amity.("> 

(4) Or, " to the end that nothing under ^-our hand may remain in their possession." 
Original AiUJ ^JJit ^jl.'^Si ^^jr< u^Jj^ o,->j\j 

(5) This is the same as the JiJ^cd or regulated money spoken of in Letter III. 

(6) Or, " that, after understanding all matters from him, we may provide accordingly." 

Original jjl J,«jc ^J'J^ ^\.j^ '-r^lr* ^^*^ 

(7) Or, " after repulse and chastisement, there will be an end to all relations of courtesy 
" and amicable intercourse." Original oJU JUjLe? \^^ -js<Lijj iU«j .vc 



It is not very clear what translation of the envoy's is alluded to in the beginning 
of the present dispatch (whether a letter to themselves, or of one to the address of 
Rao Rasta) ; nor is it worth while to offer any conjectures on this subject. 

It is rarely that the Sultan condescends to bestow the title of Mehrbun, or 
friend, upon any of his servants, however high in his confidence ; yet he has 
applied it, no less than three times, in the present letter, to Mahommed Ghyas. 
It is probable, that the envoy knew his master too well to exult much in this 
uncommon mark of favour ; but if he was weak enough to do so, he was not 
suffered to enjoy the dream of honour long.-*' 

The directions here given to the envoys, respecting the mode in which they 
were to communicate with Rao Rasta, will prepare the reader for the still further 
developement of the Sultans crooked and unjirinciplcd politics in his subsequent 
correspondence, as well with his agents at Poonah, as with others of his servants,'^' 

The Mahrattah government and Tippoo Sultan differed too widely, on the 
subject of Nergdnd, to afford any prospect of amicable agreement between 
them. Of this both parties were probably equally satisfied ; and therefore neither 
of them is to be supposed to have been very serious in the discussions which took 
place, relative to the ynode in which the money, claimed by the Mahrattahs, 
should be paid. The fact was, that neither the latter expected, nor the Sultan 
intended, any payment at all, as long as the question regarding Nergund remained 
at Issue. 


To Abdul Hukeem Khan, Nabob of Sanore ; dated 24lh Extra 

Ahmedy. (lOlh yjjjril.) 

Baboo Rao, Ram Rao, and the other Mittusuddies, whom you 
deputed hither for the purpose of adjusting the accounts of your 


(8) Sec Letter CLWII, and also Letter CCXCVU. 

[0) Sec particularly Lcltcib LIII, LXVI, LXIX. 


conditional Jagire,^^^ have accordingly come to a settlement, by which 
it appears that there is justly due to us the sum of 38,40,785 rupees. 
Of this amount we have excused [you] (or abated) two lacks of 
rupees : for the remaining 36,40,785 rupees we have received the 
enffaecments of the aforesaid Mittusuddies, which we have lod^jed 
with our bankers, who are now, together with the said Miitusuddies, 
dispatched to you. Be expeditious in putting the payment of this 
money in train, and in sending back the bankers to us. It will not be 
well, that any delay, or procrastination, should take place in this matter. 
You must likewise discharge the separate obligation for ten lacks of 
rupees, entered into by that friend's BliUusuddies and ratified by you. 


Abdul Hukeem Khan was a Patan chief, who possessed the principality ot 

Sdnore, Shdnonr, or Savanore,^^^ called here by Tippoo Sultan a Jagire 

Mushrooteh ; by which is meant, a Jagire held under specific stipulations, to 

distinguish it from a free Jagire or Jagire in ordinary. This principaUty was 

compelled to submit to the superior power of Hyder Ali Khan in the year 1764, 

when Abdid Hukeem agreed to pay to the BTysore chieftain a certain proportion 

of his annual revenue. A double alliance by marriage was, at the same time, 

concluded between them ; Hyder bestowing one of his daughters upon the eldest 

son of the Patan, who, in his turn, gave one of his to Kureem Saheb, the 

second son of Hyder. This connexion, however, was not productive of any 

advantage to the Patan ; who, at length, revolted from Tippoo, and sought the 

])rotection of the Mahrattahs, to whom the district of Shdnoor, including Ban- 

lii/poor, was finally ceded, by the partition treaty of 1/92; when its dispossessed 

chieftain became wholly dependent on the government of PoonahJ'^ 

(1) Orit^inal iis.jL<jJ\»- 

(2) It is thus viiriousl}- written : I believe Shdnoor is the most common pronunciation. 

(3) For an liistorical sketch of iliis Patan dynasty, cxtiactcd from documents furnished 
y Lieutenant Colonel Colin M'Ken^ie, see Appendix D. 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 2'2d Extra Ahmedy. (8th April.') 

Your letter has been received, and its contents are duly understood. 

You ^vrite, " that having reduced your baggage as much as you 
" could, you were prepared, with the victorious army [under vour 
*' conmiand], to chastise the enemy, and that, if the latter made their 
*' appearance in force, it was your intention to raise the siege,(') and 
" send off your heavy ordnance to Dhdrivdr.'" It is well : be it done 
as you propose. In the mean while, being careful to procure constant 
information of the enemy's motions, you will act as ciicumstances may 
render expedient, taking counsel herein from the three commanders 
[attached to you], whose opinions being committed to writino-, must 
legulatc your proceedings. We have here the fullest intelligence regard- 
ing the enemy's forces, which we are persuaded dare not look at our 
army : caution and vigilance are nevertheless necessary. Agreeablv to 
your desire, letters have been Avritten to Dileer Dil Khan, &c. Doubt- 
less they will discharge the obligations of fidelity and devote^ness ; 
and you will all, in conformity with our instructions, conduct matters 
in concert, and after mutual consultation. Hereafter, what is behind 
the veil of invisibihty will be displayed.^-) 


It appears from this, and several other letters, that Burhanuddeen (as well as 
Kuinruddeeii), had a council of war assigned him, without whose advice and 
concurrence he was not at liberty to take any material step. His council, at this 


( 1 ) i. e. the siege of Nergund. 

(2) Original ^Xi^y^ Ji^y CiJ^Xs iJOjJ i^\ S)U^ 


time, was composed of Dileer Dil Khan, Syed Humeed, and Syed Ghufar, 
three Sipahdiirs, or commanders of Kushoom, whose military reputation stood 
very high, and who possessed a considerable share of the Sultan's confidence. 
Syed Ghilfar fell with his master in defending Serhigapatam. Of the fate of 
the other two commanders I am uninformed. 


To Dileer Dil Khan, Syed Humeed, and Syed Ghufar ; same 

date. (8th ^pril.) 

Consulting together on the contents of our written instructions to 
you, committing the result of your deliberations to writing, and con- 
fiding in the divine goodness, you will prepare to approve your fidelity 
and devotion to us. You must do nothing without holding counsel of 
each other. Hereafter, what is at present concealed by the curtain of 
invisibility will be displayed. In this matter there is no room for hesita- 
tion or remissness.C^ 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 23d Extra Ahmedy. (9th April.) 

Two letters from you have been received. You write, " that vermil- 
** lion is not procurable within our dominions, and is only to be got at 
" Pondicherry, &c." This being the case, you must send money, and 
buying it at those ports, dispatch it to the Presence. There is no necessity 
for sending [thither] goods [or merchandize] to barter for it. 


(1) Literally " there is no necessity or occasion." The passage may also be rendered, 
<* hesitation or remissness is not to be admitted." 


You further write, " that tlie SerishtecMrs'') of /2) incited 

" thereto by others, have preferred various complaints a.;ainst you, witli 
" the intention of bringing upon you our displeasure." It is known. 
You have had instructions given to you. Acting in conformity therewith, 
and attending diligently to the business of the state, you may rest perfectly 
confident and easy in your mind : if, however, complaints and accusa- 
tions should be preferred against you, they will not be regarded or meet 
our approbation. Esteeming you to be intelligent and solicitous for our 
prosperity, we have entrusted you with an Important office, in which we 
have no doubt of your proving your attachment and zeal for our service. 


The preceding letter affords a fresli proof of the unremitting jealousy and 
dislike with which the Sultan, at this time, viewed any intercourse between his 
subjects and those of the neighbouring countries, but particularly the English 
possessions. He here objects to the exportation of the produce of Mysore even to 
Poiidkherry ; not so much, probably, on account of its being an European settle- 
ment, as because no trade could be carried on with it, that would not almost 
necessarily lead to some commercial intercourse with the Carnatic, through part 
of which the trade in question must unavoidably pass. Rather than incur this 
risk, we see him sending away the specie of his dominions for the purchase of the 
commodities he required, and which he could, no doubt, have obtained on more 
advantageous terms by barter. At a subsequent period he would appear to have 
acquired rather juster notions of what was essential to the prosperity of his country; 
having, in the year 1794, issued some commercial regulations, tending to encou- 
rage a limited trade with his neighbours. Still, however, his natural distrust of 

F those 

( 1 ) A revenue ofBcer. 

(2) This word, in tlic original, is not perfectly legible. 


those neighbours predominated ; ultimately superseding, or rendering null, the 
expectations which seemed to have been held out by the edicts referred to.'" 

My information does not enable me to say, how far the Sultan fulfilled the pro- 
mises made in the present dispatch to Rajah Ram Chundur. I think there is a 
passage in a subsequent letter to another of the Sultan's officers, that points at 
some secret impeachment of the Rdjalis integrity, and encourages the informer to 
pursue his inquiries. Colonel INIunro, indeed, acquaints me, that being a native of 
Arcot, he finally became suspected of disaffection to the Sultan, who put him to 
death. However this may be, it is certain, that he continued in office, and appa- 
rently in the full possession of his master's confidence, as late as the year 1791« 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; some date. (9th April^ 
Your letter, informing us of your arrival at Koodry-hdl,'-^^ together 
with its enclosure, has been received, and its contents are understood. 
You must proceed with the force under your command, and encamp near 
Burhanuddeen. Last night, whatever was necessary to be written, was 
fully written : to that dispatch we therefore refer you.^^) -jhe enemy's force 
is inconsiderable. It is not to be supposed that they will presume to look 
at our army.(^*> 


To the Governor of Pondicherry ; same date. (9th April.') 

[After compliments]. You write " that the Bouparies'^*^ of the port 

" of Pondicherry, who come into our dominions to purchase articles of 

" merchandize, 
(3) See Appendix E. 

(1) Name uiicerlain. 

(2) Literally, " the perusal of these will inform you." 

(3*) Literally, " what power have tbey to look at the army of the Sirear': " ) 

(I*) Travelling traders. 


" merchandize, are, on their return with their goods, molested by the 
" Tualiikddr of Selim, who will not suffer them to proceed ; in conse- 
" quence of which, you request of us to direct him to let the aforesaid 
" merchandize pass." It is known : and, agreeably to your desire, we 
enclose an order to the Taalnkddr of Selim, commanding him to release 
the goods in question. Let the same be forwarded to him. 

In future, when you dispatch Boiiparies into our dominions to purchase 
goods, you must give them a letter from yourself to the Taahtkddr, 
written either in Ui-wy^^^ or Telingy ;'^'> when he will, in conformity with 
your desire, suffer the specified articles to pass. The reason of the orders 
which we have issued on this subject is, that of late certain strangers 
have come into our dominions ; where borrowing money of the Ryots^*^ 
and others, they have been guilty of various unwarrantable prac- 
tices. Always continue to delight and rejoice us with accounts of 
your welfare. 


As a personal compliment to the Governor of Pondicherry (whom he probably, 
at this time, wished to conciliate) we here see the Sultan relaxing, in some degree, 
the severity of the regulations spoken of under the nineteenth letter. It is most 
likely, liowever, that the concession was only temporary, and that the French 
governor was frequently obliged to renew his present application. 

The allusion to strangers is, no doubt, pointed at the English, and the subjects 
of the Carnatic. It is not equally certain, that the cause here assigned by the 
Sultan for the prohibition in question was the real one, or that the accusation, 
thus made, had any foundation in truth. 

F 2 

(2) The Malabar language. 

(3) Propcily, the dialect spoken in Tel in g ana ; but not strictly confined to the ancient 
limits of the kingdom so called. 

(4) Subjects, in general j but, in a restrained sense, the peasantry. 



To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 24th Extra Ahmedy. (lOth April.') 

Your letter, filled with complaints and accusations against the Kushoon 
of the Sipahddr, Mahommed All, has passed under our view. The 
particulars therein set forth are distinctly perceived. The aforesaid 
Sipahddr is still ignorant [of many parts of his duty], and hut 
imperfectly acquainted with the manner in which the business of our 
government is conducted. Hence it is, that although employed on 
factual] service, he has neglected the proper equipment of his Kushoon, 
and, in this manner, shown his worthlessness/'> Bearing in mind the 
expediency of the moment, you must issue the necessary orders for his 
being supplied with such stores as may be requisite, and then employ him 
fas you may think fit]. 

The Kurpah troops have reached Gooty, and will soon join you. 
You are not, however, to wait their arrival, but to proceed straight to 
Nergilnd, and there unite yourself to the army of the SircarP^ 

You did right in purchasing the iron, and other articles you mention, for 
tlie use of the aforesaid Sipahddr s Kushoon. You will furthermore furnish 
whatever stores may be required, for repairing any damages which his 
gun-carriages may have sustained. 

'' You write that the enemy, to the number of sixteen thousand horse 
and sixteen thousand foot, with five pieces of light artillery ,(^^ are en- 
camped at the distance of sixteen coss from the fort of Nergitnd. It is 
revealed. By the favor of God, the force appointed for the reduction of 


(1) Original C:u*jyt^ j,.JLj}j Jo-^^^li <iui~j 

(2) i.e. t!ie army ;ilrcacly iii advance under EdrlianCiddcen. 

(3) Original j^ i^y I am not quite clear with respect to 1 he meaning of Lumchhur : it 
may signify a long field-piece. 


that fortress is so strong/'') that tliouo-h there should be fifty thousand 
horse of the enemy, it will sufiicc for their effectual chastisement. This 
being the cnsc, how will they dare to look at our aiiny? Let that 
beloved son, then, hasten with his corps to join [the rest of] our forces: 
and if the army of the enemy should show itself in your way, take 
counsel of each other, and with one accord inflict due punishment upon 
them. What more needs proceed from our pen ? 


The lenity with which the Sultan here notices the remissness of the Sipahddr, 
Mahommed All, is the more remarkable, as it was his general practice to 
animadvert, with the greatest severity, on every instance of neglect or disobedience 
of his orders, and particularly of his military regulations. His moderation, on the 
present occasion, might possibly have arisen from something like a personal 
partiality towards the offending officer; but it may also have had no other foundation 
than caprice. From whatever cause it proceeded, similar instances will be rarely 
met with. It is true, that the conduct of the Sipahddr is spoken of with strong 
disapprobation ; but this still falls very short of the usual measure of the Sultan's 
anger on such occasions. The inexperience imputed to the officer in question, 
rather countenances the idea of his having been prematurely raised, through jirivatc 
favor, to the important command he enjoyed. In the regular course, a Sipahddr, 
or brigadier (and especially in an army so actively employed as Tippoo Sultan's 
generally was) could not be inexperienced. Still, however, no distinct traces are 
observable in the written documents, nor did I ever hear a report of the Sultan's 
being influenced by favorites of any kind. 

(J) Original ^^^X-- weighty j heavy. 

' rzy-irycjCi 



To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 24lk Extra ^hmedy. (lOth April.') 

Two letters have been received from you, and their contents are 

[After some directions on certain trivial points, like those remarked 
on under Letter IV. page 13, the letter proceeds :]] 

You write, " that wishing to marry your daughter,"^ and there being 
" none of her cast in this country to contract her to, there is a necessity 
" of sending for a proper person for the purpose from tlie Pdyen-Ghaut : 
" and you therefore solicit passports for the ingress and egress of parties, 
" whom it will be requisite to invite on the occasion, according to the 
" list which you have enclosed." (^^ 

It is known. A passport for the persons who are to come from the 
Pdyen-Ghuut to Bangalore, on this occasion, is enclosed: you will, 
therefore send for some person of your cast, and giving your daughter 
in marriage to him, detain him near you. Where is the necessity for 
sending him back io the Pdi/ en- Ghaut ? If this, however, should not 
be practicable, you must seek for one of your own cast in this country to 
betroth her to ; when [having found such a one] you will celebrate 
their nuptials. What more? 


The Sultan would not appear to have had any objections to the entrance 
of strangers into Mysore, provided they came thither for the purpose of 

settHng ; 

(1) I am doubtful whether the daughter of Ram Chundur, or of some other person (a 
kinsman of his) be meant. 

(2) This passage confirms the report (noticed before) of Rum Chundur's having been a 
native of Arcot. 

T I P P O O S U L T A N. 39 

settling; but it was extremely difficult for any, who had found admission 
into his dominions, to quit them again. That he should have insisted on the 
detention of Ram Chundur's intended son-in-law, in the event of the latter 
being brought from the Carnatic, is not to be wondered at, considering the 
distrust with which he habitually viewed all intercourse between that country 
and his own. To have allowed the son-in-law, and perhaps the daughter, of 
a person of the rank and authority of Ram Chundur, to reside in the territories, 
and be liable to the influence, of the power of whom he was most jealous and 
apprehensive, would have been entirely at variance with those maxims of policy, 
which constantly governed his conduct in regard to the English. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 26th Extra Ahmedy. (I2th April.') 
Your letter has passed under our view ; and what you have written, 
respecting your having withdrawn from before Nergundy and of 
Biirhanuddeen's having occupied, Avith his army, a position on the 
banks of the PundhUeh,^^'' is understood. It is fit that you also speedily 
join the army; and, according to our former directions, apply yourself 
to the cliastisement of the enemy 

What you say, regarding the reduction you have made in the baggage 
of your troops, is revealed, and meets with our approbation. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; sumc date. (\2th April.) 

Your letter has been received. What you state, respecting your 
having withdrawn from the trenches,^'*-' and taken up a position with 
your army on the banks of the Pundhileh, is understood. 


(I) Or, perhaps, Biuidhikli. 

(1*) i. c. having raised the siege of Nergund. 


You must give orders to the predatory cavalry to harass the front and 
rear of the enemy, and to seize on all the horses they can ; tlie present 
being the proper time for collecting together and obtaining horses. 

Nursia, the Taalilkddr o^ Nugr, has sent you, by our direction, forty 
thousand Behddury pagodas,'-^ for the pay of your army, which you 
will, of course, have received. What more ? 


7b KuJiiiTJDDEEN Khan ; dated 28M Extra Ahmedy. (I4th April') 

Your letter of the 25th Extra Ahmedy, (11th April), informing us 
of your arrival, with the forces under your command, at Nergdnd, and 
of your interview with Burhanuddeen, has passed under our view, and 
the particulars contained in it are fully revealed to us. Uniting yourself 
to the division belonging to Burhanuddeen, you must advance in open 
day against the enemy, and attacking them with vigour, chastise them 
in a manner that shall deter them from confronting you again. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; same date 

(\4th April.) 

We have received your letter, and its contents are understood. In 
conformity with the wishes of Rao Rasta, the siege of Nergitnd has been 
relincpiished, and our victorious army has encamped at the distance of 
two or three Coss from thence. You must state to Rao Rasta, that a 


(2) Tlie Behiidury pagoda was a gold coin, exceeding the value of the Kunterdi pagoda 
about thirty per cent. 


mulct is not what we want from the Zeminddr, but due compensation for 
the injury sustained by our dominions [yi\ consequence of his depreda- 
tions], and payment of the arrears due by him for [several] years past. 


The movements and near approach of the Mahrattah army, which had now 
advanced in considerable force to the support of the Zeminddr of Nen^iind, 
apjiear to have rendered it inexpedient to prosecute the siege of that place, which 
was, therefore, relinquished for the present ; the Sultan, at the same time, takino- 
credit for having, in this instance, yielded to the wishes of Rao Rasta ; who, 
however, was not to be so easily duped, as may be seen by Letter XXXVII to 
Maliommed Ghyas. No material progress could have been made in the siege at 
the time it was relinquished. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 2d Regular Aumedy. (I'Jth ApriF). 

Your encamping at Misryc6tah, as well as your dispatching of the 
Kdzy of Toorkul to the Presence, was proper. According to your 
request, Purwdnehs'^^^ arc enclosed for the Aujnih^'^ of the several 
Tauldks, and for the KUaaddrs, directing them to furnish you with 
intelligence of the enemy. 

Let loose the plundering cavalry, and other predatory troops, upon 
the enemy's army, with orders to seize and bring in horses ivithout 
number S^^^ Take care, also, of your own army, and be always prepared. 


(1) Written orders, or mandates. 

(2) Governors or collectors of districts. 

(3) Original ^U-i-j ^^U-l 




7o KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 4th Regular Ahmedy. (I9th April). 

Your letter, proposing " to open^ trenches against Nergitnd, and 
" applying for Purwdnelis to the Aiimils in the vicinity [of your camp] 
" to collect fascines and scaling ladders/^) for the attack and reduction of 
" Edmdoonr, and the other forts situated on that road," has been 
received, and is understood. You must not, at present, lay siege to 
Nergund ; but pursuing the army of the enemy wherever it may be, 
drive it beyond the Kishna, and deal with it in such a manner, as shall 
deter it from facing our troops again. 

Purwdnehs are enclosed for the Aumils of Dhdrwdr, JBdddmy, and 
Gujunder-ghur, directing them to supply the necessary materials for 
scaling ladders, &c. When these things are wanted, forward the orders, 
and apply for what you require. 

Describe particularly, for our information, Avhat sort of a place 
Rdmdoorg is. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 8(h Regular Ahmedy. (23d April). 

The army of the enemy is encamped at the distance of a gun-shot from 
Rdtndoqrg. In conjunction with Meer Kumriiddeen Ali Khan, lead our 
victorious army against it, and chastise it in such a manner, as shall 


(1) If the date assigned to this letter be right, the meaning must be to resume the siege 
of Nergund. 

(2) Some of the terms here employed are of doubtful meaning. 


break its loins, and render it incapable of facing you again. You must 
take fifteen days' grain with you. The aforesaid Khdn is indisposed ; 
you will, tl)ciefore, dispatch Kishna Pundit, the physician attached to 
tliat dear son/'' to administer to him. What more? 


To the same ; dated dtli Regular Ahmedy. (24th April.') 

Do you, our dear son, repair to our beloved son, Meer Kuniruddcen 
Ali Khan, and, consulting together, act according to your united 
judgment ; pressing the enemy in such a manner, that they may not 
be able to take breath on this side the Kishna. Having accomplished 
the chastisement of the enemy, you will resume your position before 


Although the authority vested in Burhanuddcen, on the present occa 
sion, appears to have been very limited (Kumruddeen, even when actually 
united with him, receiving his orders, on various occasions, directly from 
the Sultan himself) yet there is some reason to believe, that he was 
considered as the principal commander of the forces opposed, at the com- 
mencement of this war, to the Mahrattah army. '** The circumstance of his 
being directed, in the foregoing letter, to repair to the camp of Kumrud- 
deen, for the purpose of consulting with the latter on the operations of the 

G 2 campaign, 

(I) That is, BCiilianaddcetj. ^Iii the original it is ^^ j^ Xoor-chiishm, " ligiit of my 
" eyes;" an expression of ciKicarmcnt, ajiplied in the >anic manner as Ukbal-nisluhi: for 
which sec Note 1, Letter XIV. 

(1*) It no wlieie appears, by what ofiiciai designation BQihanQddccn was distinguished. 
The rank next above that of Sipahddr is, in some places, stated to have been that of Mur 
Bukhshy : in othciN, the Sipalidch's immediate supeiioris called Sipah-sdldr. It is jirobabie, 
that this last was the title of Burhanuddecn. 


campaign, does not at all invalidate this opinion ; since the order in question is 
sufficiently accounted for by the indisposition of Kumruddeen, noticed in Letter 
XXX : besides which, it will be seen, by the following Letter, that it was the 
express wish of the Sultan, that they should keep up an intercourse of mutual 
visits. But, however this may have been, it is certain, that a considerable 
jealousy subsisted between these two commanders, of which some proofs will 
appear in the sequel. 


To Kumruddeen ; dated 9th Regular Ahmedy. (24t/i April) 

What you write, respecting the flight of the enemy's army, and of 

horses taken by our troops, as also your application for Purwdnehs to 

Ibraheeni All Khan and Rajoo Pundit, directing them to dispatch supplies 

to yoUjO is understood. With regard to the horses, you must take 

them [from the captors,] at a valuation ;(-^ and, after placing such as 

are strong and in good condition in our stables, distribute the rest 

among the Silahddrs,<^^ to be mounted by men out of employ. You 

will, in conjunction with Biirhanuddeen and the other [commanders], 

chastise the enemy in such a manner, that they may not be suffered 

to take breath before they reach the river Kishna. Having tlius 

soundly beaten them, you will again encamp before Rdmdoorg. You 

are also, from time to time, to repair to the quarters of Biirhanuddeen ; 

and to act in concert with him, and all the rest of the commanders, in 


(1) In the original, ,\ Jwy rusd e zur, and X^jjj -ur e rusd, bolli of wliicli mean a 
supply of money in specie, in contradistinction to bills. I arn indebted for this explanation 
to Lieutenant Colonel Munro. 

(2) In the original Jj,\ urdul : my interpretation of wliich (valuation) is entirely con- 
jectural, as I am unac [uainted with the word. 

(3) Cavalry, whose horses belong to the riders. 

T I P P O O S U L T A N. 45 

whatsoever relates to occupying the necessary positions, and to the open- 
ing of the trenches. On the other hand, if you should, upon any 
occasion, lind it necessary to do so, you will send to Burhanuddeen 
to couie to you. The latter, as well as the Sipuhddvs attached to him, 
has been instructed to the same effect.^'') Ibraheem Ali Khan and Rajoo 
Pundit have likewise been written to, according to your desire. 


Zb Burhanuddeen ; dated \Oth Regular Ahmedy. (25th April.^ 

Your letter, reporting the sickness of Meer Kumriiddeen Ali Khan, 
and containing an application for two Yoondny (or Greek) physicians,^') 
and some Telingi/ doctors, to attend him, has been received, and is 
understood. Let the said Khan be attended by the physician Kishna 
Pundit, M ho is with you ; and write to Abdul Hukeem Khan,(^> to 
desire he will send a doctor from thence.^^) These two, being appointed 
to administer to the said Khan, must be so strictly enjoined on the 
occasion, that his restoration to health may speedily be effected.^'**) 

Enclosed is an order to the Kiluaddr of Dhdrivdr, where there are a 
number of gun-bullocks, directing him to dispatch them to you : you 
will, accordingly, send for them, and, on their arrival, select such as 
are stout and young, and most fit for the draught of artillery, and 
dcli\cr them over to the Sipahddr, Syed Ghiifar. 

(4) If so, the letter does not appear ; the preceding one to BCirlianCiJdceii speaking only 
of a single spocilio visit to he paid by liim to KuinrCiddeen. 

(1) i.e. Physi'jians practising accoriiing to tbe rules of Hippocrates, Galon, &.c. 

(2) Tlie Chief of Shanoor, or Savanore. 

(3 ) /. e. Shanoor. 

(t*) That is, " they are to be particularly desired to exert ilieir ;k.ll lo eli'cct his early 
" recovcrv." 



To KuMRUDDEEN ; dated \Ath Begular Aiimevy. (29th April?) 

Your letter has been received, and its contents arc understood. 
What you say, respecting your having left the Kushoon of the Sipahddr 
Syed Ghuflir for the guard of the baggage, and taken the Kushoon 
of the Sipahddr Mahomnied Ali along with yourself, is known. With 
the exception of tents and pawts^^^ and other articles of indispensable 
necessitv, there is no baggage attached either to you or to the divi- 
sion of Burhanuddeen ; therefore the leaving the Kushoon of the said 
Sipahddr for their protection is absolutely superfluous. Besides, advert- 
ing to [the near approach of] the rainy season, it is of importance, on 
the score of health, that you should have your tents and paivls along 
M'ith you. Such being the case, you will take the Kushoon of Syed 
Ghufar also with you, as well as your tents and paivls. 

You and Burhanuddeen must live together in harmony, and not thwart 
or oppose one another in the conduct of our affairs, but apply yourselves 
to the chastisement of the enemy. It will also be suitable to the friend- 
ship [which should subsist between you,] and will contribute^ to the 
Success of our affairs, if you sometimes visit his quarters : nor will it be 
amiss if you occasionally invite him to yours. 


It is abundantly evident from the foregoing letter (and will appear still more 
from some others that follow) that no very good understanding subsisted between 
the cousin and brother-in-law of the Sultan ; whose admonitions, on the occasion, 
being mostly addressed to Kumruddeen, it may, from thence, be inferred, that 
the fault was chiefly on the side of the latter; who might probably think that his 
nearer affinity to the Sultan, as well as the services of his father, gave him a 
claim to superior consideration. 

(1) Pawls are small tents, used by the inferior officers and privates. 



To Rajah Ram Chundur ; sayne date. (29fh Aprii^ 

Your two letters have been received. What you write, respecting the 
excuses made by the manufacturers of the district [under you] for 
declining to weave the stufts Ave require, has excited our astonishment ; 
we therefore direct, that they be compelled, by menaces, to prepare the 
number of pieces required, with the utmost expedition, and agreeably 
to the pattern [heretofore] sent. If, notwithstanding your injunctions 
and menaces, they persist in their false pretexts and disobedience, they 
must be well flogged. 

What you write, regarding the affair of the Ilurkdrek^^ Rumu, who 
has been propagating false reports to the prejudice of the people of 
Punganore,^""'' is understood. Let the said Ilarkdreh be put in irons and 
confined ; and after taking security from the bankers of Punganore, let 
them be released, as their further detention would be idle. 


Revolting as the idea of Jlogging a body of weavers, for being averse to under- 
take a fabric, with which they were probably unacquainted, or which they might 
not be able to execute without detriment to their ordinary occupations, must appear 
to every English reader, we are obliged, in fairness to Tipjjoo Sultan, to acknow- 
ledge, that similar acts of oppression and violence are, by no means, uncommon, 
under the native governments of India. Still, however, such acts usually proceed 
from subordinate officers, or persons exercising, and perhaps abusing, delegated 

power ; 

(1) A servant employed in carrying messages and letters, running bchve a. palan/ccen, and 
various other services. The term literally signifies a factotum. 

(2) The particular persons arc specified in the original, but the passage is illegible. Tlicy 
were, probably, the bankers mentioned imuiediately altcrwaril.s. 


power ; and rarely, if ever, distinctly and immediately, as in thc'instance before 
us, from the sovereign himself. Thus the evil, generally speaking, is to be traced 
to the despotic nature of the government ; while, in the case under consideration, 
it may justly be referred, in a great measure, to the personal character of the 

It is impossible not to be struck, in the foregoing letter, by the sudden transition 
which it exhibits, from flagrant oppression to rigorous justice. Imprisonment and 
chains are not thought too severe a punishment for calumny by the man, who in 
the same breath, as may be said, consigns a numerous class of industrious artisans 
to the scourge, for refusing to relinquish their accustomed pursuits, in order to 
administer to his caprice. But such inconsistencies are constantly presenting them- 
selves in the conduct of Tippoo Sultan; whose irregular mind was, at no time, under 
the influence of any fixed principle, if bigotry, and still more, hatred of the 
English, be excepted. To humanity of disposition, or to a love of justice, in the 
abstract, he certainly could lay no claim ; and, therefore, in punishing the Hurkd- 
reh Rama as he did, it is much more probable that he was actuated by resentment, 
at the imposition attempted to be practised upon him by that informer, than by 
any feeling for the injury which his slander might have done to the objects of it. 


To Meer Kumruddeen and Burhanuddeen ; dated I6fh Begidar 

Ahmedy. (\st May.^ 

Two letters from you have passed under our view, and tlie particulars 
therein stated are duly perceived. With respect to the war which you 
two are conducting in conjunction with the three Sipuhddrs, (that is to 
say, Syed Humced, Syed Ghufar, and Shaikh Unser), all of them pru- 
dent and intelligent men, our desire is, that acting in concert together, 
you should pursue the object of chastising the enemy with the utmost 
vigor and sagacity, aud in un effectual and glorious manner : accordingly, 



we have transmitted strict orders to this effect to the aforesaid Stpakddrs ; 
who will, in consequence, be obedient to you, and co-operate on all 
occasions with you. 

Wliat you say of the scarcity of grain [in your army,] notwithstanding 
your having a Cutwdl^^^ and [so many] Lumhdnehs^-^ with you, has as- 
tonished us ; you must, thei-efore, denounce the heaviest threats against 
the said Cufwcil, and make him provide abundance of grain, agi'eeably 
to our regulations on this head, to the end that your people may suffer no 
distress for that article. 

By the Divine favor your health*^^') is now re-established, and it is, con- 
sequently, no longer proper that you should have a physician attending 
you, or that you should take any more medicines ; let hiin, therefore, be 
sent back to Shafmoor. 

After chastising the enemy in a signal manner, and driving him to the 
other side of the Kishnu, you will take up a position for the attack of 

Your sending away your baggage is a proceeding in no respect proper : 
you must keep it with you. Indeed, where is the great quantity of 
baggage belonging to you, seeing that you have nothing besides tents, 
pawls, and other such necessary articles ? 

The cavalry attached to you have been very remiss in skirmishing and 
marauding, and in having suffered the enemy to flee without making 
booty of any of their horses, and finally to escape by the pass of Rdm- 

H doorgf 

(1) Cw/avi/ is the cliicf police oflicer of a town. Every army is also provided wiili one, 
whose principal duty it is to sec that the Bazars, or markets, are properly supplied. 

(2) LumlHttic/is, or Lumbuclchs, otherwise called Bwijdrchs, are a particular tribe of 
Hindoos, who occupy themselves in supplying armies in the field with grain and other pro- 
visions. They transport the articles they deal in on bullocks ; are, in general, armed with 
niatcii-locks, swords, and spears ; and travelling, for the most part, in numerous bodies, 
occasionally render themselves very formidable to the countries they i)ass through. 

(3) This passage is, of course, individually addressed to KumrCiddoeu. 


doorg, although they might have taken numberless horses. It is well. 
You must now give the most peremptory orders to the JRisdladdrs of 
cavalry to go forth on separate parties, and exert themselves properly to 
make prize of the enemy's horses; the present being a favorable oppor- 
tunity for getting together a great number of horses. Scouring, likewise, 
the enemy's country, they must seize on all the grain, &c. they can 


The present letter is somewhat at variance with the thirty-second, on the subject 
of horses captured from the Mahrattahs ; since, from the latter, it would appear, 
as if some success had attended the Sultans army in this respect, whereas he here 
complains of the enemy's having been suffered to escape, without " any horses " 
having been taken from them. It is probable, tbat the first report of the comman- 
ders, on this head, did not descend to particulars ; and that, when they subsequently 
stated the specific number of horses actually taken, the Sultan might have been 
disappointed at the result ; and, under this impression, have been led to under-rate 
the little that had been done. The great solicitude which he betrays for procuring 
horses, would, of course, enhance his disappointment on the occasion. 


To Mahommed Ghyas ; same date. (\sl Mat/.') 

YouB letter, dated the last day [or 29th] of Extra Ahmedyy^ has 

passed under our view, and its purport is duly understood. An answer 

has been written, on all points, in our Hindmj letter, to which you are 

referred for particulars. 


(1) Or 15lhof April. 

T I P P O O S U L T A N. §1 

The villainy and bad faith which thei/^-^ have manifested, in spite of the 
most solemn engagements, is abundantly well known. Upon what grounds 
then, [or, with what confidence,] can we, all at once, send thither a 
large sum of money ? Noor Mahommed Khan has been sent for by us, 
merely for the purpose of our ascertaining [through him] their treaties 
and engagements, and with no other view. You must state this matter 
distinctly to Rao Rasta, and, removing all suspicions of a different ten- 
dency from his mind, dispatch Noor Mahommed Khiln to the Presence ; 
and if [at the same time] they should [think proper to] be very urgent 
for your departure also, assuredly you, too, must repair hither. 

You write, " that Rao Rasta observed to you, on occasion of the 
** siege of Nergund having been raised, that if the orders for that mea- 
" sure had been previously communicated to his government, according 
" to his suggestion, such a proceeding wovdd have had the best effect, as 
" it would have tended to strengthen his hands in the management of 
" the ncgociation ; but as things had happened, they bore a very uno-ra- 
" cious appearance, inasmuch as he had been led to declare repeatedly 
*' to the minister,<^) in the most positive manner, that if the Mahrattah 
" army ventured to meet ours they would inevitably be put to shame ; 
" whereas, in fact, the very reverse of all this had taken place, to his 
** great disturbance and confusion." 

It is known. We have not deviated a hair's breadth from the sun-o-es- 


tions of Rao Rusta : nor, though we have raised the siege [of Nergilnd,~\ 
has there been any deficiency,^'') on our part, in chastising the enemy's 
army. This is a fact of such abundant notoriety as not to require any 
other evidence. What more ? 

H 2 

(2) TIic court of Poonah. 

(3) Nana Furnavcese. 

(4) Or remissness. 



It is not easy to conceive, what motive the Sultan could have for addressing his 
agents on any occasion in the Hind'wy, rather than in the Persian language ; in 
which last, it may be safely presumed that he usually conveyed his written orders 
to such of his servants as understood it. It could not be with a view to secrecy ; 
since a Hlndivy letter, supposing it to fall into improper hands, would at least be 
as generally intelligible as a Persian one. Possibly the Hindivi/ letter, referred to 
in the present instance, might have been dispatched, for the express purpose of 
being communicated to Rao Rasta ; though, in this case, some intimation of that 
design would, it may be thought, have been given in the Persian letter. But 
whatever the reason of the proceeding under consideration might be, it is proper 
to observe, that it was not confined to the present occasion, or to the persons of the 
envoys at Poonah ; since other examples of the practise in question will be met 
with in the course of this work. 

It would seem, by the second paragraph of the foregoing letter, that some 
sinister interpretation had been put by the court of Poonah, or at least by Rao 
Rasta, upon the desire expressed by the Sultan for the return of Noor Mahommed 
Khan. What the particular nature of the suspicions entertained on this occasion 
by the Mahrattahs was, does not appear ; but it is not improbable, that, they may 
have apprehended the real object of the envoy's recal to be connected with some 
secret intrigue of the Sultan's at Poonah : nor is it likely, that the latter's disavowal 
of any improper view in the matter would have the effect of removing those doubts 
or fears; especially, as the two states were now at open war. Be this as it may, 
it is certain that Noor Mahommed Khan did not, at this time, obtain leave to 
obey the summons of his master; and that, both he and his colleague, were 
detained at Poonah, till the month of May in the following year. 

I am not sufficiently acquainted with the details of this war, to be enabled to 
decide between the opposite pretensions of Rao Rasta and of Tippoo Sultan, re- 
specting the success of the earlier operations of it. It is clear, however, that the 
Sultan had, at this period, been compelled to relinquish the siege of Nergdnd, by 



tlie menacing position of the Mahrattah army, and that Rao Rasta was not to 
be persuaded, that the measure had been adopted purely at his instance. The 
truth, indeed, would appear to be, that, hitherto, no material advantage had been 
obtained by either side. 


To the some ; same date. (\st May.^ 

What you write, regarcling the variations of the temperature*^'^ in 
your quarter, is revealed. Our physicians have thoroughly ascertained 
the proper mode of treating(-) the diseases in question. The first thing 
to be done is, to draw off, by bleeding, all the corrupt humours ; by 
which means an effectual improvement will be produced in the general 
constitution of the patient. The body of the diseased party being thus 
completely brought under suhjcction,^^^ the next step must be to expel 
from it every remaining seed of the distemper, administering, in the 
meanwhile, whatever medicines may be found necessary. What more ? 


This curious enigmatical letter is sufficiently intelligible. The unwholesome 
temperature oi Poonah, alludes to the hostile disposition towards the Sultan, which 
had latterly superseded at that Court the amicable sentiments, formerly entertained 
for himself and his father by the Mahrattah rulers. By his physicians, the Sul- 
tan means his counsellors, or perhaps, the commanders of his army. The disease 
to be cured is, of course, the enmity of the Mahrattahs ; and the mode of cure, 


(1) Original W\ ^^l^j<__»l i_iLi-l " unhcaltliiness of the air, or climate, of that place." 

(2) Literally '« curing." 

(3) Original a^ -^U ^j^„j< ^JOJ <Ufi>_^J 


that which he had begun to pursue ; namely, an active war against them. The 
remaining allusions are equally obvious ; and, indeed, so much so, that it can 
hardly be imagined that the Sultan proposed to disguise his instructions under this 
metaphorical cypher, which could not fail to be immediately understood by any 
person, knowing who the writer, or even the party addressed, was : it is, there- 
fore, most probable, that nothing more was intended by it, than a display of the 
writer's ingenuity. 


To XooR Maho3I3ied Khan ; same date. (\sl May.^ 

The letter you sent us lias passed under our view, and its contents are 
understood. Whatever was necessary to be said, has been written at 
length to Mahommcd Ghyus ; our letter to whom will inform you [of our 
sentiments], agreeably to which you will act. 


To BuRHANUBDEEN ; dated I9th Begular Ahmedy. (4th Mat/.') 

It has been represented to us, that the garrison of Rdmdoorg pro- 
posed to capitulate, but that you intimidated them [by your answer], 
and thereby threw away the favorable opportunity [or the advantage thus 
oftercd]. Where was the propriety of this [proceeding] ? It is well. 
You must still encamp before the said fortress ; and sending for battering 
guns from Dhdrwdr, and collecting together the materials for trenches, 
by these means strike such a terror into the garrison as may induce them 
to submit : upon their doing which, you may permit them to march out 
of the fort with their arms. After putting a proper garrison in the place, 



you are to direct such of the enemy as are inchided in the capitulation, 
to be conducted, with their arms, beyond the Kishna. 

Nursia, the TaaMkddr of Nugr, has, of course, sent you, in pur- 
suance of our orders, two hundred CooliesS^^ Let their arrival be 
reported to us. 

You and Mecr Kumruddeen Khiin must keep united, both in word 
and thought, and execute every business of the Sircar in an able and 
creditable manner ,<^-) agreeably to what we have formerly and repeatedly 
written on this subject. 

N. B. A letter of the same tenor and date was written to Kumruddeen. 


The foregoing letter furnishes a clear proof, that whatever the degree of general 
confidence reposed in Biirhinuddeen by the Sultan might be, the latter, neverthe- 
less, kept spies upon his brother-in-law ; who were encouraged to animadvert 
freely on his conduct ; and to whose representations considerable attention 
was paid. Indeed it appears, from several of the documents among the state 
papers found at Seringapatam, that the Sultan had organized a very extensive 
system of espionage throughout his dominions, and in almost every department of 
his government. 

His envoys at foreign courts, his military commanders, his governors of forts 
and districts, were all diligently watched ; or, at least, ordered to be so : but as 
the spies, thus employed, were, in general, very well known, it may be safely 
presumed, that their integrity was often corrupted, and their vigilance as often 
eluded. The practice of placing spies over public functionaries is, no doubt, very 
common under all the governments of India : but I am inclined to think, that 
few of them have carried it so far as was done by Tippoo Sultan ; of whose regula- 

(1) Coo/i« arc labourers, and carriers of burthens. 

(2) In the original jjj. <sj or " splendidly." 



tions for this department an outline (consisting of a short edict on the subject), 
will be found in Appendix F. 


To the same ; dated 20th Begular Ahmedy. (5th May^ 

Your letter has been received ; and your account of the reduction of 
Udmdoorg, and of your having placed a garrison therein, is understood. 

Sending for the battering guns from Dhdnvdr, and collecting together 
the necessary materials for the erection of batteries, &c. you will proceed 
against Nergund, and lose no time in reducing it. 

Nursia, the Taalukddr of Nvgr, has, by our order, sent you two 
hundred Coolies, who have most probably joined you. You will report 
their arrival. The Coolies belonging to Kopul and JBdddmy are already 
with you : be expeditious, therefore, in collecting together every thing 
necessary [for the early siege of Nergund\ A Hindivy order has been 
sent, for placing two Joivks,^^^ &c., in garrison at Rdmdoorg, agreeably 
to which you will act. 

You and Kumruddeen Khan, agreeing in word and thought, must 
execute the business of the Sirear in a splendid [or creditable] manner. 

N. B. A letter of the same tenor and date was dispatched to Kumruddeen. 


To Ghulam Ahmed, KJzy of Nugr ; dated 24th Regular Aumedy. 

(yth 3Iay.) 

Your letter has been received. You have written, that nine 

Frenchmen, together with their captain, had embraced the faith, and 


(1) A Jozck was a subili vision of a liisdla or Kushoov, answering to our company: con- 
ctj'.iently, a Jowkddr was the captain of" a company. 


tliat the said captain humbly hoped to be honored witli the command of 
of a liisdta of <"> Ahmedies. It is known : and our pleasure is, tliat 
ten rupees be given to each of them, and that they be all dispatched, 
under an escort [a safen^uard], to the Presence, where, on their arrival, 
tlie aforesaid captain shall receive the honor he solicits. Peremptory 
orders for the payment of the above stipends, and for furnishing the 
necessary escort, have been sent to the Kilaaddr of Niigr. 


The Ahmedies here mentioned were a military corps, composed of the converts 
(whether forced or voluntary) to the Mahommedan religion. Jt was instituted by 
Tippoo Sultan, with whom it seems to have been a favorite establishment ; of the 
origin of which he himself gives the following curious account in the Memoirs 
already referred to : 

" The Portuguese Nazarenes'^' established themselves, about three hundred 
*' years ago, in a factory situated near the sea shore, and on the banks of a large 
" river. This place they obtained of the Rdjali of Soondali, under the pretext of 
" trading [with his subjects] "' : and here, availing themselves of the opportunities 
" which arose in the course of time, they acquired possession of a territory, 
" yielding a yearly revenue of three or four lachs of rupees, throughout which they 
•' equally prohibited fasts and prayers among the Mussulman inhabitants, and the 
*' worship of idols among the Hindoos ; finally expelling from thence all who refused 
" to embrace their religion, which the Hindoos were required to do within three days, 

I " under 

(1) liisdla usually denotes a body of cavalry of an inilefinito number, but, for tiie most 
j)art, corresponding to the strength of a regiment : the term, however, is sometimes applied 
to infantry, and occasionally to a mixed corps of liorse and foot. The commander of a 
Ruula is called a liisdladdr. 

(2) The 5'M//flH applies tiiis name to Christians in genera) ; but it sometimes denotes the 
English in particular. 

(3) Cr<?a is, uo doubt, meant here. 


" under pain, if they remained in the country after that time, of being forcibly 
" converted to it. Some of the people, alarmed at this proceeding, abandoned 
" their property and homes, and took refuge in other countries : but the greater 
" part, considering the threatened danger as improbable, and not possessing the 
" means of removing their effects, preferred remaining; whereupon these infidel 
" Nazarenes, at the end of the appointed time, obliged them all to embrace their 
" false religion. Sometime after this, by means of gifts and presents distributed 
" among the Rdjahs and Au7nils of that quarter, they were suffered to erect 
" from eighty to a hundred idol temples,*'" in the countries of Nugr, Soonda, and 
" Kdridl-Bundur ;'*' in each of which they placed a Pddre or two, whose religion, 
" in fact, was that of the Guebres ; "' and by whose means they prevailed, partly 
" by artifice, and partly by tempting the avarice [of the poorer classes], on vast 
'" numbers of the inhabitants to adopt their faith. [Such was the state of things 
*' herej when, by the divine favor, and through the aid of the Asylum of Prophecy,''' 
*' and with the help of the conquering Lion of God,-'' the port of Kuridl fell 
*' into our hands ; on which occasion the odious proceedings of tliese accursed 
*' Pddries becoming fully known to us, and causing our zeal for the faith to boil 
" over, we instantly directed the Dewdn of the Huzoor Kuchurry *' to prepare a 
" list of all houses occupied by the Christians, taking care not to omit a single 
" habitation. The officers of the Kuchurry, accordingly, employing the 
'•' Mdtusuddiea of Soonda, Nugr, Kilrkll, &c. for this purpose, soon prepared 
" and delivered to us a detailed report on the subject. After this, we caused an, 
" officer and some soldiers to be stationed in every place inhabited by the 

" Christians, 

(4) Meaning, of course, churches. 

(5) Mangalore: i^Mwrfiir signifies a sea port.. 

(6) The ancient Parsees, or worsliippers of fire. 

(7) Mahommed. 

(3) Original t_JUll iiS\^ Usudullah idghtUib, viz. of the Caliph AH, and was adopted 
by Tippoo Sultan as a sort of motto, whicli lie sometimes inscribed on his weapons and 
other articles. 

(1») A Dewdn is a minister or officer, superintending the revenues of a state or province. 
The Huzoor Kuchurry was tlie revenue board at Seringapatam, or that attending the Presence. 


*' Christians ; signifying to them, that, at the end of a certain time, they should 
" receive further orders, wliich they were then to carry into full effect. These 
" men and officers being all arrived at their respective posts, the following orders 
" were transmitted to them, viz. ' On such a day of the week and month, and 
" ' at the hour of morning prayer, let all the Christians, whatever their number 
" ' may be, together with their women and children, be made prisoners and 
** ' dispatched to our Presence.' And on the sealed cover, or superscription, of each 
" of these dispatches, was specified the day of the week and month on which 
" it was to be opened and read. Accordingly our orders were every where opened ^ 
" at the same moment ; and at the same hour (namely, that of morning prayer) 
" were the whole of the Christians, male and female, without the exception of a 
" single individual, to the number of sixty thousand, made prisoners, and 
" dispatched to our Presence ; from whence we caused them, after furnishing 
' them duly with provisions, to be conveyed, under proper guards, to Sc~ 
" ringapatam : ''"' to the Taaluhddrs of which place we sent orders, directing that 
" [the said Christians] should be divided into Risdlas, or corps, of five hundred 
*' men, and a person of reputable and upright character placed, as Risdladdr, 
" at the head of each. Of these Risdlas, four (together with their women 
*' and children) were directed to be stationed at each of the following places,'"' 
*' where they were duly fed and clothed, and ultimately admitted to the honor of 
" Islamism ; and the appellation of Ahmedi/'"^ was bestowed upon the collective 
« body.""" 

Thus far the Sultan. Of these sixty thousand Christians, fifteen thousand may 
be supposed to have been capable of bearing arms, which number would form 

I 2 " thirty 

(10) The Sultan, nt tlic time Iicrc spoken of, was in the neighbourhood of Mangalore. 

(11) S'cringapalam is licre named, but the rest of the passage I do not clcarl}- understand. 

(12) Ahmed \s one of the names of Maiionimed. 

(13) The date of tliis institution is indicated (the Sultan adds) by the following couplet : 

" God is the defender of the Ahmedy religion ; 

" The light of (he firmament is derived from the jihmedi) religion," (or people.) 
where the K tiers couipnsiiiy the last line, or iiemisiich, in tlic origuial, give the year of the 
Jligcra 1197. 


thirty Risdlas. But this corps was not composed exclusively of converts from 
Christianity. Soon after its estabhshment, it received a considerable accession of 
strength in the captives of the Kurg or Koorg nation ; all the males among whom, 
being compelled to embrace the Mahommedan faith, were afterwards enrolled in 
the Ahmedy corps, to the number (according to the Sultans own account in a 
subsequent part of this Memoir) of from sixty to seventy thousand men."'*' The 
united corps were distributed throughout the garrisons and districts of Mysore ; 
and every where the strictest orders (says the Sultan) were issued, commanding 
those in authority to treat these new Mahommedans with the greatest ten- 
derness, and, in short, to consider them " as more precious even than their own 


To Meer Kumruddeen Khan; dated 25th Begular Ahmedy. 

(lOfh 3Ia>/.) 

Your letter has passed under our view, and its contents are 
understood. You write, *' that the J3i/de horse,^^^ out of employ, have 
*' committed great excesses and depredations in the Sircar's dominions.'* 
It is known. You must issue the most peremptory orders [to these 
people] to carry their ravages into the Mahrattah territories, bringing 


(14) Tliat is, as I suppose, that the total number of /v'oo;-^ prisoners, indiuling -women 
and children, were between sixty and seventy thousand ; giving, probably, about tlic same 
number of soldiers, as the sixty thousand Christians mentioned in tlie text. The Koorg' 
converts were formed into Risdlas of a thousand men each. (Memoir.) 

(1) The horse, here called .ffj/(/^, are the same as those denominated /'//(^Wcf/w, Looties, 
7).\\(\ Kuzzdks. They are predatory troops receiving no regular pay, but maintaining them- 
selves by plunder ; in pursuit of which they sometimes make equally free with friends 
and foes. By Bjjdcs *• out of employ," is to be understood such as had not been formally 
engaged by the Sultan, but followed the army spontaneous!}-, which it is very common 
for many of them to do. 


away from thence all the horses they can make booty of, and desisting 
[for the future] from their depredations in our country. 

You and Burhanuddeen must remain united in your councils; and 
collecting together the necessary materials for opening trenches against 
Kergiind, lose no time in reducing that place. In short, you must, in all 
affairs, agree in word and thought. 

lurrokul belongs to the Zeminddr of Kolapoor, and the said Zemin- 
ddr is well disposed towards us : you must, therefore, never mention his 
name, but attend to what we heretofore particularly and strictly enjoined 
on this head. What more shall be written ? 


If some disarrrcement had not recentlv arisen between Burhanuddeen and Kum- 


ruddeen, it may, at least, be inferred from the second paragraph of the foregoing 
letter, that the Sultan was in apprehension of it, and, therefore, judged it neces- 
sary to repeat so soon his former exhortations to harmony. It may be doubted, 
however, wliether these admonitions produced the desired eftect ; since, not long 
after the date of the present dispatch, fresh symptoms of discord between the rival 
commanders are manifested. 

It is not very clear, what the Sultan means, by enjoining Kumruddeen " never 
" to mention the name" of the Zeminddr of Kolapoor. Kolapoor is a district 
situated near Soonda and Goa, and in the possession of a chieftain, who acknow- 
ledges the authority of the government of Poonah, and pays, I believe, a tribute 
to tlie Palshwa. It would seem, that a good understanding secretly subsisted 
between this chieftain and the Sultan ; and that the latter, on this account, had 
determined to treat him as a neutral, notwithstanding his connexion with the Maii- 
rattah empire. It is also not improbable, that Kumruddeen (ignorant, perhaps, 
of the friendly disposition of the Zeminddr towards the Sultan) may have proposed 
to take possession of TilrJidl or Turrokul ; in Avhich case, the purport of the 
expression under consideration miglit have been, that the Zeminddr of Kolapoor 



was not to be considered or spoken of in a hostile manner, or his territory treated 
as that of an enemy. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan; dated 29ih 
Megular Ahmedy. (\4tk May^ 

Your two letters, of the 11th and 15th of Ahmedy, have been re- 
ceived, and the account of your conferences with the Paishkdi<^^ of Rao 
Rasta is understood. 

The Mahrattah army has come and laid waste our dominions, to the 
amount of eight lacks of pagodas,^^^ and otherwise proceeded in an un- 
warrantable manner: the commanders of our forces have, in conse- 
quence, been reduced to the necessity of attacking that army, which, 
after sustaining a sevei'e defeat, has been driven across the Kishiia. On 
their return [from the pursuit of the enemy] our commanders seized on 
jRdmdoorg, and have since opened trenches against Nergihid. We still, 
however, are wilUng to relinquish the attack upon the latter place, on 
condition that the arrears of the usual Paishcush be discharged, and 
due satisfaction be made to us for the injury done to our country. We 
shall otherwise soon reduce the place. 

You must return to us by the post all the bills of exchange in your 
possession and in the possession of Noor Mahommed Khan.(^> If the 
chiefs of that place consent to the dismission of the said Khdn, and to 


f I) A Paishliur is a manager or conductor of business, -whether public or private. 

(2) Or twenty lacks: for the manuscript is here so illegible, that cither reading may be 

^3) Tiie bills, here spoken of, had probably been sent to the envoys, for the purpose of 
being paid over to the Mahrattah government, in satisfaction of its pecuniary claims on the 


his being dispatched hither, we shall then be enabled to ascertain from 
him every particular respecting that quarter, and to consider the means 
of remitting the money [due or claimed]. 

Your account of receipts and disbursements is duly arrived. A remit- 
tance will, hereafter, be made to you, for defraying the expences of 
your mission.^^^ 


To Ku3iRUDBEEN Khan ; dutcd \st Behary. (lolh Majf). 

You have represented, " that notwithstanding the peremptory com- 
*' mands issued by us for the purpose, the necessary articles for enabling 
*' you to open trenches [against Nergdud] have not yet been sent to you 
*' by any of the Aumils ; to whom you, in consequence, request we will 
" repeat our orders." It is known. 

That light of our eyes^^ has always been a mere child : (-> but now his 
senses must absolutely have forsaken him, as otherwise he could not 
WTite to us so often to repeat our orders. One peremptory order from 
us is [in all cases] sufficient. Where is the AurnU, who dares to be 
remiss in dispatching the articles [directed to be furnished by us] ? If 
there be any who has disregarded our commands, let him be put to 
death : or^^) let the Purwunehs,^**] so slighted, be returned to the Pre- 


(4) Literally " of tlic people attached to you." 

(1) See Note 1, Letter XXX. 

(2) It is thus I understand the words jo Jils JLa-jjJ J ai" jjLj^ 

(3) A slight alteration in the reading (namely \, bd forb j/rt) will admit of the passage bein^ 
rendered " and let the Pu)~wdnch so slighted, &c." 

(4*) A written mandate or order. 


The workmen'^) who arrive from the different Taaldks for the service 
of the trenches, as well as those already witii Burhanuddeen, are to be 
divided between you. Taking half of them, therefore, you must imme- 
diately commence the business of the trenches : seeing that the rainy 
season approaches, and that, when that sets in,^'') the siege cannot any 
longer be prosecuted with vigour. For this reason, you are to proceed 
with the utmost dispatch in the attack and reduction of Nergund. 


The foregoing letter, at the same time that it affords a pretty strong proof of the 
slight estimation in which the Sultan held the talents of Kumruddeen, also shews 
(what is further evinced in many other instances) that in the occasional expression 
of his disapprobation, he was not apt to be restrained by any consideration for the 
rank of the person incurring it; dealing out the same measure of asperity to the 
highest as to the lowest officer or servant, and making no distinction, in this 
respect, in favour even of his own near relation. The lofty tone, which he assumes in 
speaking of his orders, is likewise highly illustrative of his imperious temper, and 
of his quick sensibility of whatever affected his authority ; which, it is difficult to 
believe, should have been actually insulted, in the manner that would seem to be 
indicated by the close of the second paragraph. Daring, indeed, must the Aumil 
have been, who could, on any pretext, not simply refuse or with-hold obedience 
to a Ptirwdneh of this prince, but contumaciously return it to the person deliver- 
ing or sending it : for such is the construction to which the passage in question is 
liable. But whatever the fact may have been, no farther trace of, or allusion to 
it, is to be met with in the correspondence. 

(5) Tlicrc is a specification of these in the original, but the terms employed are cither 
miswrittcn or unknown to me. 

(6) Tlic periodical rains in Mysore, and the elevated countries adjoining it, usually set in 
the beginning of June. 



To the same; dated 3d Behauy. (l^th Maij.^ 

Your letter, informing us of the molestation given by the cavalry and 
Kuslioons attached to the division under Burhanuddeen to the labourers^') 
coming from JJhdrwdr [to your camp,] has been received, and its con- 
tents are understood. 

You write also [in the same letter,] *' that the quantity of powder, as 
" well as of eighteen and twenty-four pounds shot, with Burhanuddeen's 
" army, is inadequate [to the service going forward,] and request us to 
'* send orders to the Kilaaddr of Dhdrwdr, to dispatch a further supply 
" of those articles." It is known. We have already written, and now 
again write, to say, that all stores arriving from the Taaldks of the Sircar 
are to be divided equally between you and Burhanuddeen. 

We enclose an order for the shot, &c. required, to the Kilaaddr of 
Dhdrwdr, to whom you will forward it. On receiving this supply, deliver 
half of it to Burhanuddeen In like manner, take the half of all other 
supplies that arrive ; and attacking Nergiind from one side, while Bur- 
hanuddeen attacks it from the other, let the fortress be speedily reduced. 


To Mahommed Ushruf ; same date. (\^th Mai/.^ 

Your letter, accompanied by a statement of the receipts, disburse- 
ments, and balances of the T'aaldks of Goofij, Bidhdry, Ouh, and Hindi- 

K Ujinuntpoor, 

(I) Tlic original is cither lii'gdnes or Pi/kuries. The former is a Ilindixy word, signify- 
ing a day lal)oiircr, or pressed Cooley. Pykdr is a Persian word, signifying war or fightinr, 
and, of course, is not applicable here : I am, therefore, inclined to read Bigdrt/. 


Unmintpoor, has been received, and the particulars set forth [therein] are 

You write, *' that there are large balances outstanding in the Taalitks 
" of the Sircar, and particularly in Gooty and Bulhdnj, where only a 
*' thousand pagodas have been collected, notwitstanding four horsemen 
" have been employed as SuzCuvuls ;'^^^ and you therefore desire, that 
*' peremptory orders may be issued [on the occasion] from the Presence." 

You must scourge the defaulters severely, and [by this means] speedily 
realize the dues of the Sircar. What more ? 


To KuMRUDDEEN ; d^itcd 11 fh Behary. (2oth Mai/.') 

Your letter, mentioning that you had nearly completed your first two 
approaches, and that Biirhanuddcen's batteries were still unfinished, has 
passed under our view, and the contents are comprehended. This is an 
affair of a hill-fort. Without approaching very close to the place, and 
making a very wide and effectual breach, it will never be advisable or 
proper to attempt an assault : you must, therefore, wait until Burhanud- 
deen's batteries are completed ; keeping up, in the mean while, such a 
fire on the place, as shall utterly destroy the wall on your side. Burhan- 
uddeen has been written to, directing him to deliver to you half of the 
guns and labourers [he has recently received] ; with the help of which 
you must continue to push on your approaches, and speedily reduce this 

(1) Siizdwuls are a kind of bailifls, or duns, employed to enforce paynietits due on 
account of revenue. Tlicy are maiutaincd, wjiile tliey are em])loyed, at the c.xpcncc of 
the crcd.tor. 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; same date. (25lh May?) 

Your letter, requesting our authority for engaging in your service a 
Milnshij, for the purpose of making out passports and writing letters, lias 
been received. Agreeably to your desire, you may hire a Kunry writer 
for the purposes you mention/') 

You are to deliver to Kumruddeen Khun half the guns and labourers 
[that join you.] 

Kalu Pundit, it seems, together with his family, has fled from Nergund. 
Make enquiries, and let us know who now commands that place. 


I have been unable to ascertain whether Kala Pundit was the Zeminddr of Ner- 
gAnd, or only an officer intrusted by him with the defence of the place. The 
report here noticed of his flight proved to be unfounded. 


To Mahommed Kazim (Brother of the deceased Zynul Aabideen, 
lute BuKTSHY of the Jysue Kvchurry) ; dated I2th BehJrv. 
(26th May.} 

It has, at this time, pleased God that your brother should die. This 
event has caused us much concern. Having it in view to provide for you, 
we desire you will lepair speedily to our Presence, and consider yourself 
as secure of our favor. 

K 2 

(1) But not a Munshr/, or Persian writer, as BCirhaiiCiddccn bad proposed. A Kunry 
writer would be less ciiiirgeabie tlian a Munslii/. 



To Zykul Aabideen ; dated 19th BeiiJry. (2d Jiine^ 

Your letter, enclosing an account of the receipts and disbursements 
of the Taalttk of LoU-ghurrij , has been received, and what you have 
therein stated is understood. You say, " that the ylumiloi the aforesaid 
" Ghurry has absconded, and desire that a new jlumil and KUaaddr may 
" be sent from the Presence." It is known. But how is it, that the said 
Aumil should have absconded ivithout cause or motive ?^^^ You must 
enquire very particularly into this matter, and report the result to us. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 21st Behary. (4th June.^ 

You have represented to us, " that you had proposed to Kumruddeen 
** Khan to make over to him the Kushoon of Shaikh Unser, and to take, 
i' in its place, the Ktishoon of the commandant Mahoumied Ali ; but 
*' that the aforesaid Khdn had given for answer, that it was not proper, 
*' at this time, to make such an exchange." Well ! what does it signify ? 
Let the Kushoon of Mahommed Ali remain there (7. e. with Kumrud- 

You write also, " that you purposed transferring to Kumruddeen half 

" of the great guns, of the labourers. Coolies, &c. and keeping the 

" other half yourself" It is well : and you Avill continue to make the 

same division hereafter. 


( I ) The Sultan seems to Iiave suspected some collusion in this transaction. 

(1*) The exchange here declined by Kumruddeen nevertheless took place at a subsequent 


You say, " that tbe VakeeP^ of Kittoor bad been with you, and 
*' represented to you, that if his master were allowed a week or two, he 
" would, at tbe end of that time, wait upon you, and perform such 
** services for the Sircar as should be required of him." It is known. 
At the expiration of tbe specified period, you will, accordingly, send for 
him, and employ him in our service.*^^^ 


To Mahommed Ghyas ; dated 22d JBeh.jry. (oth Junc.^ 

Five letters^') from you, dated tbe 22d and 25th of Ahmedi/ [7th and 
10th of May], and 1st and 4tb of JBehdri/ [15tb and 18th May], have 
been received, and every particle of their contents is understood. 

You observe, " that we have said in our letter to Rao Rasta (of 
*' which a copy was sent to you, ' that he, (Rao Rasta) having told 
" ' Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan, for our information, 
" ' that be was willing to engage that his government should make good 
*' ' to us the Paishcuih due to us by the Nergund man, as well as make 
" ' us compensation for the ravages committed in our country, we bad, 
" ' in consequence, made known our sentiments to the aforesaid Khdn, 
" ' who would accordingly communicate the same to him.' " You then 
add, " that this was not the purport of your letters to us ; and request 
" us to refer to them again, when it will appear that what you stated 
" was, that Rao Rasta had proposed that eighty thousand rupees should 

" be 

(2) A Vakeel is a representative : and tlic term is apjiiicd to almost every kind of agent, 
acting lor or in the name of another, from an ambus auor to a petty attorney. Sec Letter 

(3) It will hereafter be seen, that the Sultan, at tiiis very time, probably meditated the 
seizure of Kittoor. 

(1) But only/oMr are mentioned. Possibly two might have been of the same date. 



be paid to us by way of fine, and ten thousand rupees for Diirhdr 
charges ; and that, for the future, the payment of the Paishcush 
should be secured to us, in the same manner as when it used to be 
paid through ApAjee Ram. Such being the case, you wish to know 
what answer you are to give to Rao Rasta, if he should demand 
" of you at what time he had ever made the communication ascribed 
" to him." 

It is known. Whenever letters are received from you, the proper 
answers to them are deliberated on, and written accordingly. Thus, in 
the present case, our ivriting in the manner we have done [to Rao Rasta, ] 
tvas the result of expediency ; and sometime hereafter the utiliti/ of the 
proceeding ivill appear. 

What you write of the death of Anund, Rao Rasta's son, is known. 
You will deliver to the aforesaid Rao the dress of condolence, and the 
letter which we have sent for him on the occasion. 

If your longer stay at Poonah should be marked with incivility [or be 
attended with any circumstances derogatory to our dignity,]<^-> it can be 
productive of no advantage ; and, in this case, you will demand your 
dismission, and lepair hither, declaring yourself plainly at your departure 
[to the following effect.] 

" Notwithstanding the favors you have received at the hands of my 
" master, you have afforded assistance to a Polygdr,^^^ belonging [or 
" subject] to him : and forgetting the boundless kindness of the Sircar, 
" you have sent your army, and laid waste his country, to the amount 
*' of [many] lacks of rupees ; while [on the other hand] my master, in 
" conformity with the wishes of Rao Rasta, expressed, both verbally 
" and by writing, directed the siege of Neigiind to be raised, and his 

" forces 

(2) In the original it is juUi v_ "^^ j^\ i. e. " if it should look, or appear, ungracious 
" or unkindly." 

(3) A Poli/gdr is the same as a Zemiitddr. 


" forces to withdraw to a distance from thence. The army of Pitrserum 
" Bhow, nevertheless, attacked that of the Sircm- ; the issue of whicli 
*' [act of aggression], however, was, that the Bhoiv was completely 
" worsted, and compelled to flee beyond the Xw/ma. In spite, however, 
" of all this, Rao Rasta continues to require of my master to relinquish 
" the siege of Nergiind ; and accepting a mulct of eighty thousand 
*' rupees, and a farther sum of ten thousand rupees for Durhdr charges, 
" to agree, for the future, to receive the Paishcush in the manner it was 
" heretofore paid by Apajee Ram. Now my master only wishes, that 
" you yourselves would fairly consider this matter, and bear in mind the 
" repeated declaration he has made to you [through us], regardino- the 
" contributions levied on his subjects, to the amount of ten lacks of 
" pagodas, by the Nergiind man, as well as the ravages committed by 
" him in the Sircar's territories ; [all whicli being duly weighed] he 
" leaves you to judge how far it is possible for him to consent to an 
" arrangement, so entirely inadequate to the losses he has sustained, 
" through the aggressions of this Pohjgdr." 

You mention, " that Rao Rasta had represented to the ministerj^") 
" that having caused the latter's sentiments to be repeatedly conveved 
*' to us, through our confidential servants (meaning yourselves), and 
" having moreover himself communicated them to us by letter, lie could 
" not be justly blamed, because we had not sent a suitable answer to the 
" same." 

To which you say, the minister had replied, " that he had alwavs 
" declared it to be his opinion, that as, notwithstanding his (Rasta's) 
*' constant importunity, no money had been sent from hence, it was 
" become perfectly clear, that we no longer wished to maintain the 
** relations of amity with them ; seeing that, otherwise, such procras- 

" tination 

(0 /". e. Nana Furnavecsc. 


<' tination and evasion in dispatching the money [due] could never have 
" taken place ; and that, this being the case, he now thought proper 
*' plainly to desire that we might be informed, through you, ' that if 
" ' we had it in view duly to strengthen the foundations of harmony, 
*' * we would [immediately] send the arrears due for the three [last] 
" ' years, together with [the necessary sum on account of] Durbdr 
" ' charges : and that, with respect to the Nergiind business, we must 
'* ' consent to what was heretofore settled [on that point.'] He con- 
*' eluded, as you report, by saying, ' that if we did not wish for the 
" ' preservation of their friendship, and were determined to persist in 
*' ' withholding the money [due], he could see no use in your remaining 
" ' there.'" 

It is known. No doubt, our bad faith, and our disinclination to 
cultivate their friendship, ai'e manifest, in the same manner as their 
performance of their strong and solemn engagements is as clear as the 
light of the sun. What pleasure can there be in reiterating these things ? 
It is a common saying, " that if any body be at home, one word is 
" sufficient." But, notwithstanding all this, we wrote, desiring Noor 
Mahommed Khun to be sent to us, in order that we might the better 
ascertain the views of the riders there, and obtain the necessary expla- 
nations on the subject of their engagements, preparatory to our setting 
about the transmission of the stipulated money.('> If the aforesaid 
KJidn had accordingly been sent hither, this would have been carried 
into effect. It is still our desire, that he should be dispatched to us, 
and that you [Mahommed Ghyas] should remain there ; but if your 
departure also shoidd appear to be desired by that government, or if 
they should [openly] insist upon it, then you, as well as Noor Mahom- 
med, taking leave of them, will immediately repair hither. 


(5) Meaning the usual tribute claimed by the Mahrattahs 


Instead of denoting the name of the friend of the Sircar, as you 
propose doing, by the number 20 ; and the name of the ivell-uisher of 
the Sircar, by the number 60 (these being the numerical powers of the 
initial letters of their respective names), you must, in future, call the 
former, whose name begins with a Gaivf, Gulab Khan ; and the latter, 
whose name begins with a Seen, Surdar Khan ; this last cypher being 
neat and clean; and the names to be employed not at all leading to a 
knowledge of the real ones. What more ? 


This is a very curious and interesting document ; as, besides exposing the 
chicanery, and even downright falshood, to which the Sultan never scrupled to 
resort in his diplomatic transactions, when he thought he could thereby advance 
his purposes, it tlirows considerable light on the grounds of the quarrel subsisting 
between him and the government of Poonah ; and discloses, in particular, the 
opinion entertained of the conduct and views of Tippoo by Nana Furnaveese, 
who, at this period, presided over the affairs of the Mahrattah empire. 

It is not the least remarkable circumstance in the foregoing letter, that to the 
natural question of the ambassadors, " what answer they were to give to Riio 
" Rasta, if he should demand of them at what time he had made the communi- 
" cation ascribed to liim," the Sultan makes no reply, but leaves it to the 
ingenuity of his agents to extricate themselves from the difficulty in which he had 
placed them, in tlie best manner they could. 

The cj'pher which appears to have been proposed by Mahommed Ghyas is a 
very common one in Iltndostan, being founded on the numerical powers assigned 
to the letters of the alphabet by the llijtid scheme, as explained in the Intro- 
duction ; and, according to which, 20 stands for CJ (gawf or haaf) ; and 6o for 
■^J^ (Seen). Now, while to this cypher it is justly objectionable, that it expressly 
declares the initial letters of the names intended to be disguised, and so far 
furnishes a clue to the latter, it must be admitted, that the one substituted by 

L the 


the Sultan was not quite so liable to detection ; since it conveyed no clear or 
absolute indication of the initials of the concealed names. Thus Surdar Khdn 
would not so easily suggest the idea of Saindiah, as would the saying " he whose 
" name begins with 6o, or S ;" since no positive or necessary reason existed, for 
supposing that the initial letters of the feigned and concealed names were the 

Still, however, the Sultan's cypher did not possess any great advantage over 
that of Mahommed Ghyas ; and still less did it merit the praise of being '• neat 
" and clean ;" because, like the latter, it is so much in use, that the generality 
of readers would be very apt to suspect the principle of its construction. At a 
subsequent period, the Sultan appears to have improved somewhat in the art of 
cyphering ; for the Faheels, who accompanied the hostage princes to Madras, in 
1792, were in possession of a figure-cypher, in which a descriptive account of the 
works of Fort St. George, written throughout in cypher, was discovered among 
the papers found at Seringapatam on the capture of that place. Even this, 
however, was but an indifferent contrivance, and, in consequence, was not 
difficult of detection. 

It is not possible, at this time, to say, who were meant by Gulab Khan and 
Surdar Khan ; but it is sufficiently evident, from the epithets by which each is 
distinguished, that the former was a person of consideration, and the latter some 
one of inferior rank. 


To Chishty Yar Khan j dated 23d Beh^ry. (6th June.') 

Mahommed Ushruf, the Superintendant of the Dewdni/ Kuchurri/ 
of Gooty, wrote to you, by our direction, desiring you to send to him 
Buswunt Rtio, the Aumil of BeiginpiUi/ ; in order to his examining 
the accounts of the said yluniil, and ascertaining his malvcxsations. 
Instead, however, of complying with this requisition, it appears, to 
our great astonishment, that you exhibited, on this occasion, the most 



senseless and extravagant behaviour ; tearing the letter of the superin- 
tendant in pieces, and returning it to him in that condition. Such 
conduct is very remote from what we expected from your good sense : 
you must instantly, therefore, on receipt of this letter, dispatch the 
said Aumil to Mahommcd Ushruf ; and take care not to be guilty again 
of the like improper and rude behaviour, as such proceedings arc 
contrary to our pleasure. 


The reproof conveyed in this letter, considering the magnitude of the offence 
which gave rise to it, and the usual severity of the Sultan in similar cases, is so 
remarkably moderate, as almost to warrant a suspicion, that he occasionally 
suffered himself to be actuated, in his treatment of his servants, by motives of a 
personal and private nature, partaking, in some degree, of the character of 
partiality, not to say favouritism. The tearing in pieces, and returning in that 
condition, a letter written by the express direction of the Sultan, and most 
probably announcing it to be so, was hardly a less contempt of his authority, 
than tlie conduct of the Jumil mentioned in Letter XLV., whose crime was 
declared to merit death. It is possible, however, that the Sultan might not 
have viewed the transaction in this light ; but have considered it as a mere personal 
affront to Mahommed Ushruf, which would be sufficiently punished by the bare 
manifestation of his displeasure. 


7o KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 25th BehAry. (3th June.') 

You write, " that it is not advisable, until the reduction of Nergiind, 
" that the Sipahddr, Mahommed Ali, should be relieved, as you propose 

L 2 that 


*'th at his Knshoon should continue to occupy its present post in the 
" trendies." It is known 

As the aforesaid Sipahddr is an officer of no experience, and as liis 
Kushoon consists of ignorant and new raised troops, we directed that 
you should send for, and keep with you, Shaikh Unser and his Kushoon, 
and station Mahoiuiued All and his Kushoon with Burhanuddeen ; by 
which means you would have the services of old soldiers, while the 
others would be more in the way of acquiring instruction. The fact is, 
that the instruction of the aforesaid Sipahddr, and the improvement of 
the men composing his Hisd/a, is our object [in this arrangement], 
and not his exchange or supercession : you will, therefore, after speak- 
ing in an encouraging manner to him, send him to join Burhanuddeen. 

What you say respecting the Risdla of Mahommed Nasir (part of 
which you have incorporated into Mahommed Ali's Kushoon, and made 
over the remainder to Burhanuddeen) is understood. The men belonging 
to the aforesaid Risdla are to be considered by you in the light of a 
loan or deposit,(') and are neither to be made over to Burhanuddeen, 
nor to be incorporated into Mahommed Ali's Kushoon ; but are to be 
dispatched to the Presence, whenever our orders, for that purpose, shall 
be issued. 

With regard to your sending away the stable horses, &c.^^) on account 
of the scarcity of grain and forage, it is to be observed ; that the war 
you are just now carrying on is against a fort ; and that field operations 
being [for the present] out of the question, there can, of course, be no 
call for cavalry. You will, therefore, dispatch all the stable horses, &c. 
to Kuppood-ghur, where there is abundance of forage and good 
pasturage. This, indeed, was formerly signified to you ; and it is a 


(1) Original ti^U 

(2) The stable horses were tlie property of the Sircar ; whereas the horses of thn Silahdar 
cavah'y belonged to tlie men and officers compojiiig it. 


matter of cxtreire astonishment to us, that you should perpetually write 
and apply for orders in such plain and easy cases as this. 


The foregoing letter clearly shows, that if the Sultan did not place unlimited 
confidence in the military talents or experience of Burhanuddeen, he at least 
considered the camp of that commander as a better school for the young and 
inexperienced soldier than that of Kumruddeen. There is reason to believe, 
however, that the professional merits of Burhanuddeen were duly appreciated by 
his master; since we shall hereafter see him entrusted with the important charge 
of a wing of the united army of Mysore, in a general action with the Mahrattahs, 
near Shahnoor. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; datea 
26th Behary. (9th June.^ 

Your three letters (two of them dated the 9th of Behdrr/, and the 
other the 13th of Behdry) accompanied by five bills of exchange,('> 
namely, four from yourself, and one from Noor Mahommed Khan, have 
been received. The detail you have entered into, regarding the insolent 
conduct of Suddashoo, the Hurkdreh, is understood. The aforesaid 
[person] is only an Hurkdreh : what question or debate [therefore] can 
arise with him, and why should he be made privy to any secret affairs ? 
You must require of him those services which it is his duty to perform 
[and no other] ; and when you may have any thing of a particularly 


(1) These were probably tlio bills directed to be returned to the Sultan in Letter 
LXIV. Besides the bills mentioned, these dispatches enclosed what is caJleU jn the orif'inal 
two Ldkut-lukokh, the meaning of which I am unable to discover. 


secret nature to communicate, you must do it in the couplet cypher 
which is enclosed. (^> 

If the [Mahrattah] minister, and the rest of them, will dismiss Noor 
Mahommed Khan, and allow him to return hither, it will he well ; and, 
in the event of their being urgent for the return of you both, it will be 
better still : you will, in that case, set out together for the Presence. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 2'Jth Behary. (lOth June.} 

It has been represented to us, that a balance of fifteen or sixteen 
thousand pagodas is still due from some of the Taaluks, under the 
charge of Meer Futah Ali, the TaaMkddr of Chuck-Bdldpoor (from 
which amount, however, certain deductions remain to be made), and 
that you have taken very rigid measures for enforcing payment of the 
same. Now, as the aforesaid Tualukddr has never before exercised the 
functions of that office, and as he is, moreover, a stranger, and 
inexperienced in business, it is our pleasure, that you desist from those 
rigorous proceedings, and be content with gradually realizing the balance 
due. You will therefore recall your Suzdivuls [bailiffs], to the end that 
the aforesaid Aumil may be relieved from his present dismay. 

N.B. The remainder of this letter is on an uninteresting subject. 


The preceding letter affords another exception to the usual severity of the Sultan 

on similar occasions. The motives assigned for his lenity, in the present instance 


(2) The cypher here referred to does not appear. It is called a couplet cypher, because 
the key lo it was comprehended in a Bile^ or Distich, 


are, no doubt, satisfactory and creditable to his justice ; though, as in the case of 
the Sipahddr, Mahoinmed AH, they necessarily bring in question the prudence 
of the Sultan ; w horn we see placing men m trusts, to which he knew them to be 
unequal. The following letter will be found to breathe a very different spirit. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan ; dated 28th Behary. (\\th June.') 

Your letter, on the subject of the revenue accounts of the Huwaili/^^^ 
and Taalitk of Ali-Niigr (depending on Giiramcoondah) , has passed 
under our view, and is duly understood. You must examine the accounts 
of the said Taaldks in the strictest manner, and apply yourself diligently 
to the realization of the revenue. On this occasion, you must flog, 
without favour or partiality to any, all such persons as, adopting the 
practice of ingratitude, have defrauded the Sircar. By this means, let 
the payment of our dues be enforced. 

N.B. The rest of this letter is omitted as immaterial. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 29th BehJIry. (\.2th June^ 

Your letter has been received. We highly approve of your having 
placed the Kushoon of the Sipahddr, Mahommed Ali, with Biirhiinuddeen : 
in the room of which you must take Shaikh Unscr [and his corps] ; that 
commander and his men being intelligent and well instructed. 

You should open a ncgociation with the garrison of Nergdnd, througli 
the Kilaaddr of Bdddmj/, or the Kdzy of Tdrkul, or through any 


(1) The Iluwailj/ is the principal division of a Sircar, or dislrict; the chief town of 
which is always included in it. 


otlwr channel ; and endeavour, by some means or other, to obtain speedy 
possession of the fort. 


The reader will recollect, that the measure, for the execution of which Kum- 
ruddeeu is here commended, did not originate with him, but had been directed 
by the Sultan, and a compliance with it evaded, in the first instance, by the 

I am inclined to infer, from the instructions here given to Kumruddeen for 
opening a negociation with the garrison of Nergund, that the Sultan sometimes 
addressed his orders to one, and sometimes to another of the two commanders 
employed against that place, and that they were in the habit of communicating such 
orders to each other. It would be difficult, indeed, on any other supposition, to 
account for such an order as the present one being apparently addressed to Kumrud- 
deen exclusively ; since there can be very little doubt that Burhaniiddeen took the 
lead, at least, in all political, if not also in all military movements, connected 
with the general command of the army now advanced towards the Mahrattah 
frontier. It is, on the other hand, possible, that similar instructions to those 
under consideration may have been addressed directly to Burhanuddeen, although 
no entry, to that effect, appears in the correspondence. 


2b Burhanuddeen; dated 2d Jaafvry (\6thJune.^ 

Your letter, containing an application for money to enable you to 
make up some clothes, has been received. You may take three hundred 
rupees from the Tosheh-khd7iek,^^^ and apply that sum to the purposes of 
furnishing yourself with apparel. 


(1) For an explanation of this term, see the observations on this letter. 


Muster returns of the wliole of the troops under your command, 
■wlictlier cavah-y, regular infantry, or other description, as well as a 
statement of [your] receipts and disbursements, must be sent to us. 

A month has elapsed since Kumruddeen's batteries were established 
close to the fort ; but you have ijot advanced so far from your side, 
although you commenced your approaches so much sooner than he did. 
Tliis is what we do not understand. It is necessary, that you should be 
more expeditious in the prosecution of this business ; and that, by 
properly battering the walls of the place, you should effect such a plain 
and practicable breach, as may enable you to storm it with success. 
In this affair you must be brisk and active. 


Parsimony, or perhaps, more strictly speaking, a rigid economy in his general 
expenditure,, was always known to be a prominent feature in the character of 
Tippoo SuUan ; and we have here a curious and striking proof of the fact. One 
of his jirincipal generals, and his brother-in-law, is obliged to apply to him for 
the means of providing himself with wearing apparel ; and the Sultan, although 


he complies with the request, is so far from leaving any thing on the occasion to 
the discretion of Burhanuddeen, that he restricts him to the disbursement of a 
specific sum, in fixing of which he certainly has displayed none of the munificence 
of ft sovereign prince. 

The Tosheh-hhiineh is distinguished by Tippoo himself (in one of the letters of 
the present collection) into two kinds, viz. the NukJi/ and Jam/. The former I 
take to have been the Treasury, properly so called, or office in which the current 
specie, and, perhaps, bullion were deposited. The latter would appear to have 
comprehended a great variety of articles besides the wardrobe ; to which, however, 
the term Tosheh-hhihich is, I believe, usually restrained in the nortliern parts of 
Hlndoatan. Where this word occurs by itself (that is, without its being joined to 
the viorA^NuMy or JUmy, which is in general the case) it is not easy to determine 

M its 


its precise sense. In some places, as in the present letter, it appears to signify the 
treasury in its strictest sense ; in others, the wardrobe ; and, occasionally, a 
general storehouse or magazine. The Jbm/, in some parts of Hindostan, includes 
ordnance and ordnance stores ; but I am unable to say, whether the term was, 
on any occasion, applied in the same manner by Tippoo Sultan. 

It would be a difficult matter to judge, how far the censure here passed on the 
conduct of Burhaniiddeen before Nevgdnd, was justly merited, without a much 
fuller knowledge of the circumstances and operations of the siege than we possess. 
It may be presumed, however, that it was upon such a knowledge that the judgment 
of the Sultan was formed ; and that, consequently, there was actually some 
remissness manifested by Burhanuddeen on this occasion. 


To the same ; dated2d Jaafury. (\^th June^ 

The Piddelis from the [adjacent] Taahiks of the Sircar, [at present] 
stationed with your army, are distressed for want of [the usual] means 
of subsistence ; we therefore write to desire, that, In order to remove 
their difficulties, you will make them a montldy allowance of ten fanams 
per man. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; same date, (lath June^ 

Your letter, together with the Hindku/ enclosure, addicsscd to the 
Aumil of Vencatigeery , has heen received, and the particulars therein 
stated are become known. 

Write to the aforesaid Aumil, that he must address Baboo Rao, the 
renter of Vellore, to this effect, viz. " that it is not the custom of the 

" Taaldksy 


" Taaliths belonging to our Sircar to allow the residence of robbers 
*' therein ; and that, upon the discovery of any such, they are imiuc- 
" diately put to death." What more ? 


The Hlndivy enclosure, here referred to, was probably from the renter of 
Vellore (in the Carnatic), requiring some robbers, sujiposed to have taken refuge 
in the Vencatigeery district, to be delivered up. The answer ordered to be sent to 
this demand is a sufficient proof of the little disposition which the Sultan had to 
maintain an amicable, or even civil, intercourse with tlie existing government of the 


2o Chishty Yar Khan j'^'^ dated 5ih Jaafvry. (I8th June.') 

Your letter has been received, and its contents are duly understood. 
What you write, respecting the rigorous proceeding of Mahommed 
Ushruf, the Darogha of Gooti/, in sending five horsemen to enforce 
payment of the third instalment of the revenue of your district, is 

Esteeming you to be intelligent in business, a person of integrity, and 
a well-wisher of our government, we appointed you to your present 
chaige ; and we confidently trust, that you will use your utmost exer- 
tions to promote the interest of the Sircar, the prosperity of your Taalilk, 
and the Increase of its revenue ; and [especially] that you will, according 

M 2 to 

(1) This is the same person to whom Letter LIV is addressed ; and who, perliaps, owed 
the mortiiiciuion of having a Siizd-xiil placed over liim by Mahommed Ushruf, to the ali'ront 
he had lately put upon the iutter. See Letter LIV. 


to your written engagement, discharge tlie whole of the third A7^^ within 
the period of a month, paying the amount thereof into our treasury. In 
this persuasion, we transmit you a Purivdneh, to the address of the 
aforesaid*-^ \_Darogha'], directing him to withdraw his horsemen, which 
you will accordingly forward to him. You must, at the same time, 
labour most diligently in the improvement of your laaliik, and in the 
collection and augmentation of its revenues. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan, Detp'Jn of KuRPAH : an Extract; 
dated 6th Jaafvry. (\9th *TuneJ) 

What you have stated to us, respecting the pay of four men belonging 
to [the garrison of] Guramcoondah, who have been some time dead, 
having been appropriated to their own use by the officers of that place, is 
revealed. We desire you will enquire very particularly into this trans- 
action ; and having ascertained the time that the aforesaid officers 
have been in possession [or receipt] of this money, make them refund 
the same. 


I am not clear, whether it be here meant that the officers continued to draw 
Jindreceive the pay of the deceased men after their death, or that they had only 


(2) This P«?ttv/;if A accordingly appears, but I hare not thought it necessary to translate 
it. It is sufficient to mention, that alter bearing testimony to the (jualifications of Chishty 
Yar Kiian, as an officer of revenue, the Sultan observes, that if the Taalukddr in question 
should not discharge the A'w/ due at the stipulated time (which, on this occasion, he states 
at a month and a half, tliough, in the letter to Chisht}' Yar Khan, it is said to be a monthj, 
there will be do impropiiety in placing Suzdwuh over him, to enforce payment of the same. 


possessed themselves of the pay due to them at their decease. In either case, the 
notice taken of the offence by the Sultan appears extremely slight. 


To Mahommed Ushruf, DeivAn of the Kuchurry of Gooty; dated 

^th Jaafury. (2Qth Jiine.^ 

Directing the name of Fyze Hisiir to be substituted for that of 

Similar orders were issued, under the same date, directing Bidhdn-y 
to be in future called Sumrputn, and Chittledoorg to be named Furkhydb 


Some of the letters in this collection, instead of being complete transcripts of 
those dispatched, are only, as it were, notes of the originals. These heads, or 
memorandums of dispatches, are titled and dated like the entire entries, but are 
distinguished by beginning always with the words ^-•lJJJ or wUjj that is to say, 
" on the subject of " followed by a brief abstract of the subject. 

The present letter is the first of this description that has occurred. I propose, 
in every future case of the kind in question, to render the introductory words just 
quoted, in the same way I have done on the present occasion, namely, by the 
word " directing," or other suitable participle ; which will sufficiently distinguish 
this portion of the correspondence from the more complete part. 



7b IMahommed Ghyasj dated Seringapatam, 5th Jaafury. 

(I8th Ju7ie.} 

If tlieyC) should allow Noor Maliommed Khan to depart, then you 
must dispatch him hither, and practising procrastination, you will your- 
self remain behind for some time, writing us occasionally the news [of 
that quarter]. In the event, however, of their not giving the aforesaid 
Khdn his audience of leave, you must both of you continue there ; and 
contrive, by one means or another, to amuse them for a certain time, 
and to deceive them by speeches, calculated to flatter their selfish views^-^ 
[or to work upon their avariciousncss]. 


The real situation of these envoys at Poonah, as well as their continuance there 
So long, is enveloped in a good deal of obscurity. At one time it is intimated, 
that the Mahrattah government have objections to the departure of Noor Mabom- 
med Khan ; at another, Nana Furnaveese is seen to hint an intention of dismissing 
both envoys. The Sultans wishes and intentions respecting them are, at least, 
equally inexplicable ; and will appear still more so, as we proceed in the corres- 
pondence. The only conclusion to be distinctly drawn from the present dispatch 
is. that if the agents remained at Poonah, it was to be with no other objects than 
those of transmitting intelligence, and of amusing and deceiving the Mahrattah 
government. This is clearly and explicitly expressed ; and abundantly proves, 
that he thought of nothing less, at this time, than of affording any satisfaction 


(I) /. e. the government of Poonah. 
[1) Original jj^^ J;^ 

T I P r O O S U L T A N. 8/ 

whatsoever to that government. Whether by " speeches calculated to flatter their 
" selfish views," it was meant, that tiie envoys should hold out the temptation of 
bribes to the Mahrattah ministers, or only that they should continue to profess his 
readiness to discharge the arrears of Paishcush due by him, is doubtful ; but it is 
by no means so, that the Sultan had no serious intention of parting with his 
money for either purpose. 


^b Mahommed Ghous ; same date. (I8th tTune.} 

Some time since, a Distich, according to the Jaml form or rule,('> was 
conununlcated to you, and has, no doubt, been comprehended by you. 
A scroll, exhibiting the details of that rule, and which will make you 
completely acquainted with the subject, is now enclosed. Nobody besides 
yourself is to be admitted to a knowledge of it ; and when you have any 
thing of a particular or secret nature to communicate, you must write in 
this cypher. 

N. B. At the end of the foregoing letter a Distich is added, which I take to be 
the Distich referred to in the beginning of it, though that would seem to have 
been transmitted on a former occasion. Of the scroll spoken of, nothing appears. 
I omit the Distich, because I am, at present, unable to make out the meaniu"- 
of it. 


The title of this letter assigns it to Mahommed Ghous : but I incline to think 

that Ghous is an error of my transcriber, for Ghyds. If not, I am unable to say 


(1) Juml is the aritlimctical rule of addition, upon the principle of which the cyjjher in 
question (wliich I do not at present comprehend) may possibly have been founded. 


who Mahommed Ghous was, or what diplomatic situation he filled ; for such, it is 
reasonable to suppose, must have been his employment, from the injunction given 
him to write occasionally in cypher. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 6th Jjafvry. (\Oth June.") 

Your letter, advising us of your having detached a JRisula to Kuti'- 
nek-geeri/, has been received, and we approve of what you have done. 
We desire [however] that you will particularly state, whose Risdla 
you have sent [on this service], as well as what number of cavalry it 
consists of. Your are to send the pay ahstracts(') of this cavalry to 
Mohyuddeen Ali Khan, the Deivdn of Knrpah. 

Having erected batteries close to the Avails of the fort, and well 
breached the same, you will, with the concurrence of the Sipahddrs and 
other commanders with you, assault and reduce the place. It will be 
better, however, to endeavour, to the utmost of your power, to gain 
possession of it by maimgement,^-^ and by striking an awe into the gar- 
rison. It must be stormed only in case of absolute necessity. 


The kind of management here recommended to Kumruddeen Khdn will more 
fully appear in subsequent letters. It consisted in the practice of every un])rin- 
cipled art that might tend to circumvent the garrison, and induce them to submit 
to terms. 

(1) la the original ^jlX^ Tusdeek, I am not certain tliat I have rendered the term 

(2) In the original I4* c>»«^ Ilikmui-iumlj/y which signifies, finesse, trick, stratagem, 
circumvention, &(c. 



To the same ; dated Serixg^pai'^m, Sth Jaafvry. (2\st June.^ 

Your letter has passed under our view, and its contents are duly 

We notice what you state, respecting the mortality prevailing among 
the t/i/she,'-^^ in consequence of the unhealthiness^-) of your position, and 
approve of your having dispatched the commanders of companies^^) into 
the adjacent districts, in search of recruits to fill up the vacancies [which 
have occurred]. You must, furthermore, order additional levies, for the 
purpose of completing your own Kushoon, as well as to enable you to 
send a supply to the Presence. 

There are physicians attached to your Kmhoon : let them be strictly 
enjoined to attend diligently to the care of your sick. The officers, also, 
of the said Kushoon, must be peremptorily directed to prevent desertion 
among their men. The horses and cattle belonging to your baggage 
should be dispatched to some place abounding in forage, and the R'lsd- 
laddrs, having charge of them, must be instructed accordingly. 

Agreeably to our former directions, let a capitulation be granted to the 
besieged, allowing them to depart with their arms and accoutrements. 
Kala Pundit, with his family and kindred, and the principal bankers, 
must also be induced, by engagements, '^^^ to descend from the fort, upon 
doing which they are to be placed under a guard, and ten lacks of pa- 
godas to be demanded of them, for the ravages committed in our terri- 

N tories, 

(1) Or that part of the army composed of irregular infantry. 

(2) Ori<;inal lybj c_>l i_jLi-l " hadncss of the air and water." 

(3) Original ^^^Li.^ Sur-kheeldn ; literally the heads of tribes, A company of irre- 
gulars appears to have been called a K/ud, while a company of regulars was called a Jowk. 

(4) Original Jyi A'oa7. 


tories. If they pay this sum, it will be well ; otherwise they must be 
kept in confinement. In short, you are, by finesse, to get the aforesaid 
Pandit^ together with his kindred and the bankers, out of the fort, and 
then to secure their persons. 

[A few lines, containing other directions of no consequence, are here 

When your batteries are erected close to the walls of the fort, and the 
ditch is completely filled, you will, if the measure be approved of by 
the Sipcihddrs, advance to the assault : otherwise the attempt will not be 
proper, inasmuch as this is a hill-fort qffxiirS^) 

N.B. A letter, of the same tenor and date, but less in detail, was dispatched 
to Biirhanuddeen. 


To the same; dated 10th Jaafury. (23c? J'une.') 

We have received your letter, acknowledging the receipt of twenty-one 
thousand pagodas ; and representing that, so far from that sum sufficing 
for the payment of all your troops, it is inadequate even to the payment 
of the regular infantry. It is understood. Adverting to this very cir- 
cumstance, we some time since wrote to you, desiring you to transmit to 
us a full and distinct statement of the monthly disbursements of the 
troops under your command, in order that Ave might make you the 
necessary remittances. We now repeat those directions ; upon your 
complying with which we will take your report into consideration, and 
supply you with money [according as may appear requisite to us]. 

N.B. There follows here another short passage, respecting the pay of the 
troops, which I suspect to have been miscopied, but which is, at any rate, unin- 
telligible to me. 

(5) Original Jbj^ a^Jj <t<jA« 



2o the Badshah ;('> dated \Qth Jaafvry, (23d June.^ 

Upon receipt of the Imperial Miindate, [my] glorified head touched 
the summit of honour. The special gifts of ennol)ling* quality [or 
virtue], which your Majesty, in your boundless favour, graciously 
bestowed [on nic], by the hands of Rao Bal Mukn Doss, also arrived 
in the most auspicious conjuncture, and put [me] in possession of the 
wealth of distinction and pre-eminence. In acknowledgment of this 
magnificent donation, [I] respectfully offer [my] most humble obei- 

This stedfast believer, with a view to the support of the firm religion 
of Mahommed, undertook [some time since] the chastisement of the 
Nazarcne tribe ; who, unable to maintain the war [I] waged against 
them, solicited peace [of me] in the most abject manner. This is so 
notorious a fact, as not to require to be enlarged on. With the divine 
aid and blessing of God, it is now again [my] steady determination to set 
about the total extirpation and;destruction of the enemies of the faith. 

In token of [my] sincere attachment [or devotion] to your Majesty, 
[I] send, by ivaij of Nuzr, a hundred and twenty-one gold Mo/us to 
your resplendent Presence : let them be [or may they be] honoured by 
[your Majesty's] acceptance. [I] am humbly hopeful, that [I] may 
continue to be honoured and distinguished by the receipt of your 
ennobling commands. More would exceed the bounds of respect. 

N 2 

(1) That is, the reigning emperor, or sovereign, of Dehli, Shall Alluni. Tliis letter is 
ciitiilcd an " Urzdds/ii," i, c. a petition, memorial, or humble address. 



Notwithstanding the apparent air of humihty, which may be thought to pervade 
the first paragraph^ in particular, of the foregoing letter, it is nevertheless remark- 
ably deficient in the forms of respect, invariably observed in all addresses to the 
Emperor of Hindostan (even though " fallen from his high estate ") from those 
acknowledging him as their sovereign. The writer here does not once stjde himself, 
as is customary, " the slave," " the devoted servant," or even " the dejiendent" (in 
any respect) of Shah Allum. The very manner in which he offers his Nuzr is 
lofty, and unsuitable to the occasion ; but is still less ofi'ensive and affronting than 
the Nuzr itself, as will be seen by the following letter. In short, the address is 
marked throughout with a strong and visible repugnance to any direct or express 
acknowledgment of the imperial authority. This is more especially shown in the 
studied omission of the nominative case, the use of which would have reduced him 
to the necessity of employing some of the ordinary terms of respect appropriate to 
similar occasions ; such as, " this slave," or the like. The nominative, in fact, 
occurs but once in the course of the letter ; and then it is not " this devoted 
" servant," but " this stedfast believer" in Mahommed, 

There can be no doubt, that by the Nazarenes, mentioned in the second 
paragraph, the English are meant ; and tha* the peace alluded to is that of 
Mangalore, concluded in March 1^84, or about fifteen months previously to the 
date of the letter under consideration. Here, then, we have an indisputable 
proof, that it was " the steady determination " of the Sultan, as early, at least y 
as June 1783, to seize the first favourable occasion of " utterly extirpating and 
" destroying" us. It is highly probable, however, that this resolution was taken 
long before it was announced to Shah Allum, and, in short, that it was coeval 
■with the very treaty by which he bound himself to maintain the relations of amity 
with us. Unfortunately, his instructions to the first embassy which he dispatched 
to Europe (via Const anthwple) and which I conceive to be that alluded to in 
Letter VII, have not been preserved, or, at least discovered ; otherwise, there is 
abundant reason to suppose, that this document would have fully showTi, that a 



vigorous prosecution of the war against us, was an object which never ceased to 
occupy his chief attention, from the moment of his accession to the Musnud. 
Subsequent events, indeed, compelled him to suspend, for some time, but not to 
abandon, his hostile purposes ; nor would he seem to have ever taken any 
particular pains to conceal them. In his own Durhdr he certainly did not : and 
there is sufficient ground for concluding, that he was not more reserved on the 
subject, in his occasional communications to other foreign or independent powers, 
than tothe Emperor of Dehli. It is not unlikely, indeed, that he wrote with 
less freedom than he spohe of his intentions, or than he authorized his diplomatic 
agents to speak of them. Oral declarations could be easily disclaimed, and would 
be difficult to prove ; while written ones, unless very cautiously expressed, might 
lead to premature discovery. Accordingly he has not, in the present letter, 
distinctly and explicitly stated, that the English were " the enemies of the faith," 
whom he was determined " to extirpate ;" although few persons will entertain any 
doubt on the subject. Still, however, if the letter had been intercepted, or 
communicated to the British government, and he had been questioned regarding 
it, he might have pretended that he meant the Koorgs, or Nairs, or Mahrattahs ; 
all of whom being infidels, as well as the English, might be equally considered as 
••' enemies of the faith." It is not to be denied, that the Sultaji, all this while, 
kept up a cold and formal intercourse, by letter, with the British government in 
India ; but there can be little question that this was a constraint, to which he 
submitted with reluctance ; and only because he could not have waved such a 
correspondence, without manifesting, thereb)', to that government itself, and in 
a manner more direct and explicit than he was yet prepared to do, the hostile 
spirit by which he was actuated towards it. In fine, though he either did not 
deem it necessary, or was unable, from the violence of his hatred, to conceal his 
designs against us from his own dependents, or from some of the foreign princes 
and states with whom he was in correspondence, still it is not to be supposed, that 
he was absolutely indifferent to our being apprized of them ; since, no doubt, he 
would rather have taken us by surprise, than have found us prepared to resist 
him : he, therefore, continued to maintain an outward show of distant civility 
towards us, till weary of waiting for the assistance he had been ltd to expect 



from the French, and no longer able, perhaps, to restrain the rancour which 
animated him against us, he at length gave full vent to it ; and by an open attack 
on our ally, the lidjah of Travancore, plunged into that war from which he had 
hitherto abstained, only because he hoped, by delay, to prosecute it to greater 
advantage. But with his impetuous feelings, delay, beyond a certain point, was 
intolerable ; and, therefore, yielding to those feelings, he willingly incurred the 
hazards of a contest, to which, though standing alone, he doubtlessly thought him- 
self more equal than the event proved him to be. 

The only remaining observation, suggested by the foregoing letter, relates to 
the professed object of the last war waged by Hyder Ali Khan against the 
English ; for the war alluded to in the second paragraph must, of course, have 
been that of 178O, though the Sultan, on this occasion, has thought proper to 
sink the name of his father. This war is said to have been undertaken " with a 
" view to the support of the Mahommedan religion." This may serve as a clue 
to the real, however covert, meaning of Mahommedans, and particularly bigotted 
ones, whenever they talk of " holy wars," of " wars entered into for the advance- 
" ment or security of Islam" and of " the extirpation of the enemies of the 
" faith." This language is susceptible, no doubt, of being applied to other 
infidels besides tlie Nazarenes ; but the time and occasion of its use, to say 
nothing of other circumstances, always sufficiently indicate who are actually 
intended. Thus, in the present case, the context so plainly points at the 
English, that we will venture to say, it would be difficult to find a candid and 
intelligent Mussulman, who would hesitate, for an instant, to declare his convic- 
tion, that they, and they alone, were alluded to in the passage in question. 
Indeed, it may be farther remarked, in confirmation of this opinion, that the 
'• extirpation " of the Mahrattahs would never seem to have been an object in 
the contemplation of the Sultan ; whose hatred to that nation was far less virulent 
than that which he bore to the English ; nor was their jwwer viewed by him with 
the same fear or jealousy. In his disputes with them, the acquisition of some 
fort or district, or the relinquishment of some pecuniary demand, was probably 
all that he at any time contended for. 



To MuNZOOR Am Khan ;(') same Date. (23d June.') 

Having heard, from Rao Bal Mukn Doss, of the many excellencies 
and virtues which distinguish your character, the information has been 
productive of the greatest satisfiiction to me. A bag,^^^ containing an 
Urz-ddshf P^ nddressed to the resplendent Presence, and accompained by a 
Nuzi-^^^ of a hundred and twenty-one gold Mo/irs, is herewith dis- 
patched ; and I trust to your friendship and kindness, for presenting the 
same to his Majesty's blessed notice. 

Many Mussulmans are in the habit of carrying about their persons (in 
pockets and the like) for their convenience [or to answer occasional calls] 
gold Mohrs and Rupees. But, inasmuch as the gold and silver coins, 
stamped with the names of the rulers of the age, contravene the pre- 
scriptions of our liturgy, I have, on this account, devised and coined, 
and caused to be circulated, a new and superior kind of gold Mohr ; in 
which the names of God, of the Holy Prophet, and of the august 
Prince of Sanctity and of Sages, (^^ are introduced. Of this new coinage 
is my Nuzr to his Majesty composed ; and I have likewise sent, in 
token of friendship, twenty-five of the same sort of gold Mohrs for your 


(1) Munzoor Ali Kli^n was the chief of the eunuchs at the court of Dehli, and at this 
period the princi[)al confidential servant of Shah Alium. He was, in fact, the minister of tlic 

(2) Letters to persons of any distinction arc usually enclosed in baj^s, called Khureela, 
The materials with which these bags are made arc regulated by the rank of the persoa 

(3) An Urz, or humble address ; a petition. 

(4) A present, or offering, from an inferior to a superior. 

(5) Meaning AIL 


Considering me to be always anxious to hear of your welfare, you must 
occasionally make me happy by your friendly letters. Other particulars 
will be made known to you, by the letter addressed to you by Bal Mukn 
Doss. For the rest, may content and gladness attend you. 


Though the various pseudo-sovereigns, who sprung up on the dissolution or dis- 
memberment of the Mogul Empire, in different parts of Hindostan, soon threw 
off the authority of the Court of Dehli in all material points, they, nevertheless, 
continued to observe towards it some of the external forms of homage and 
dependence ; such as styling themselves, in their addresses to the reigning repre- 
sentative of the house of Timur, " his faithful slave" or " devoted subject;" 
presenting him on certain festivals, and on other occasions, with the Nuzrs 
appropriate to royalty, and soliciting or accepting titles of honour from him. But 
the chief symbol, or vestige, of the nominal power, thus conceded to him, con- 
sisted in the general practice which had obtained among these upstart rulers, of 
continuing to stamp the current coins of their respective territories with the usual 
legend of the imperial coinage; by which means the Emperor, for the time being, 
became every where ostensibly recognized as the legitimate sovereign ; and his 
name, at least, rescued from oblivion, and even rendered familiar to the people in 
general. Of this empty honour, Tippoo Sullan was, I believe, the first, and, 
indeed, the only one'^' of these self-created princes, who thought fit to divest him. 
Not content, however, with putting this affront upon the aged monarch, he had 
the temerity to aggravate it in the highest degree, by sending the latter a Nuzr, 
consisting of a coin, from the inscription on which the name and titles of Shah 


(6) For I do not (with Captain Moor) consider the Abdalli, or King of Cdbid, as forming 
an exception, that country having been formally ceded by the Emperor, Mahommed Shah, 
to the Persians, from whom it was wrested by Ahmed Shall Abdalli, otherwise called 


AUum were entirely excluded. The argument, by which he ■attempted to justify 
this innovation, was sufficiently curious and frivolous, but was little calculated to 
reconcile, even a Mahommedan court to it: accordingly, as will hereafter be seen, 
it was not submitted to in silence. 

Never having seen a gold Mohr, of the specific coinage employed by the Sultan 
on this occasion, I am, of course, not enabled to say to what degree he adhered, 
in the legend impressed upon it, to the sanctimonious principle by which he 
professed to regulate it. The gold Mohr, of which a representation is given by 
Captain Moor, in his Narrative of Little's Campaign,"^ happens to be of the year 
Zubrjudy'^ or six years posterior to the date of the two preceding letters ; and in 
this interval, the Sultan, no doubt, might have made some alteration in the 

There is, however, in the publication just referred to, the figure of a double 
Rupee, struck in the same year (namely Julio) in which Tippoo dispatched his 
Nuzr to Delili ; and it is probable that the inscription on the gold Mohrs, of 
which the latter consisted, differed little, or perhaps nothing, from that which 
appears on the Rupee of the same year. Assuming this for the fact, let us exa- 
mine how far the inscription in question corresponds with the description given of 
it by the Sultan, in the foregoing letter. 

On one side is the following legend, written here in the order in which I sup- 
pose it intended to be read: 

which may be translated, " the religion, or faith, of Ahmed [i, e. of Mahommed] 
" is rendered luminous on earth by the victories of Hyder."" Struck at Putn 
" \i. e. Seringapatam'] in the year Jullo^^"'' [or] H'lgera 11 99." 

O Here 

(7) Vide fig. 4, plate I, page 465. 

(S) Captain Moor not being iK-qiiaintcd witli the Sultan's Kalcnclar, was not aware that 
Zubrjud was the name of a particular year, xiz. the forty-fifth of the Mi/sore Cjdc, and cor- 
responding witli A. I). 1791. 

(y) Or, " derives its [present] lustre on eartli from the victories of Hyder." 

(10) Julio (whicii, like Zubrjud, was not understood by the author of the Narrative) was 
tlic ;i9th year of tiie Mjjsorc Ci/clc, and coincides with A. D. 1785. 


Here Hyder, though ostensibly standing for the Caliph AH (one of whose names 
or titles it was) was, in all probability, intended by the Sultan to suggest the idea 
of his own father ; whose name is, by this contrivance, introduced into the legend, 
without any direct or open deviation from the rule proposed to be followed. In 
like manner, the word Futak, though apparently conveying no other meaning 
than its usual and obvious one, viz. victory, may be safely supposed as designed 
to shadow out either his own original name, or that of his paternal grandfather, 
viz. Futah Ali Khan. Here, then, in two words, seemingly employed for a 
different purpose, has he ingeniously managed to impress his coin, not only with 
one of his own names, but also with those of his father and grandfather ; and so 
far, without any verbal breach of the law he had imposed upon himself. 

We will now enquire, how he has succeeded in the exergue, or reverse, of the 
coin under consideration ? 

The leg-end is as follows : 

(_^wjji»- <i>i-!_ji=- jL) t^j^^ Aj^ j-^w^ -v*-^^ ^,yj\ jA 

That is, " He [i. e. God] is the only Sultan [or Lord] and dispenser of justice- 
" 3d [of the month] Behdry, year Julio, and third of the reign." 

It is very remarkable, that the first word in this inscription (or .>) and, conse- 
quently, that which immediately precedes the word Sultan, is so impressed, as to 
be susceptible, without any extraordinary licence or exercise of the fancy, of being 
read Tippoo. For the tail, or lower part of the ^ does not appear in its usual 
form, but assumes something like the figure of a crescent, and might, therefore, 
be very easily taken for an ornament, instead of a component part of a character. 
Omitting, then, the tail (as if it were nothing bat a flourish) the rest of the word 
will be exactly the same as if it were the proper name Tippoo, written without 
the diacritical points, the omission of which, though certainly unusual in coins, is 
common enough on other occasions. Supposing this, therefore, to have been the 
Sultan's design, the sense would be, " Tippoo, the only Sultan, the just." 

On the whole, then, it may be observed, that with the help of a few equivoques 
(of which he seems, on many occasions, to have been very fond) he has contrived, 
while fullilling his promise of inserting in his coin none but the names of God, of 



the Prophet, and of AH, to impress it also, without actually appearing to do so, 
with the names of at least " two rulers of the age." 

The date on the reverse of the rupee which we have been considering, shows 
that it was struck on the anniversary of his Jdloos, or enthronement, which took 
place on the 3d of Behdry of the year Suhh ,•'"' corresponding, as nearly as I can 
calculate, to the 10th of May 1783 ; and being, therefore, somewhat more than 
five months subsequent to the death of Hyder/'-' 

It would not be easy to assign any consistent or rational motive for the conduct 
of the Sultan, with respect to the court of Dehli. If he thought it capable of 
promoting any of the objects of his ambition, and was, on this account, desirous 
of cultivating a good understanding with it, it is rather extraordinary, that he 
should have adopted the measure of rendering such a Niizr to the Emperor, as 
a very little reflection might have satisfied him, was but ill calculated to conciliate 
the favour of that court towards him. If, on the other hand, he neither expected 
nor desired any thing from it, it is equally strange, that he should have put 
himself to any trouble or expence, in maintaining an intercouse with it. The 
mere news of the place (that, too, transmitted to him only at distant intervals) 
could prove very little interesting, and still less, useful to liim. 


(11) Sec the Introduclion. This is the word occurring in the reverse of the impression of 
Tippoo's gold ^/t)/ir given by Captain Moor; (fig. 4. plate I.) but wiiich he, owing to the 
inis|)lacing of the diacritical points, was led to read Sunh. 

(12) If Sukh, however, should have been a leap year (a doubt that I have not the means 
of clearing up) then its coninK'nccinent would coincide \vith the 10th or 11th of March 
(instead of the 9th of April) 1783 ; and, consequently, the 3d of Bchdri) would be thrown 
back to the 10th or 1 1th of April. What leads me to prefer the 10th of May is, that 
Tippoo, in his Memoirs, fixes the death of his father on the 3d of Zdkirij. Now from the 
3d of Zdktrij (corresponding to the 1st Mohurrcm, A. H. 1147) to the 3d of Behdri/, is 
exactly five months: so iliai, if liyder died in December 1782, it follows that the /«/o05 
of his son must have taken place in Ma}-, and not in April. 


To MoAL Chund and Sujan Rae^'^; same Date. (23d i/une.y 

Your letter, with the newspapers which accompanied it, has passed 
under our view, and the contents tliereof are understood. 

A bag-, enclosing an address [[from us] to the resplendent Presence,(-> 
together with a hundred and twenty-one gold Mohrs of a new coinage, 
[designed] in the way of Nuzr, as Ukewise a separate bag, to the 
address of Munzoor Ali Khan, and twenty-five of the same kind of gold 
Mohrs, as a token of [our] friendship [for the said Khdii], are sent 
herewith. For the greater security, the gold 3Iohrs have been sewed 
up in the gannents^^^ of the messengers. You will, therefore, on their 
arrival, take the gold Mohrs from their garments, and, through the 
medium of Munzoor Ali Khan, present a hundred and twenty-one of 
them, with our Zh-z-ddsht [or humble address], to his Majesty, delivering 
the remaining twenty-five to the aforesaid Khdn. 

A bill of exchange for one thousand rupees is sent herewith. Out of 
the amount [when realized] you are to take for yourselves sixteen 
months' arrears of wages, at thirty rupees per month, making four hun- 
dred and eighty rupees ; and a twelvemonth's wages, at the same rate, 
in advance, being three hundred and sixty rupees ; or, together, eight 
hundred and forty rupees. Eighteen rttpees, which are to be paid to the 
Hurkdrehs [or messengers, on their arrival at Dehir\ being added to 
this sum, there will remain one hundred and forty-two 7-npees, •which 


( 1 ) These persons were the Su!(an''s agents and news-writeis at Delili. 

(2) Tippoo, in several of his letters, has applied this phrase (^yj^jj-a*-) to himself. 

(3) Original Isai.^^ possibly meant for \btij- If not, I can make nothing of the word. 


you will apply to the payment of the [regular] wages of our Hurkdrehs. 
Of the two pair now dispatched, one of them, named Toliiram and 
Mhadajee, are to receive, the first ten, the other nine rupees per month. 
The second pair, named Kishnajee and Suntajee, are to receive each 
nine rupees per month. Both sets have received from us their wages, 
at the ahove rate, for three months ; namelv, from the befrinniner of 
Rujuh to the end of Rumuzdn 1199 (A.H.), While they continue with 
you, they arc to be paid at the specified rate, commencing from the 
month of Shuvwdl. When they are dispatched, two months' wages are 
to be advanced to each pair. 

You must [from time to time] faithfully and accurately communicate 
[to us] the intelligence of that quarter. 

You wrote, that you had dispatched to us, by a pair of hired Hur- 
kdrehs, two baskets of Hai-ddueh pomegranates, W together with a 
letter from yourselves. The said Hurkdrehs, with the letter and 
baskets, have not [hitherto] arrived. 

According to your desire, seventy-two rupees have been paid here to 
the last pair of hired Hurkdrehs dispatched by you. Further particulars, 
will be communicated to you by Rao Bal Mukn Doss. 


These two agents would seem to have been natives of Hindostan, and personally 
unknown to the Sultan ; by whom they were probably employed, on the recom- 
mendation of the Bal Mukn Doss, mentioned in this and the preceding letter.'" 


(4) Tiiis is the pomegranate without stones. It is not the produce of Hindostan, but is 
brou|;ht, together with grapes, apples, and otiicr tVuir, IVoni Culml aiici tlio adjaeent 
countries, by the horse nK-rchants. 

(5) Various dispatches from tiiese two agents to the Sultan were contained among tiie 
papers found at Seringapatam. 


This letter furnishes another instance of the minuteness to which the Sulfan was 
accustomed to descend in all matters of disbursement. Another sovereign, in his 
situation, would have left such details to one of his secretaries, or to the proper 
officers of the department to which they naturally belonged. But either this was 
a degree of confidence, which it was foreign to the character of Tippoo to repose 
in any of his servants, or he was ambitious of appearing to be equally attentive to 
the most trivial, as well as to the most important affairs of his government : nor 
can it be denied, that a general impression, to this effect, would tend, in some 
degree, to secure the fidelity and diligence of those whom he employed. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated \2th Jaafvry. (25th Jnne^ 

Your letter has been received, and your account of the batteries 

of Burhaniiddeen being completed is undei'stood. We have repeatedly 

written before now, desiring you to advance your batteries close to the 

walls of the fort ; to destroy these effectually ; to fill the ditch ; and 

[finally] with the concurrence and advice of the Slpahddrs, to proceed 

to the assault of the place. Such being the case, it is astonishing that 

you should still wait, and continually apply to us for fresh orders for 

storming. [We repeat, however, once more] : In case the walls are 

destroyed, and the ditch is filled, you must, with the advice and 

concurrence of the commanders with you, proceed to the assault and 

reduction of the place. 


The justice of the reproof contained in the preceding letter may be very fairly 
questioned : for though it is certain, that the Sultan had expressed considerable 
impatience to obtain possession of Nergdnd, yet his orders, relative to the means 



by wliich that object was to be pursued, could not be said to have been so explicit 
and distinct, as to leave no doubt of his real wishes and intentions ; for in Letter 
LIX he directs a negociation to be opened with the garrison for the surrender of 
the place, and about a week after (Letter LXVIII) he suggests the expediency of 
getting possession of it, by what he calls management, plainly saying, at the same 
time, " that it was not to be stormed, excepting in case of absolute necessity." 
The letter immediately following the last (or Letter LXIX) is not more decisive 
or explicit than the others. Thus it appears, that it was not without reason that 
Kumruddeen was desirous of receiving more precise and positive instructions for 
his guidance. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated \Ath 

Jaafury. (2'^th June?) 

If tlie chiefs of that place consent to Noor Mahommed Khan's 
repairing- hitlier, it will he well : and if they should dismiss you both, 
you must both, after formally declaring them to be responsible for the 
consequences,^') set out for our Presence. 


To Shaikh Ahbied, son of Mahommed Mukrum, the Merchant ; dated 
\5thJAAFVRY, and endorsed ^'^ KorrL-NAMEH."^^*^ (28fh June.} 

Having received a full account of you from the verbal report of Meer 


(1) In tlic oiiy;inul, " after fixing all blame upon them." 

(I *) A KowUmimi'h is a written engagement, whereby the person executing it promises to 
grant protcetion, or some particular favors or immunities, to the party receiving it. Kowl 
means also a capitulation. 


Mahommed Riza/^^ as well as from the representation of Mahommed 
Mukrum, we, in consequence, write to desire, that you will, imme- 
diately on receipt of this our bounteous mandate, set out with the 
utmost confidence of mind for our Presence, accompanied by your 
family, and such other persons as may be disposed to come with you. 
On your arrival here, you shall in all things experience our care and 
protection, agreeably to your wishes, and be appointed to the charge of 
the mercantile concerns, &c/'> A proper place shall be assigned you 
for a factory ; and such advances of money be made you, as may be 
requisite for enabling you to carry on your trade [advantageously], all 
the profits of which shall rest with you for the term of two years : during 
which time, also, we promise to grant you an exemption from all duties 
on your merchandize. Repair, therefore, to our Presence, without 
fear or distrust. All remaining particulars will be explained to you 
by the letter of Mahommed Mukrum, and the verbal communications 
of Meer Ali Riza.W 


The encouragement here held out to Shaikh Ahmed, seems to have been 
abundantly liberal, and shows how much the Sultan had it at heart to open 
a trade with those countries, of which he had no jealousy. It does not appear 
at what place Shaikh Ahmed was a resident, or whether he accepted the offers 
of the Sultan. 

(2) Literally, " by the tongue of." 

(3) I am doubtful whether the charge, or superintendance, of the 5'i<//a?j's own commercial 
concerns is meant to be included. 

(4) Most probably the same person as the Mcer Mahommed Rizu, mentioned in the 
beginning of the letter. 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dcitcd \Gth Jaafvry. (2dth June.') 

You write, tliat " the besieged have solicited a capitulation, through 
*' the ^lumii of Jidddmy, stipulating only for their lives and honour,0) 
" but requiring the guarantee of the Mdgrycotah man," In answer to 
this proposal, they must be told, that if they are willing to treat with 
the commandei's of our army, you are ready to grant them a capitu- 
lation, but that the Mdgrycotah man, not being a servant [a subject] of 
©urs, his agency in the affair cannot be admitted. 

We formerly issued orders for your dispatching your cavalry to graze 
[or forage], and we now repeat those orders. We also direct, that 
strict injunctions be given to the baggage department, for sending all 
the lean Tatoos,^'^\ bullocks, &c. to grass, the rainy season being now 
at ha7tdS^> 


The Sultan would not, for reasons sufficiently obvious, agree to any guarantee 
which he could not subsequently violate with perfect impunity. The garrison of 
Nergund knew ^vl^om they had to deal with ; and, therefore, naturally sought 
to obtain a better pledge for their security, than they could receive from the 
" commanders of his army," or any other person depending upon him. They 
were, in the end, however, compelled to trust to the good faith of the com- 
manders, and the event was sucli as they seem to have anticipated. 


(1) III tlio original .jU^U- ^vhe^e by ubroo is usually meant, more particularly, the 
sanctity of tlic Harem, or female part of a family. 

(2) A kind of poney, or small degenerate Iiorsc. 

(33 Such I take to be the strict meaning of uu— Ij^Asij*^ though I think it might also be 
rendered set in : and tiiis last sense •would, no doubt, better agree with the time of tha 
year, {viz. the end of June.) 



To the Sanore Man j('> dated \8th Jaafury. (\st July.') 

Your letter, containing an account of your welfare, adorned the 
face of arrival, and imparted joy and pleasure to us. What the pen of 
friendship has traced, in excuse for past offcnces, is comprehended. Of 
this matter not the slightest impression remains on the mind of this 
friend : the only fault {ov failure) imputable to that friend being, that 
he did not examine with care and dilig-ence into the state of his revenue 
accounts ; the consequence of which has been, a heavy deficiency in the 
amount realized. Our accomptants have made themselves thoroughly 
acquainted with the details of the territory held eonditionallr/ by you ;^^> 
and after making every fair and proper deduction for military charges, 
have ascertained the balance justly due to us from you/^^ You must, 
therefore, agreeably to your former promises, speedily pay the amount 
into the hands of the bankers, and dispatch the latter to us. You must 
not suffer any delay to take place in this matter. With respect to the 
accomptants and others in your employ, who have been guilty of the 
malversations [in question], you should compel them, by rigorous 
proceedings, to make restitution of the sums of which they have plun- 
dered yovi. 

In regard to the servants and Taaldkddrs of that friend, we assure 
him that no interruption or disturbance shall be given to them by any 

(1) It is AbdCil Hakeem Klian, the Nabob of Shanoor, that is here meant by this slighting 
designation ; whicli, thougli (no doubt) confined to the record, or entry, is no unccjuivocal 
mark of the little account he was held in at Seringapatam. 

(2) See Letter XVI. 

(3) This balance was stated, ia Letter XVI, at about thirty-eight lacks of rupees. 



To Mahommed Ghyas aml'Soon Mahommed Khan; sa7}ie Date. 

(1st Jidt/.} 

Your letter of the 9th of Jnafimf, was received on the 18th of the 
same month [or this day]. You write, " that in the course of a con- 
" ference which you had had with Rao Rasta, Hurry Pundit O heing 
" present gave a Hcence to his tongue, of a nature that tended to lower 
*' and disgiace you ; and that, in consequence, you thought it utterly 
" inexpedient to remain there any longer. 

It is known. Such being the ungracious and unpalatable state of 
things, what advantage can arise from it ? That friend, therefore, 
together with Noor Mahonuned Khan, must, at any rate, and without 
leaving a single individual of your mission behind you, set out for our 
Presence, nor wait for any farther orders. 


It might be supposed, from the recital here made by the Sultan of the letter of 
the envoys, that the latter had not communicated the offensive observations of 
Hurry Pundit in detail, but satisfied themselves with stating, that they had been 
of the most affronting nature. Be this as it may, it is clear that the Sultmis 
warmest indignation was excited on the occasion : nor did it immediately subside, 
since we shall presently see him repeating his order for the return of the envoys, 
in a still more peremptory tone than in the foregoing dispatch. But however 
wounded his pride might have been at first, by the injurious language imputed to 

P 2 Hurry 

(1) Hurry Pmiclit was at tlic licad of the army of tlio Malirattah emiiirc ; and, at a 
siibsf(jiiciit periotl, couinimidud tlic army sent by tlic yovcniiiiciit of Foonali to co-operate 
with Lord Cornwulhs. 


Hurry Pundit, he seems ultimately to have subdued, or at least to have repressed, 
his anger ; inasmuch as he thought proper, at no great distance of time, to change 
his mind with regard to the recall of his agents. 


To Meer Moaalla Khan, Kilaadar of Mudgvl ; dated 20th 

Jaafvry. (3d July.^ 

fArTER compliments] We have just learned, from the report 

of the Deputy Governor of Giijunder-ghur, that that friend, having 
t^ollected together a hody of troops, maintains himself with great firm- 
ness in the fort of Mudgul ; soliciting, however, at the same time, our 
assistance : we therefore write, to desire that you will, without any 
reserve or ceremony, state to us what succours you require, when, with 
the blessing of God, the same shall be effectually furnished. 


I am not quite certain with regard to the real name of the fort here mentioned, 
since, in the original, it is written both Mudgul and Nudgul. From the style 
and general tenor of this letter it might be concluded, that it was not addressed 
to any person in the service of the Sultan, but rather to the governor of a fort 
(belonging either to the Mahrattahs or to the Nizdm) who had entertained a 
traiterous correspondence with the Sultan. I am not, at present, sufficiently 
informed on the subject to clear up this point satisfactorily ; but if, in the course 
of this work, I should meet with any new light respecting it, I will communicate 
it in the Appendix. 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 23d Jaafury. (6th Juli/.') 

You write " that the Piddehs from Surhutty, who were stationed 
** with Kumruddeen Khan, have run away, and that Hght of our eyesO 
" has placed a Dalwdr^^ and a Vakeel in custody of a guard." It is 
kivown. Furnish Kumruddeen Khiin with other Piddehs, in the room 
of those who have deserted ; keep the two persons you mention in irons ; 
and seize, for the use of the Sircar, the horses and camels belonging to 


The context would, in this place, seem to imply, that the Dalwdr and Fakeel, 
here mentioned, belonged to Surhutty, and were seized and confined by Biir- 
hanuddecn, as a sort of hostages for the fugitive Piddehs. If this was not the 
case, it is impossible to say, at this time, who the persons in question were. 
The rigorous proceeding against them, here directed, may seem to exceed the 
measure of justice ; but it is probable, that it was not designed so much as a 
punishment, as a means of accomplishing the recovery of the deserters, Such 
expedients are but too common, in similar cases, throughout Hindustani the 
East-India Company's possessions excepted. 

(1) Meaning BCiilifinCitldeeu, Sec Note 1, Letter XXX. 

(2) Tliis term, I believe, denotes a minister, or principal manager; as the Dalwdr of 
Mysore. Vakeel lias been already explained, at Note 1, Letter XIII. 



To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor MAHoaiMED Khan ; dated ^Ith 

Jaafvry. (10th i/w/y.) 

Your two letters, of the 12th and 14th of Jaafury [25th and 27th 
June] have been received. You write, " that what Hurry Pundit and 
*' the rest of them propose is, to dispatch Noor Mahommed Khan to us, 
*' and to take an engagement from you to pay down the money [cUiimed 
" of us], if, after his departure, there should be any delay in the trans- 
*' mission of the same from hence." It is known. If any message, to 
the above effect, should be actually sent to you, your answer must be, 
*' that you are our servants, and therefore dare not enter into any 
" engagement whatsoever without our orders; but that it ivas most pro - 
" hable, that after Noor Mahommed Khan's arrival, and tvhen we 
" should have ascertained from hi in the [^ti-ue^ state of things, zve shatttd 
** consider the means of transmitting the money ^ 

You moreover write, *' that Rao Rasta has desired you to represent to 
" us, that the Zeminddr of Nergdnd, having been brought to agree to 
*' the payment of a lack and seventy-five thousand rupees, by way of 
*' amercement, it is wished that we would direct the siege of Nergdnd 
" to be discontinued." It is known. The aforesaid Zeminddr has col- 
lected from our dominions ten lacks of pagodas : waving, therefore, all 
consideration of an amercement, let him make restitution of what he has 
levied from our dominions, and then we will certainly raise the siege of 



It is obsen-ablc, that, in the present dispatch, the Sultan is far from repeating 
his orders of the 1st July, for the immediate departure of both his agents from 
Poonah : on' the contrary, he seems satisfied with the idea of Noor Mahommed 
Khan's return singly, and thereby tacitly approves of the continuance of Mahom- 
med Gliyas at his post. His indignation at the behaviour of Hurry Pundit had 
probably cooled in the interval ; but it was soon revived, as we shall see, by a 
fresh affront from the same quarter. It must be allowed, that the answer directed 
in the foregoing letter to be returned to the expected message, or proposal, from 
the Mahrattah ministers, was not much calculated to produce any favorable change 
in the deportment, either of Hurry Pundit or of his colleagues. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated \st Daraey. (14//i July.^ 

You write, " that you never buy caravan horses." It is known. 
But though you never purchase any, you must dhect the Silahddrs to 
do so. 

You further write, " that the labourers with you receive their daily 
" subsistence from the Ainnila of the districts which have supplied 
*' them." But there is no necessity for this. Let them be paid by you, 
from the day on which they joined you, and as long as they may remain 
with you. 

We have learnt from our beloved son,('> Meer Kumruddeen, that 
a camel- courier, belonging to Rao Rasta, has arrived with a letter 


(1) Original ^W^j '« liappy, piospcroiis." It is most commonly applied as a term of 
endearment by parents to children, in the same manner as . ', -^.y and ^.liJ JUl 


addressed to you and liirn. Having duly considered the contents thereof, 
vou will dispatch such an answer by the courier, as you shall judge 


I was in some doubt, respecting the meaning of Caravan horses, till Colonel 
Wilks, the author of the admirable History of Mysore, recently published, 
informed me, that the strings of horses brought for sale by the northern mer- 
chants, and others to the south of India, were so called. It would not be easy to 
guess why Burhanuddeen made it a rule (as he would appear to have done) never 
to buy horses from these dealers. But whatever objection that commander might 
have to such purchases, the Sultan appears to have had none ; as otherwise it is not 
probable that the merchants would have resorted to his dominions, or that he 
should have been desirous that the Silaliddrs should deal widi them. 

What is said here of the letter from Rao Rasta, seems to confirm, in some 
measure, the idea suggested on a former occasion,^'' viz. that Burhanuddeen 
exercised the chief authority in the army employed at this period on the Mahrattah 
frontier. His name probably stood foremost in the superscription of Hurry Pun- 
dit's letter ; which, on that account, or because he was generally considered as 
commander-in-chief, was, in the first instance, carried and delivered to him. 

The authority given to Burhanuddeen, by the last paragraph of the foregoing 
letter, seems to exceed the usual measure of the Sultans confidence in his servants, 
of whatever rank they might be. 


To Burhanuddeen ; dated 2d DJrJey. (loth July. ^ 

By a letter from Ibnlheem Ali Kha,n it appears to us, that the 
Risdladdrs, Syed Huniced, Bubi Ali Baig, and Ibruheem Khun, have 


(2) See observations on Letter XXXI, 


received bribes, &c/') from various persons. A copy of this letter, the 
original of which has been deposited in the Kuclmrry of tlie Jyshe^ 
is enclosed. We, in consequence, direct, that the aforesaid Risdladdrs 
be divested of their commands,^-) that they be confronted [with their 
accusers], obliged to refund to the Sircar the money [they have cor- 
ruptly obtained], and finally, that they be kept under restraint, and the 
matter reported to us ; when we will send other Risdladdrs from hence 
[to supply their places]. 


This letter does not afford a very favorable specimen of the Sultans notions of 
justice, or of his mode of proceeding against persons charged with crimes or 
misdemeanors. He acts upon the bare information of Ibrahecm Ali Khan, as if 
the truth of the charge preferred by the latter were already undeniably established, 
inflicting every penalty upon the accused before trial, that could be inflicted, in 
the event of their guilt being completely proved. It is true, that he directs a kind 
of trial to be instituted ; but the possibility of the innocence of the accused is 
neither contemplated nor provided for. The result is to be communicated to the 
Sultan; not in order that he may, in case of the acquittal of the accused, give 
directions for their restoration to their rank, liberty, and property, but only that 
he may immediately send new ofllicers to supply their vacant places. All this is 
at variance, not only with common justice, but even with the usual mode of 
proceeding against military offenders of the rank of oflicers, prescribed by the 
Sultan's own regulations ; one of which appears to have directed, that " the sword 
" of the accused officer to be taken from him, and deposited in the guard-room, there 
" to be kept during the trial of the accused, and till ordered to be restored to him 
" by the Sultan." On the other hand, it must be acknowledged that the enquiry 

Q, ' commanded 

(1) In the original »;-ijC-.y.j ^Vl^at the " Kc." refers to, it is not possible to guess. 

(2) Literally, *' be turned out of tiu-ii- Jiisdlas.'^ 



commanded to be made, and the postponement of the appointment of successors 
to the accused till the result was known, are circumstances, which seem to show 
that the Sultan, notwithstanding the precipitancy and irregularity of his proceed- 
ing, on this occasion, did not deem it absolutely impossible that the Risdladdrs 
might be able to clear themselves ; in which case it is, perhaps, only fair to 
suppose, that he would have made them suitable reparation for the injury they 
bad suffered. 


To the same ; dated 3d DarJey. (\6th July .'y 

We have learned, by a letter from the Sipahddr, Mahommed All, 
" that he has carried his approaches to the edge of the ditch ; that 
" the walls and batteries on his side are levelled to the ground ; and 
*' that the ditch only remains to be filled." That, then, is a trifling 
affair. Let the ditch be filled, and, with the consent and concurrence of 
all, let the place be stormed and taken. If, however, the garrison will 
capitulate, it will be well : and [in this case] with the exception of 
Kala Pundit, the rest may be allowed their lives and arms ; but the 
Pundit's person must be secured. In the event, however, of [your 
being obliged to proceed to] the assault of the place, eveiy living- 
creature in if, whether man or ivoman, old or young, child, dog, caty 
or any thing else, must he put to the sword, with the single exceptioa 
of Kala Pundit. What more ? 


The sanguinary and ferocious disposition of Tippoo Sultan is here displayed in 
the most glaring and odious colours, llie spirit of Nadir Shah appears to breathe 



through every line of the concluding sentence of this memorable letter. Kala 
Pundit was, most probably, reserved for some signal punishment ; or, perhaps, 
he was exempted from the general carnage here directed, because his immediate 
death might have frustrated the Sultan's views to pecuniary indemnification. It 
is rather extraordinary, that this last consideration did not also lead him to 
make an exception, in his exterminating mandate, in favor of the wealthy mer- 
chants and bankers of the place ; to secure whose persons he was subsequently 
extremely anxious. 


To KuMi^uDDEEN Khan ; doled 3d Daraey. (161 h Juli/.^ 

You write, " that, in conformity with our orders, you have trans- 
*' ferred the ISipakddr Mnhommed Ali and his Kushoon to Burhunud- 
*' deen, and in his place have taken Shaikh Unser and his Kiishoon, 
" which you have posted in the trenches." It is known apd approved. 
You will cause the pay abstracts of Shaikh Unser's Kiishoon to be made 
out, and issue the amount. Burhiiuuddeen will issue the pay of Mahom- 
nied All's Kiis/ioon. 

You further state, *' that Syed Meeran, the Kilaaddr of Dhdrwdt\ 
" has replied to your letter to him, * that all the powder and shot at that 
" ' place had been dispatched to Burhanuddeen, and that it would not 
" ' be in his power to furnish another ball or grain of powder, till a 
*' ' fresh supply reached him from Nugr." " It is known. Orders, 
both to Syed Meeran and to the Taatdkddr of Nugr, are gone from us, 
to send you powder and shot, which will reach you in due time. 

Q 2 . You 


You have also written, " that the works on your attack are com- 
" pleted, but that those on the side of Burhanuddeen want two or 
" four daysC) of being finished : at the end of which time, after due 
** consultation with the Sipahddrs and other commanders of the army, 
*' an assault would be made, and the fort of NergUnd be conquered." 
It is known. If the garrison will surrender the place upon terms, it 
will be well, as, in this case, the loss of men will be avoided. You 
must, otherwise, advancing your works on every side, breaching the 
walls, and filling up the ditch, proceed, with the advice and concurrence 
of the Sipahddrs and commanders of the army, to storm the place ; 
which should be done the first favorable opportunity, either at day-break 
or at noon. 

The tank-diggers^^^ must, on their arrival from Shdnoor, be placed 
under a guard, and dispatched to the Presence. 

You write, " that a camel-courier, belonging to Rao Riista, had 
*' arrived with a letter, addressed to you and Burhannddeen, who, you 
" conclude, had forwarded the same to us." It is known. The letter 
in question has not been received : had it reached us, we should imme- 
diately have replied to it. You and Burhanuddeen [therefore] after 
fduly] considering the contents of the aforesaid letter, must dispatch 
such an answer to Ruo Rasta, by his courier, as you shall judge to be 

(1) This is a peculiarity of the Persian idiom, in which it is, at least, as usual to say 
two or Jour, ten or tuelve, us two or three, ten or eleven, &c. 

(2) Original ^J^yJjj "ly translation of which is on the authority of Colonel Munro, the 
term bjing entirely unknown to me. 



To the SjpahdJr, Mahombied Ali ; same Date. (\Qth Juli/.} 

You write, " that you have carried on your approaches to the edge of 
" the ditch, the fiUing of which is the only thing remaining to be 
" done." It is known. Wliere is the great difficulty of filling the 
ditch ? That, therefore, being done, let the place (every one concur- 
Hiig in the propriety of the measure^ be stormed and taken. 


It might almost be inferred, from the tenor of this letter, that Mahommed All, 
though a raw and inexperienced officer, was co-ordinate in authority with Burhan- 
uddeen and Kumruddeen. But the only conclusion to be justly drawn from this 
document is, that the Sultan was in the habit of corresponding, sej)arately, with 
the superior officers of his army, who probably acted as so many spies upon the 
chief commanders. Such a wretched system would be naturally enough suggested, 
by the characteristic jealousy and distrust of the Sultan. 


To Kumruddeen ; dated 5th Daraey. (I8th July.^ 

[After an immaterial passage, respecting a supply of money, the 
letter thus proceeds :] — 

All the operations of the siege are completed, and the walls of the 



place demolished : why, then, this delay? If the garrison will evacuate 
the fort on terms, it will be well j otherwise, watching a suitable oppor- 
tunity, and acting with the concurrence of the Sipahddrs, and other 
commanders of the army, you must take the place by assault. 


To the SiPAUDAR, Mahommed Ali ; same Date. (I8th July.') 

You write, " that placing yourself at the head of five companies^'^ 
*' from the Jyshe-Itisdlas, you advanced into the ditch ; from whence, 
" after putting to the sword every man of the enemy found there, some 
*' of your Kushoon pushed on, and ascending the walls, planted their 
" colours on one of the towers [or bastions]. Here, however, the 
" enemy's people, assembling in great numbers, and assailing ours with 
" rausquetry, hand-granades,^-) &c. you [thought proper to] recall 
" your men from the tower, [and to content yourself with] making a 
" lodgement in advance/^)" 

It is known. Your duty is to perform such services as you are ordered 
to execute, and not to act according to the suggestions of your own 
mind. You must not again proceed in this idle manner, but regulate 
your conduct by the general opinion. 

( 1 ) In the original ^y>. jowk. 

(2) Original i<J j <<*»■ with the precise meaning of whicli I am unacquainted. 

(3) This is not the precise sense of (»if J^ .dj^jj Perhaps the Murhukh {i. e. stage 
or halting place) may here mean the covert-way. 



If Mahommed Ali was a raw and inexperienced soldier/*' he seems, at least, to 
have been a bold and enterprising one. The action here described would appear 
to have been performed without the knowledge, or orders, of his superiors ; and is, 
therefore, very properly condemned by the Sultan, whose reproof on the occasion 
was, perhaps, sufficiently mild. 


To BuRHANUDDjLEN J dated 6th Daraey. (I9th July?) 

You write, " that your approaches are carried to the foot of the wall, 
" and that it is determined to storm tlie place in two or three days ; that 
" Dileer Dil Khan says, he must go and forage with his people ; that a 
" numerous force is required for the approaching assault; and that, 
** with our permission, you will detain the said Khan, together with the 
** dismounted men of the cavalry Kuchurry, until the conclusion of the 
" business." It is known : and we, in consequence, direct that you 
detain the aforesaid Khan, as well as the men you have mentioned, till 
the period you propose; when you will allow them to go and forage. 


The two preceding letters satisfactorily prove, how independently the superior 
officers of the army sometimes acted, and how feeble Burhanuddecn's authority 

(4) Sec Letter XXII. 


over them was. But this is an evil inherent in the constitution of all Indian 
armies : and, perhaps, it was less prevalent in that of Mysore, than in any other 
native army of Hindostan. 

It might at first view, and on general principles, be supposed, that it was much 
easierto introduce strict military discipline into the armies of arbitrary states, like 
those of the East, than into any other : and so, no doubt, it would be, if it were 
not for the distrust and jealousy natural to the rulers of such states, who fear to 
invest their commanders with the powers necessary to the due maintenance of 
subordination, lest the latter should, on any occasion, be tempted to employ them 
for traiterous purposes. Instead, therefore, of strengthening the hands of their 
generals, by concentrating in them the powers which they are compelled to dele- 
gate (but which they circumscribe as much as possible), they judge it expedient, 
with a view to their own security, to divide and parcel them out among the 
different commanders ; and, in fine, to establish in their armies such a system of 
checks, as leaves but little efficient or useful authority any where. To this more 
general and remote cause of the great insubordination observable in the armies 
of the East, may be added another, more particular and immediate (arising, 
as it were, necessarily out of the former) ; and that is, the total want of fixed 
or written rules for their government : the consequence of which, of course, 
is, that disorder and confusion per\adc the whole body, almost every thing 
relating to which, is made to depend on the caprice and partial views of indi- 

Tippoo Sultan, as if sensible of this last defect in the constitution of his army, 
in common with those of his neighbours, would appear to have aimed at correcting 
it in some measure ; and for this purpose (though, probably, not with any very 
deep or accurate views of the subject) caused to be compiled and disseminated 
a military code, or treatise, which he entitled Futhiif Mdjdhideen, or, " the 
" Triumph of the holy Warriors." I have not, hitherto, had an opportunity of 
examining this work, with attention ; but the impression made on me by a cursory 
inspection of it, some years ago, inclines me to think, that it treated chiefly of 
tlw; manual exercise, evolutions, and similar details, and contained but few regu- 


lations, calculated to ascertain and uphold the authority of the superior, or to 
inculcate and enforce the obedience of the inferior ranks of the army."' 


' arii ni vi:lA 
To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 8tk 

DarAey. Q2\st Jiihj^ 

Your letter of the 23d of Jaafunj has been received. You write, 
** that Hurry Pundit sent a message to you, through Rao Rasta, 
" desiring you to send away the musqueteei-s*'*' with you, as it was not 
" proper that they should remain at Poo7mli." 

It is known. We have already repeatedly written, and we now again 
write to say, that the hostile intentions of the chiefs in that quarter are 
evident ; that the longer residence of that friend and of Noor Mahom- 
med Khan there, is consequently in the highest degree improper ;(-) and 
that you must, therefore, both set out for our Presence, with the whole 
of your retinue. This order is accordingly to he considered hy you of 
equal force ivith a hundred orders. You must not wait for any other; 
hut, immediately on receipt of our present commands, proceed with 
Noor Mahommed Khan, and all the people attached to you, to the Pre- 
sence. TVe shall ivrite no more on this subject. 


(1) Since writin;:^ tlic aI)ovc, Lieutcnant-Colonci Marriot has obligingly lent mc a copy of 
tliis curious work, of wliicli some further account will be found in the Appendix. The 
extracts there given from it, will show the exact extent to wiiich the Sultan provided for 
the maintenance of subordination. 

(1*) In the original ,b *j^<i wiiich was the name, as Colonel Wilks informs me, by which 
llyder Ali distingnislied his regular ii>f:uitr\-. 

(2) In the original c::,.^! l/^ls^ J'^ i_ ---j-' i. e. " leads to perfect unkindness" or " un- 
" graciousncss : " or " must carry with it the most unfavourable appearance." 



The only remark necessary to be made on this letter is, that notwithstanding 
the apparently inflexible resolution of the Sultan, to withdraw his agents from 
Poonah immediately, they both appear to have continued there till the month of 
May in the following year (1786), or nearly a whole year after these peremptory 
orders for their recall. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 9th DabJey. (22d July.^ 

It has been reported to us, that the besieged are desirous of capitu- 
lating, and have opened a negociation for the purpose : it is therefore 
written, that if they will surrender on terras, there is no use in an 
assault. You and Kumruddeen must jointly treat with the besieged on 
the occasion, and, by evei'y practicable means, induce them to deliver up 
the place. Failing in this, you will, Avith the concurrence of all the 
Sipahddrs and commanders(') of the army, (after having ascertained 
firom what point the attempt can be made with the least loss of men) 
seize the proper moment for proceeding to the capture of the place by 
open assault. 


(1) Sipahddrs and commanders. I take this to be a mere pleonasm ; for I do not suppose 
that any officers, below the rank of a Sipaltddr, were meant to be consulted ; and witli the 
exception of BClrhanCiddeen and KumrQddeen, there would not appear to have been any 
with the army of superior designation. I wish, however, to be understood, as speaking 
with great diffidence on this point ; since I have only a superficial knowledge of the constitu- 
tion, or formation, of the .S'((//aH'4 army, at this period. 


We are here likewise prepared to move at the head of our forces/^) 
and shall shortly arrive in that quarter. In the mean while, you must 
temporize, and employ every means, fair or foul,^^^ which may induce 
the besieged to surrender the fort : because, in an assault, many lives 
would be lost ; while a long detention before the place would also prove 
extremely destructive to the army. It is, moreover, in our blessed con- 
templation, to engage, after the rainy season, in a certain tveighty enter- 
prize ; you must, therefore, try every means of effecting the [earlyj 
evacuation of the place ; acting at the same time, in all our affairs, in 
[perfect] concert with each other. 


The fluctuating orders of the Sultan, respecting Nergdnd, as well as his impa- 
tience to obtain speedy possession of the place, have appeared in several of the 
foregoing letters. It has also been seen, that his sohcitude, on this occasion, led 
him, more than once, to authorize, and even to direct, in sufficiently explicit 
terms, the adoption of the most unjustifiable measures for the attainment of his 
object. But it was reserved for the present dispatch, to display, in the most 
glaring colours, his unprincipled and profligate policy. He is no longer satisfied 
with vague and distant intimations of his wishes; but here, throwing off all reserve 
and disguise, openly and boldly declares, that there is no act of treachery, decep- 
tion, or perjury, by means whereof the conquest of Nergdnd could be achieved, 
to which he was not ready to give an unqualified sanction. 

The weighty enterprize, alluded to in this letter, can, at this time, only be 
guessed. It could hardly be the surprize o{ Adoni ; which, though it might possi- 

R 2 bly 

(2) Original (.::«w!yffU-j_^U^jf^lj-! 1^ Ui^.J^j literally <* here, too, the special cavalcade is 
ready or pre|)ared. 

(3) Original jjyw <-S^ ^'^j ^jj'^j ^-^^^j r}' jrf " ^Y e^cy way* true and false, and by 


Lly be in his contemplalion at this juuct\ue, he did not attempt till the month of 
May of the following year (1786)/^^ Neither could he well mean a sudden attack 
of the Mahrattah army, to be conducted in person by himself; as this was not 
carried into effect till a still later period : and, consequently, both events were 
considerably posterior to the " close of the rainy season." There remains, there- 
fore, no other known occurrence, to which the expression in question can be so 
well referred, as to his short expedition against the Koorgs, in the following month 
of November; when he marched suddenly and rapidly to Zvferdhdd, in which 
quarter the Koorgs had recently appeared in open revolt ; and owing to the inca- 
pacity of the officer whom he had left in charge of that ever turbulent and never 
completely settled portion of his territories,'^^ had obtained some advantages over 
the Sultaiis troops. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated 10th Daraey. (23d Jnlr/.y 

Agreeably to your desire, we have transmitted to Burhanuddecn aa 
answer to the Urz'^^*^ which he forwarded to us from Kala Pmidit. The 
aforesaid Pundit, for his complete satisfaction [or security] demands the 
sanction of oaths, &c. [to our engagements]. But where is the neces- 
sity for oaths and the like, in an affair of tliis kind ? You and Burhan- 
tiddeen must, bt/ eveiy possible artijice and deeeption, get the garrison to 
quit the place. 

We have written a letter to Shaikh Unser, which is enclosed. 

(4) See on this subject the observations on Letter CXXXVIII. 

(5) See Letter CXVIL 

U*) An humble address or petition. 



Tlie true meaning of what the Sultan here says is, that as he depends on 
his generals for circumventing the garrison, he sees no necessity for personally 
perjuring himself for the purpose : he thinks the end in view may be sufficiently 
answered by their doing so, and is therefore averse to a waste of perfidy. But 
although lie did not think proper to pledge himself to the extent required by Kala 
Pundit, it is highly probable that, in his letter to that person (referred to above), 
he was not at all backward in giving him such assurances, as would be best 
calculated to dispel any fears he might entertain for his personal safety and 
honour."' 1 


To BuRHANUDDEEN J Same Date. (23d Juli/.') 

Your letter, enclosing a paper, containing the demands of the people 
of the fort, has been received ; and, in consequence thereof, we now 
transmit to you, in answer to these demands, an engagement from us 
to Kala Pundit.^') We also enclose three letters for Mahommed AH 
and the other S'lpahddrs. 

The aforesaid Pundit has, for his greater satisfaction [or security], 
demanded the sanction of oaths, &c. [to our engagements]. But what 
is the use of oaths on this occasion ? You must, conjointly with Kum- 
ruddeen, by every possible artijice and deceit, persuade the besieged to 
evacuate the fort. 

(2) See the following letter. •' ' ■"- 

(1) The letter or engagement, here referred to, was most probacy in the Ca/wrwc lan- 
guage, and therefore doe* not appear. 




JusARET Jung ; dated L3th DJraet. (25ik July^ 

PAfter compliments] You write, '' that in obedience to the 

7, dictates of honor, you shall exert yourself, to the best of your power, 
** in chastising the seditious." It is comprehended. Verily, such is 
the obligation of honor, and such the true character of courage. If you 
should be desirous of obtaining any assistance, we request you will not 
scruple or hesitate to consider our Sircar [state] as your own, but 
(jfreely] signify to us your wishes, which you may depend upon our 
fulfilling to your satisfaction. 

N.B. A letter, of the same tenor and date, was written to Mukhun Zaal 
(probably the agent of Jusaret Jung.) 


I am not enabled to say who tJiis Jiisaretuddowlah was ; but there can be 
little or no doubt of his having been a subject of the Nizdm, and (to judge 
by his titles) a person of distinction. He was, most probably, an immediate 
dependent of Busalet Jung, the brother of the Nizdm, and the Jagireddr of 


To Mahommed Ghyas afid Noor Mahommed Khan; do fed 14th 

DJraey. (27111 Juhj?) 

Your two letters, of the 23d and 28th of Jaafury [6th and 11th 
July] have been received. You write, " that they are about to require 

'« of 


" of you to send away your escort, and that their ungracious deport- 
" ment towards you is beyond measure." 

It is known. You and Noor Mahommed Khan must repair to the 
house of Rao Rasta, and, placing yourselves opposite to him, say to 
him, *' that you have nothing to do with the minister (Nana Furnaveese) 
" or any one else, and that all you have to desire is, that he will procure 
" you the necessary passports, in order that you may return to us." In 
short, let them be pleased or displeased, you must, at any rate, get 
passports, and set out with all your retinue for our Presence. This 
order must be considered as if it were a hundred orders. Two letters for 
Kishen Rao Narain and Rao Rasta, on the subject of your dismission, 
are enclosed. You must bring Syed Zynul Aabideen Khan along with 

You write for a supply of money, and represent the dearness of every 
thing there. Now that you are about to return hither, where is the 
necessity of making you a remittance for your expences ? 

Let us know the name and rank of the Hdkim [ruler] of Camhay^ 
as we purpose writing to him. 

We, also, are prepared for war. Fear not, but speedily commence 
your journey hither, and bring the Mitrishy, Peer Mahommed, as well 
as ,^') with you. 


The former part of this letter is in substance, and indeed nearly in terms, 

the same as Letter XCI. In fact, the envoy's dispatch of the 23d Jaafury is 

acknowledged in both ; and, probably, that of the 28th of the same month 


(1 ) The original here is cither miswritten, or I do not understand it. A writer, however, 
of some kind, is iateiidcd. 


(which would seem to have led to the present letter) did not difter materially 
from it. 

The letter to the Nabob of Cambay (his intention of writipg which is here 
announced) will be further noticed under Letter CXVIII. 


To Meee Moyenuddeen Khan ; dated 19th DJrJey. (1st August.^ 

Your letter, written in the Hindvy character, and informing us that 
there was a prospect of Biidl Naig's coming in to you, has been received 
and understood. When the said Ndig arrives, you must confront him 
with Tummycoor,(') and after establishing his guilt, and placing him 
under a gniard, tell him, *' that you will release him, provided he sends 
" for his family." Having induced him, hj means of this artifice, to 
send for his family, you must put the whole of them in confinement, 
and make a report of the circumstances to us. 


The instances of the Sultans treacherous and unprincipled conduct, in his 
negociations, multiply so fast, as to make it difficult to avoid the appearance of 
sameness and repetition, in the remarks to which they naturally give rise ; I shall, 
in future, therefore, instead of obtruding my sentiments, leave the reader to his 
own reflections on such occasions. 

(l) Name uncertain. 



To Rajah RamChundurj dated 20th Daraey. (2d August. ') 

You write, " that, in conformity with our orders, you have esta- 
" blished shops, on our behalf, in every Taaluk [under your authority], 
" and engaged in our service a Surrd/(^> and accountant, for conducting 
" the concerns of each : but that, in some districts, the object of profit 
" is completely frustrated ; while, in others, the gains are so very small 
" as to be even inadequate to the monthly pay of the Surrdfs and 
" accountants ; owing (as you say) to the more considerable towns, 
" where, heretofore, gold and silver, bullion and specie, to the amount 
*' of thousands of pagodas, used to be brought for the purposes of 
" traffic, being now forsaken by the traders, who taking alarm at the 
** establishment of our shops [or warehouses]] resort, in consequence, 
" to other places ; none but the poorer classes, in short, ever dealing 
" with them, and then only to the amount, perhaps, of six or seven 
*' fanams." 

It is known. Admitting that the profits, for instance, are only seve7i 
pagodas, and that the expence, on account of the wages of the Surrdf 
and accountants, amount to ten, how long can this last, or the dealers 
continue to carry their money and bullion to other places ? They will, 
finally, come and make their purchases at our warehouses : you will, 
therefore, [proceed to] establish Surrdfs and accountants in every 
Taaluk, according to the amount of its [saleable] produce. 

You suggest the establishment of banking-houses on the part of the 
Sircar, and the appointment of a banker, with a salaiy, to superintend 
them. You also propose, with our permission, to open warehouses for 

S the 

{ 1 ) By Europeans usually miscalled Shroffs. A Surrd/ is a money-cbaiigcr or broljcr. 


the sale of cloths at Bangalore, Ouscottah, and other places. It is^ 
comprehended. There is no regulation issued hy us, that does not cost us,, 
in the framing of it, the deliberation of Jive hundred years. This being 
the case, do you perform exactly Avhat we order ; neither exceeding our 
directions, nor suggesting any thing further from yourself. 


The fact of Tippoo Sultan having established such shops, or warehouses, as those 
mentioned in the foregoing letter, was, I believe, veiy well known, before the 
commencement of the last war, to those persons most intelligent in the afiairs of 
Ml/sore. The present dispatch, by fortunately reciting at so much length the 
representation of Rajah Ram Chundur on the subject, furnishes a tolerably clear 
idea of the institution, of which I have no where else met with any account. Till 
I saw this document, however, I had supposed, that the Sultan's views in this 
scheme embraced nothing more than a monopoly of the wholesale trade of his 
dominions ; but it is evident, from Ram Chundur's statement, that the retail 
trade also was proposed to be engrossed. " None but the poorer classes," says 
the Rdjah, " deal at our shops ; and then only to the amount, perhaps, of six 
" or seven fanams."''^^ 

I do not clearly know what the result of this extraordinary' project was, or 
whether the establishment, which has been described, continued in existence at 
the period of its founder's death. I rather think, however, that Rum Chundur's 
prognostic regarding it was verified, and that, though framed " with the delibe- 
" ration of five hundred years," it was soon found impracticable, and ultimately- 

Ram Chundur certainly could not have chosen a more un propitious occasion for 
submitting his own project of banking-houses, than the one he embraced : nor 
would he seem to have at all adverted to the character of his master, when he 


(1) i.e. about a. sh}lli7ig. 


could have the temerity, in one and the same moment, to condemn pretty plainly 
a favorite scheme of the Sultan, and to offer to his acceptance another of his own 
devising. The result was such as he might have expected. The Sultan would, 
at no time, have been likely to listen with complacency to the uninvited sugges- 
tions of any of his servants ; but least of all, when proceeding from one, who 
had ventured to question the policy of a measure, on which he would seem to 
have plumed himself in no small degree. 


7o KuMRUDDEEN ; dated 25th Daraey. (Jtk Augmt.^ 

You write, " that in concert with Burhanuddeen, you arc treating 
" with the besieged for the surrender of the place, which you expect 
*' will submit in two or three days." You must, by any means, whether 
by engagements or by artifice, get the garrison to evacuate the fort, 
in order that our troops may obtain a little respite from fatigue, as 
we have it in contemplation to employ them, ere long, on a weighty 

You state, " that yourself and Biirhanuddeen labour diligently toge- 
*' ther, and in perfect concert, in the conduct of our affairs ; but that, 
*' possibly, some envious persons, incapable of viewing things clearly, 
** may have made a different representation to us." It is understood. 
How shall any one [presume to] represent to us, that any disagreement 
subsists between that light of our eyes and Biirhiiniiddeen, since both are 

S 2 our 

(1) This passage docs not apply (as suggested under Letter XCII) to the subsequent 
expedition against the Koorgs, as the Sidtan could hardly have had it in contcm[)lation to 
employ BCirlianCiddeen's forces on that occasion, to \vhich, according to his own account, 
the troops immediately at his disposal were more than adequate. The ■weighty scnicc alludcJ- 
to must, therefore, have been some enterprizc of a more arduous nature. 


our beloved sons, and have been brought up aUke under our care : we 
therefore entertain a confident persuasion, that you will both, with otk 
heart, exert yourselves earnestly in the service of the Sircar. 


A letter of the same dale, and nearly of the same tenor as the preceding one, 
was addressed to Burhanuddeen, who likewise appears to have assured the Sultan, 
" that he conducted all affairs in concert with Kumriiddeen." But though the 
Sultan thought fit to intimate to these commanders his belief that a proper 
harmony really subsisted between them, it appears, I think, sufficiently clear, 
from the tenor of his letters, that he was far from being entirely satisfied of the 
fact ; and it may, at least, be confidently assumed, that there were those who 
thought otherwise, and who endeavoured to impress him with their opinions. 


To KuMRUDDEEN ; dated 26th Daraey. (8th August:) 

You write, " that on the day following [the date of your letterj, 
" or the 22d of Ddrdey, the enemy were to evacuate the place, when, 
** having put a garrison of ours into it, you would report the same to 
" us." 

Having got the besieged to evacuate the fort on tenns, and having 
placed a garrison of our troops in it, let the Piddehs, &c. who composed 
the enemy's garrison, be set at liberty, according to the capitulation : 
but Kiila. Pundit, and three of the most opulent bankers, together with 
all the Sruhmens and Mdtusuddies of any consideration (to whatever 



class or description they may belong) must he placed in confinement, and 
most carefully guarded, and the same be reported to us. 


To the same; dated 2'Jth Daraey. (9th August^ 

You write, under date of the 22d Ddrdey [4th August], " that on 
" that day our colours were hoisted on the walls of the fort, and a party 
" of our troops admitted into the place, which was to be evacuated by 
** the garrison on the following day." 

It is kno\vn. Kala Pundit, with his family and kindred, four^^^ of the 
most opulent bankers, and the most distinguished of the commanders of 
cavalry, as well as of every other class or department, must be placed 
under guard : the remaining persons, of inferior description, are to be 
set free, according to the capitulation.^"'* 

You must dispatch Doolies^^^ to Dhdrwdr, to bring back the wounded 
men who were sent thither [during the siege] ; in order that, being 
placed, together with the wounded now with your division, under the 
care of their respective relations, they may be the more at their ease. 
The wounds of these men must also be carefully attended to, and pro- 
perly treated. The army likewise, with horses, cattle, &c., must be 
encamped in some good spot, abounding with water and grass, and 


(1) Three only were ordered to be detained in the letter of the preceding day. 

(2) i. e. the capitulation was to be observed ow/y in regard to the inferior classes, possessing 
no pro[)erty. 

(3) Doolies are a sort of humble conveyance, constructed on the same principle as a 
Pakiikcen. They frcciuently consist of nothing but a common bedstead or cot, suspended to 
a Bumbco, with or without curtains. They aie generally appropriated to the use of sick 
persons and oi women. 


where but little rain lies. Having undergone such fatigue, let them 
now enjoy some repose. 

You write, " that you had dispatched one Risdla of Sair^'^^ cavalry, 
*' and the horses of one stable,^^^ towards Kunnekgeery , &c., and given 
" an order for their pay upon Mohyuddeen Ali Khan, the Dewdn of 
" Kio'pah, who, however, had returned the same." We have, there- 
fore, signified our pleasure to the aforesaid Khdn, who will, in conse- 
quence, furnish the pay of the cavalry, and the subsistence of the 
horses, &c., agreeably to your requisition. 

We, some time since, dispatched money for the payment of your 
army : it has, probably, reached you before now. The returns which 
you sent of the troops have been received. To-morrow we purpose 
sending you an additional supply of money. 


TTie orders here given, respecting the wounded, as well as the consideration 
which the Sultan appears to have had for the ease and comfort of the army at 
laro-e, are creditable to his character as a mihtary commander. They would have 
been still more so, had they comprehended the sick in general. 

(4) The Sair cavalry were, I believe, what were otherwise called the stable horse ; but I 
am by no means com'ident that this was the case. 

(5) I am not quite certain how many horses composed a stable ; but in a memorandum of 
tlie military establishments, written by the i'jt/^an himself, some time in the year 1793, the 
number appears to be stated at twenty-two. 



To the Nabob Runmust Khan ; dated /') 

[After compliments] Your letter, informing me of your 

welfare, was delivered by Khajeh LutfuUah, and afforded me much 
pleasure. I have also learned, from the said Khdjeh, the particulars 
which you entrusted to his verbal communication. Of the eleven lacks 
of rupees, to which I had a just claim, I have been induced, by conside- 
ration for the attachment which that fiiend has so long borne to me, as 
well as for the sake of the true faith, and on account of the eminence of 
your family,(-> to remit four lacks : you must, therefore, put the remain- 
ing seven lacks of rupees in a speedy course of payment, by which means 
our mutual regard and friendship will be augmented. Further parti- 
culars will be imparted to you by the above-named Khdjeh. Continue 
always to afford me the satisfaction of hearing of your welfare. For the 
rest, may you be joyful ! 


Runmust Khun was a Patau chieftain, who possessed the district of Kurnool.^'^ 
Hyder A li compelled him to agree to an annual tribute; though he was, at the 
same time, a feudatory of the Nizdm, to whom, when required, he was bound to 
render military service. By the partition treaty of 1792, his son and successor, 
Alif Khan, was released from his dependence on Tippoo Sultan, and the tribute 


(1) This letter is without date: I have given it the place which it occupies in my nianu- 

(2) Original JjJU 

(3) Frequently, but improperly, written Canoul and Canoade, 


payable to the latter transferred to the Nizam ; by whom (If I mistake not) it was 
ceded to the East-India Company, by the treaty of 1800. For a more particular 
account of the dynasty the reader is referred to Appendix, G. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 3d 

Hashimy. (\4ith August.^ 

Your letter has been received. You may pass twenty days or a month 
longer there, in an evasive and procrastinating way ,0 but, at the end of 
that time, you must, in whatever manner may be [necessary], set out 
for the Presence, since your remaining there is incompatible with our 


To the same ; dated Ath Hashimy. (I5th August.^ 

Your longer continuance there is destitute of graciousness [or dig- 
nity].^'*^ The dishonour arising from your residing there, upon this 
unhandsome footing,^^) is now become manifest : you must, therefore, at 
any rate, repair to the Presence. 

(1) Original iJul^^ Ju«!_j ci-Jj 
(1») Original u-^lwiU^J 

(2) Original ^jjUj_^^ 



As the Sultan would not appear to have received any fresh dispatch from the 
envoys, between the 3d and 4th of Hdshhni/, it may be supposed, that the direc- 
tions contained in the jjresent letter (revoking, in a certain degree, those of the 
former day) arose from a reconsideration of the subject ; which probably, for a 
moment, revived his indignation at the behaviour of the Mahrattah ministers. I 
say, for a moment, in reference to the counter-orders which soon followed. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dated dill HJshimy. (20tft August.^ 

Directing liim to repair, with the troops under his command, to the 
Presence, and to leave Shaildi Unser's Kushoon \vith Burhanuddeen. 

To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated llth Hashimy. (22d August. ~) 

We have received your letter, wherein you Avrite, " that Taj Khan 
" and Abdul Ghufoor Khan, the K'duaddrs^^^ oi Kishugeery, have sent a 
" rccpiisition to Wunkut Rao, the Aumil of the Bdreh-mehdip for five 
" hundred hired bullocks and five hundred lahoiuers." We have consi- 

T derecl 

(1) Many of llic fortresses in Mysore, as well as Kishngeeiy, had two Kilaaddrs, 


(2j In tlie original Jlsjc ijjl^j which is the Persian for Burch-mchdl, or the twelve dis- 


dcred your letter, as well as that of Wunkut Rao, wliicli was enclosed 
in it. No other bullocks, besides those belonging to the Sircar, are 
wanted, exceptuig on urgent occasions, when it may be proper to hire 
additional ones. In fact, the public establishment of bullocks is not 
large, and our service sometimes demands more than it can provide : in 
such cases it is allowable to hire bullocks, as otherwise our service might 
suffer by delay. We have accordingly written, and enclose a letter to 
the above-named IKilaaddrs'], which you will forward to them. This 
wiU prevent them from making any further demand for hired bullocks. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan ; dated 20th Hashimy. (^\st August.^ 

[After some minute directions, respecting the fabric of Buhry cloths 
for the use of the troops (patterns of the kinds required being enclosed)'^'^ 
the letter proceeds thus :] — 

It has been reported to us, that you sit constantly at home, without 
ever appearing at the Kuchumj. This is not well. You must pass [a 
proper portion of] your time [daily] in the Kuchurrr/, and there diligently 
apply to the affairs of the Sircar, without suffering any one to come to 
you at your own house [on public business]. It would appear, that you 
never look into the [written] instructions which you received from us. 
If you act in conformity with our orders, it will be well : otherwise, you 
will assuredly incur the penalty therein specified.(') 

(1) The Bubry cloth was a sort of Chintz, manufactured in Mysore. The pattern was of 
the Sultaifs invention, and consisted in the Tyger stripe, from which it received its name. 
TThis stripe was adapted by Tippoo as a kind of crest, Mhich was stamped on his books, Iiis 
plate, and almost every thing belonging to him. 

(2) Sec observations on Letter I. 



To Monsieur Souliac/'> Governor of Pondicherry ; dated 2^d 

Hashimy. (3d September.') 

[After compliments] The letter which you sent us, by the 

hands of the f^akeel, Ram Rao, containing accounts of your welfare, and 
informing- us of your arrival at PoiuHchemj, for the administration of the 
affairs of that place, was duly received by us ; and an answer thereto 
(accompanied by a dress) was dispatched some time since, and will, of 
course, have reached vou. 

Our earnest wish and object is, that the strong and sincere friendship 
which has, from former times, subsisted between us and the Hdjah of 
the French, should daily increase; and that, by the divine favour, the 
affairs of France should attain fresh splendour and prosperity. It is most 
manifest, that the Rdjah of the French is lying in wait for a favourable 
opportunity ;^-^ and as that eminent person'^^ is a leader of political expe- 
rience, we assure ourselves that the means of attaining this object will 
not have failed to engage your attention. 

At a former period, when the English army had advanced within eight 
Coss of Poonah, and the Mahrattah chiefs, not finding themselves able 
to cope with the enemy, meditated on setting fire to their houses, and 
taking to flight ; in this crisis they humbly solicited our aid and support, 
which, relying on their engagements and promises, we afforded, by 

T 2 waging 

(1 ) I am not certain that this name is written correctly, and have not, just now, the means 
of ascertaining tiie point. This letter wasaccompanietl by a complimentary dress, consisting 
of live pieces of Kdrchoby ; a sort of brocade or gold and slvcr tissue. 

(2) Original ,x-c.. >^_^ J(ij 

(3) Meaning M. Souliuc. 


■waging war [against the Englisli] in the Carnatic for some years, during 
which period their Uves and property, their country and lionour, remained 
in safetv. These facts are more manifest, even than the sun. Never- 
theless, a certain Zeminddr (among the Zemindars suhject to our autho- 
rity) having lately been instigated, by a contumacious and insolent dispo- 
sition, to lay waste our country, and we having, in consequence, sent 
our army to chastise him and to leduce his place, the aforesaid Mali- 
rattahs, forgetting the numberless obligations conferred on them by us, 
dispatched their army to the assistance of the said Zeminddr. Hostilities 
have accordingly taken place between the two armies, and the Mahrat- 
tahs are meditating further mischief against us. With the blessing of 
God, however, you shall [soon] hear in what manner we have chastised 
these people. Further particulars will be detailed to you by the P'ukeel, 
Rum Rao. We have sent, as a token of friendship, a few pieces of cloth. 


It is observable, that the Stdtan, in this letter, entirely sinks the name of his 
fatlier, vvbose actions he applies to himself. Whether such a mode of expression 
was absolutely warranted by custom, or by the idiom of the language, may be 
doubted : but, however this might be, there is no reason to suppose that any 
slight was intended by it to the memory of Hyder ; of whom he has, on many 
occasions, spoken with suitable demonstrations of filial regard and respect. 

Having already had occasion to remark on the studied but disguised affront put 
upon the King of France, by stiling him a Rujah,^*' it is unnecessary to say any 
thino-, in this place, on the instance of it afforded by the foregoing letter. We 
shall hereafter see this degrading title applied to the French King, in an epistle 
addressed directly to himself. 


(4) See observations on Letter V. 


There can be little or no doubt, that a renewal of the war with the English is 
alluded to, in the second paragraph of the present letter. No other satisfactory 
explanation can be given of the "opportunity" which the French monarch is 
represented to be " waiting for," or of " the attention" which Monsieur Souliac 
is presumed to have bestowed on " the means " of promoting his sovereign's views. 
In short, except for the purpose of aiding his hostile designs against the English, 
what motive could the Sultan possibly have for cultivating the friendship of the 
French ? 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; dcitcd 2Ath Hashimy. (Aili Septemher.^ 

We approve of your having sent Shaikh Unser's Kushoon to join 

You write respecting a supply of money for the pay of your troops. 
At present we have taken up our residence, with a small retinue,<^'> at 
Haiigalore : we are, consequently, unable to supply you from hence •,^^'> 
but have sent necessary orders for the purpose to our treasury at Seriii- 

gnpatam <-^) We enclose a Pimvdneh to the Zeminddr of 

jitmasi;oo)idi/, directing him to supply you with baskets^ and boat-men, 
and otherwise to assist you in crossing your army at the Kdmpli/ GhautS^^ 


(1) Original ijjy>. j'urecdeh, whicli literally signifies single; alone. This is tlic only 
intimation we have of the Sultan''s departure from his capital and visit to Bangalore. 

(2) So I understand the words .^,«jtM t_jl^ <JjU- <ti)^J^M though their obvious inipoit is 
quite the reverse; jt,*jt^ signifying /«//. 

(3) There is here a hiatus of a word or two in tlie original, which renders the line follow- 
intj it rather uniiitclligible. 

(4) For a description of these baskets (used instead of boats, for the passage of rivers) 
see Captain Moor's Narrative. 

(i) lam not (juite clear that I have given the name of this G/taut, or passage, of the 
Tungbudra, correctly. 


Another Piinvdneh is enclosed for the Aumil of Hurridl, directing him 
also to send baskets and boatmen for you to the same Ghaut. Join us 
speedily with your army, and make no delay. 



To the same ; dated 26th Hashimy. (6th September.^ 

You write, " that having collected together some baskets, you have 

begun the passage of the Tunghudra, and daily cross some part of 
*' your army." You also mention, " that a Vakeel and Hurkdreh 
" belonging to the Kiinnek-geei'y man, accompanied by a banker's 
" Gomushteh,'-^^ had waited on you, and acknowledged the justice of our 
*' claims upon that Zeminddr : [in consequence of which] you had [at 
" their desire] detached a liisdla of Jyshe, and a Risdla of Sair cavalry, 
*' to chastise Eeri Naik, a Polygar dependant on the said Zeminddr, but 
*' who had [recently]revolted against his authority." 

It is known. We approve of your having made this detachment, and 
direct that, on its return, the troops composing it be likewise made to 
cross the river, and proceed [hither] with you. 

We some time ago dispatched money for the payment of the troops 
commanded by that light of our eyes. This money is arrived at Dhdrwdr, 
whither you must send an escort to bring it to you. 

( I ) An Agent, 



To Maiiommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 28th 

Hashimy. (Sth September.') 

Three letters have been received from you. You write, " that the 
*' minister manifests an incUnation to procrastinate, with respect to 
*' your dismission." It does not signify. You must remain there as 
long as he is disposed to detain you, and not precipitate your departure. 
Whenever he dismisses you, you will proceed to the Presence. 


To the same ; dated 29ih Hashimy. (9th September.^ 

Whatever circumstances we judged it necessary to communicate to 
you, have been written at great length and distinctly in Hindivij : the 
perusal of it [/". e. of the Hindiri/ dispatch] will make you acquainted 
[with every thing] .^'^ You must ascertain its contents by means of a 
secret and trust-worthy Md/ishi/ : one in all respects entitled to credit 
and belief, and who shall be incapable of revealing the secrets [entrusted 
to him.] 


It has been already seen, that Tippoo Sultan occasionally sent his orders in the 
Hindivy language, even to persons whom he usually addressed in Persian. Here 


(1) In the original k^l^ jj»y. ^jy jl literally " from the face of it you will uiidcr- 
<« stund." 


we have another example of this extraordinary and unaccountable practice, but 
still more striking and embarrassing than the former one ; in which we were at 
liberty to suppose, that the envoys could read a Hlndivy as well as a Persian 
letter, and only left to wonder why the Sultan should, at any time, prefer writing 
in the Hindivy. But it now appears, that his ambassadors were ignorant of that 
character ; and that, in order to possess themselves of their master's instructions, 
it was necessary for them to have recourse to an interpreter. It might have been 
expected, that under these circumstances, the envoys would, at least, have been 
spared the trouble and responsibility of procuring such a person, by having one 
of that description regularly attached to their mission. But this was evidently 
not the case : nor is it ev enabsolutely certain, that the person to be employed on 
this occasion was to be found among the servants of the embassy ; though we must 
either assume this as the fact, or adopt the monstrous supposition of the envoys 
being obliged to seek, in the capital of their master's enemy, for an interpreter 
of his most secret and important orders. To conclude, I must acknowledge that 
there is nothing in the whole correspondence, which appears to me so completely 
inexplicable as this matter we have been considering : nor can I help regretting, 
that the difficulty did not occur to me before my departure from India, where I 
might possibly have been able to obtain a solution of it. 


To KuMRUDDEEN Khan ; (lilted 2d WlsAAEY. (\\th Septemher.y 

Your letter, stating the distress of your troops for money, lias been 
received. Previously to your writing, we had, in contemplation of this 
distress, dispatched a supply to you, wliich is, accordingly, now lying at 
Dhdrivdr, to which place you must send a party of horse to escort it to 
you. Besides this money, avc have now sent you from hence a further 



supply of twenty tliousand pni^odas. When the whole amount shall 
have reached you, distribute it among your people, and report the same 
to us 


2o Meer Mahommed Sadik ; same Date. (\.\th September.^ 

It has been represented to us, that Owbultia,^'^ a Mutusuddy belonging 
to the Tosheh-khdnehy is on the point of death, and that his brother-in- 
law is at Oussoor : we therefore write to direct, that you cause guards to 
be placed over his brother-in-law and GomdshteJis ; and that, having 
made enquiries respecting his substance*^^) and property, you proceed, by 
means of scourging [the parties], to obtain possession of the same. Let 
the utmost diligence and exertions be employed in this business. 

Lutchmun, another MiUiisuddij of the Tosheh-khdneh, possesses a 
full knowledge of the particulars of Owbultia's substance : you must, 
therefore, make enquiry of him also ; and send and secure the goods 
and property [in question] wherever they may be. 

You and others formerly represented to us, that [this man] possessed 
property to the amount of a lack of pagodas. Let the same be sought 
after and discovered, and the whole be brought to the account of the 
Sircar. What more ? 


(1) Name uncertain. 

(2) The word which I liavc tr;insl:ited substance is in the original ^JJj which commonly 
enough cicnotes subsistence or hvcliliooil ; but I do not recollect to i)iivc met with it before, 
ill ihe senbc in which it is here used. 



It does not appear, from any thing contained in this document, that Owbultia 
was a public defaulter, or stood charged with any malversations ; and yet, consi- 
dering the rigour of the proceedings directed, it is difficult to believe otherwise. There 
is a pretty plain hint in the concluding paragraph, that Meer Sadik would be held 
responsible for the realization of the supposed amount of Owbultia's property. 
Perhaps, however, this was only meant as a stimulus to the DexvdrCs exertions in 
the business. 

Meer Mahommed Siidik was the Sultans principal Dewun, and, in that cha- 
racter, presided over the revenue department of Mysore. Europeans commonly 
considered him as Tippoo's prime minister ; but Tippoo's government recognized 
no such officer. For a curious engagement whidi the Sultan made this person 
enter into, toward the end of the year 179&, the reader is referred to the 
Appendix, H. Meer Sadik lost his life in the assault of Seringapatam. He was 
believed by many persons to have been a son of the celebrated Bussy ; nor was 
the uncommon fairness of his complexion the only circumstance that gave weight 
to the reportj of which more particular mention is made in the Appendix. 


To Syed Mahommed, Kilaadjr of Seuingapatam ; dated 3d 
TVasaaey. (\2th September.^ 

It has been reported to us, that the MiUusitddi/ of the Jijshe, Kishn 
Rao, has been bitten by a mad dog : wc therefore write to desire that 
you will give the aforesaid [^l\Iiltnsuddij'] in particular charge to the 
physician, Mahommed Baig, who must administer to him the proper 


T I r P O O S t' L T A. N. 147 

medicines in such cases, and restore him to health. He must also be 
told not to let the discharge from the ivound stop, but to keep it open for 
six months. 

N.B. A letter, to the above cflfect, was likewise written to the physician, 
Mahommed Baig. 


This is not the only letter iu whicli the Sultan has exhibited himself in the 
charaeter of a physician. A still more curious instance of the same kind will 
appear hereafter. It would be well, if Ave could attribute his interference in such 
matters to any particular solicitude for the welfare of the patients. This motive 
would, at least, be creditable to his humanity : but humanity, or sympathy in 
the sufferings of others, was not, it may be safely affirmed, among the Sultans 
virtues. His conduct, therefore, on the occasions in question, can only be 
referred to the vanity, which made him desirous of appearing to know, as well 
as to direct, every thing. 

The Syed Mahommed Khan, to whom this letter is addressed, continued to be 
K'daaddr of Seringapatam, to the period of the capture of that place by the 
English ; and was among the few persons of distinction who survived its fall. He 
stood high in the confidence of the Sultan, who speaking, in his Memoirs of the 
manner in which he disposed of some of the principal offices of state on his 
accession to the Musnud, says : " the Kilaaddri/ of Putn I consio-ned to Syed 
" Mahommed, a man long distinguished for his fidelity and courage, and one of 
" [our] most ancient adherents." The situation held for so long a period by this 
person, must necessarily have made him a particijjator in many, or most of the 
cruelties committed within the walls of Seringapatam, by order of his master : 
he has, nevertheless, obtained credit, for having often granted to the English 
prisoners confined there, at different times, indulgencies by no means authorized 
by the Suttaiis instructions. 

U 2 



To NooR Mahommed Khan and Mahommed Ghyas ; dated from 
Baxgalore, 5th TVasaaey. (14M September.^ 

We have, of late, repeatedly beard, that Rao Rasta having sent for 
you, you declined waiting upon him, on account of a dispute that had 
arisen respecting a woman belonging to some Musulman ; returning 
for answer to his message, " that if they would let the woman in 
*' question go,^'^ you would attend him." This account has occasioned 
us the utmost surprise and astonishment. This is a domestic disturbance 
among the inhabitants of their own country. Where was the necessity of 
your interfering in this matter, or of your refusing to wait upon Rao 
Rasta when he sent for you ? thereby throwing our affairs into confu- 
sion. It seems to us, that old age^^ mmt have produced this deviationf^^ 
for change] in your conduct [character or disposition], and rendered you 
thus unmindful of your lives and honor. It would have been most 
consonant to the state of the times, and to the regard you owed to 
our interests, if, considering their dissensions as beneficial to Isldm, 
you had [secretly] encouraged [or excited] the Musulmans [in their 
proceedings], while you [apparently] looked on as [unconcerned] 
spectators, instead of interposing with such an extraordinary recommen- 
dation^''^ as you did ; and which was, indeed, altogether, unworthy of 


(1) Or, " would release, or deliver her up." Original ^i^ljo'j^ly. 

(2) Original ,_5_) <L'Lj ^ .^j^ literallj " great years and old heads; or, still more 
strictly, " old headed ness, 

(3) Original »j\sil _.^j^ j J c^jU; 

(4) Original (^U- 

T I P P O O S L' L T A N. J49 

your understandings/'^ When the Nazarenes seized upon hundreds of 
Musuhnan women, where was the zeal for the support [or honour] of 
Islamism, which you are now so desirous of manifesting there ? 

For the future, it will be proper that you should never take any share 
in their domestic concerns, but attend [exclusively] to whatever may 
promote the success of our affairs. Let the fire of discord, therefore, 
be again kindled amongst them, to the end tliat they may, in this 
manner, waste [their strength upon] each other. 


If I understand the foregoing letter rightly (of which, however, I must confess 
myself to have some doubts) the SuUaiis meaning was, that both his own personal 
interests, and those of Islamism, would have been better promoted, by a conti- 
nuance of the feuds and animosities which seem to have arisen between the 
Musulman and Hindoo inhabitants of Puonah, in consequence, apparently, of 
some female intrigue, than by the interposition of the envoys ; which, if it 
succeeded, would have the effect of terminating the disputes in question. Instead 
of this, he would have had his agents secretly foment and encourage them, and 
therefore concludes his dispatch, by broadly desiring them " to rekindle the fire 
" of discord," in order that his enemies may be consumed therein : that is to say, 
to measure back the false steps they had taken, and let the quarrel which had 
sprung up take its natural course. At the same time, he seems to have thoughtj 
that the interference of the envoys, besides being impolitic, was indecorous and 
presumptuous, as encroaching on the rights of an independent state. " It is a 
" domestic difference, (says he) concerning only the inhabitants of their own 
" country." 

It is uncertain to what particular transaction the Sultan alludes, in the passage 
mentioning the Nazarenes, or Englisli. The violence, however, here imputed 
to them, is mentioned on other occasions, as well as the present. 

(5) I am far from being satisfied that I have rendered this passage correctly. 



To Meer Zynul Aabideen, Sjpahdar of a Kushoon ; dated 
8th Wasaaey. (I'Jtfi September.^ 

It has lately been represented to us, that the Koorgs have committed 
some excesses('> at Zuferdhdd. We have, in consequence, written to the 
Suktshy of the Ji/she, to dispatch you with two guns and your Ku^hoon 
to that place. He is also ordered to advance you two thousand Behddury 
pagodas, on account of the pay of your Kushoon ; as well as a thousand 
rupees, to be applied in compensations to the wounded/-) After leaving 
a guard over such of Othman Khan's Kushoon as are not to be trusted/^) 
you will proceed, as above directed, to Zuferdhdd ; to the Foujddr of 
which place, Zyniil Aabideen, we have addressed another letter, which 
is enclosed. You are, in conjunction with him, to make a general attack 
on the Koorgs ;^*^ when, having put to the sword, or made prisoners of, 
the whole of them, both the slain and the priso7iers are to be made 
Musulmans.*^^) In short, you must so manage matters, as [effectually]] 
to prevent them from exciting any further sedition or disturbance. 

Obtaining from the treasury a copy of our regulations respecting the 
wounded, let your wounded be paid in conformity thereto. Rewards to 


(1) Original CJ,}^ 

(2) I. e. to such as may be wounded in the course of the service ordered. 

(3) Probably men impressed into the army, and suspected of an intention to desert. 

(4) In the original it is *lcjii or a general slaughter ; but as pn'soiers are afterwards 
supposed to be made, I have, to avoid the apparent contradiction, given a difl'ercnt turn to 
the translation. 

(5) i. e. " circumcised." If this conjecture were well founded, it would follow that 
ZynCil Aabideen Shoostry was a Sipahcldr, or a commander of dk Kushoon, which, however, 
I have no authority for supposing him to have been. 


those men, who may be entitled to them, must also be given from the 
money in your hands ; from which you must, likewise, make such 
advances [of pay] to your KmJioon, as shall seem proper to you. 


I am doubtful, whether by the Zynul Aabideen, mentioned in the title of this 
letter, is meant Zynul Aabideen Shoostry (to whom Letter CXXVIII is unq^ues- 
tionably addressed) or a distinct jjerson, bearing the same name. Though the 
former is usually distinguished by the addition of Shoostry (denoting him to be a 
native of Shuster or Suza, in Persia) yet the appellation might have been acci- 
dentally omitted in the present letter, as it most clearly appears to have been in 
the title of Letter CXLV. 

The ^ju *i-; Zuhhm-puttt/y or compensation to wounded soldiers, is a custom 
pretty general in the native armies of India. Having never seen Tippoo Sultan's 
regulations on this head, I am unable to give any information respecting them. 
As, however, all the Sultan's estabhshments were formed on the most econo- 
mical, if not the most parsimonious scale, it is not probable, that his donations to 
the wounded were regulated by a different spirit. The rewards occasionally be- 
stowed on men, distinguishing themselves in battle or otherwise, usually consisted of 
gold or silver chains, or of rings for the wrists^ according to the rank of the person 
receiving them. 

The reader will probably be starded at the order contained in the foregoing 
letter, for making Musulmans, not only of the living, but of the dead Koorgs, 
who might fall into the hands of the Sipahddr ; and the extravagance of the pro- 
ceeding may even lead him to suspect, either the correctness of the manuscript, or 
the fidelity of the translation. With respect to the former, it will be sufficient to 
say that there is not the slightest ground for supposing any error of the manu- 
script in this passage ; and as to the latter, I will only observe, that nothing can 
be expressed with more piaiimcss, or freedom from ambiguity, than tlic original, 



which, for the satisfaction of the oriental reader, at least, shall be inserted at the 
bottom of the page.'"' 


To Mahommed Ghyas Khan and Noor Mahommed Khan ; same 

Date. (I'Jth September.^ 

You write, " that a very great intimacy and friendship subsisted 
" betAveen Syed Zyniil Aabideen Khan and Nooruddeen Husain Khan^ 
*' the latter of whom is come there [i. e. to Poonah~\ on a mission from 
" Mr. Boddam, the Governor of JBomhar/ ; and that the aforesaid Syed, 
*' actuated by his attachment to our Sircar, furnishes you, privately, 
*' with the secret intelligence of that quarter, and is furthermore ready, 
*' if it meets our approbation, to take steps towards establishing a friend- 
" ship between us and the said Governor." It is well. We have no 
objection to your agitating this affair, as you propose, with the Si/ed. 
You must also obtain the most accurate intelligence from thence, and 
regularly communicate the same to us. You will, likewise, take the 
same occasion to represent ,(') that our territories and those of the English 
are contiguous to each other ;(^) and that, at the time of the treaty con- 
cluded between us and the English, it was stipulated, that no assistance 
should be afforded, either openly or secretly, to our enemies : and, accord- 
ingly, we are in possession of copies of the said treaty, containing the 
aforesaid stipulations, under the respective seals of the Govwnors of 


(1) 2. e. to Syed Zyntll Abideen, for the ultimate information ol" Mr. Boddam. 

(2) Literally, " are under the same shade." 


J3e}igal, Madras, and Bomhnij. This being the case, it is unsuitable to 
the rules of friendship, and is even a violation of good faith, that not- 
withstanding his delivery [to us] of a treaty under his own seal, the 
Governor of Bomhaij should afford assistance to our enemies. Such con- 
duct is abundantly remote from the usages and conduct of great chiefs. 

Agreeably to yovu' suggestion, we enclose a letter to the address of 
Nujmud' Dowlah Behadur,^^^ which you will forward [to hun]. 


I believe that the Zynul Aabideen, mentioned in the foregoing letter, was an 
agent employed at the court of Poonah by the Nabob of Camhay. The Sultaris 
letter to the latter, being merely complimentary, and only designed to lead to a 
further intercourse, is omitted. 

The treaties with the English, spoken of in this letter, must, of course, refer to 
the separate treaties concluded at different times between Ilyder Ali and the 
respective British presidencies. The treaty of Mangalore, likewise, contains a 
stipulation to the same effect as that so much insisted on here by the Sultan. The 
Governor of Bombay was not, however, a subscribing party to that treaty. 

I am ignorant to what circumstance the Sultan alludes, where he charges the 
Governor of Bombay with affording assistance, at this period, to the Mahrattahs, 


To Mah Mirza Khan ; dated lih IVasaaey. (\Qth September.^ 

We have, at this time, thought proper to employ you, and the troops 
under your command, in the reduction of the fort of Oa/jjil/yS^^ The 

X Sipahddry 

(3) The Nabob of Cambay. 

(I) This fort is, I believe, situated in a district of the same name, which is adjoining to 



Sipahddr, Shaikh Omar/^^ with the troops belonging to liim, is already 
before that place, where you will be joined by him, as well as by four 
thousand Kuchuny Piddehs from Bangalore. Part of this force is 
already arrived at its destination, and the remainder is on its way. On 
your arrival at Oalpilly, you must, in conjunction with the said Sipah- 
ddr, proceed to dislodg-e and chastise the Piddehs of the Zeminddr of 
Puvgaiwor; who have posted themselves in the neighbouring woods, 
from whence they [issue forth and] commit depredations. Having cleared 
these woods, you must move forward, and taking up a position near 
Oalpilly, open trenches against that place. 

Shaikh Omar has with him four large guns, two field-pieces, "^^^ and two 
howitzers.^^^ If any more heavy guns should be wanted, Turbiyut Alt 
Khan, t\\& Biiktshy oi Ehshdm,^^^ has been instructed to dispatch them 
upon your requisition. Mounting these guns in the batteries, you must 
open a fire upon the fort j which being taken, you will put into it a 
garrison of our troops. In the fort is the Zeminddr, Chukra Mull, toge- 
ther with several Ndigwdries^^^ of note. You must take especial care that 
these persons are made prisoners, and report to us all the particulars 
respecting them. If, however, the above named persons should escape 
through the woods, and take refuge in the districts of Chundrageery, 
Chittoor, or other Polygars depending on the Fringy,^''^ you must write 
to the Taalukddr of such district, informing him that the fugitives are 


(2) A letter to tliis officer, dated 24tl) Ildshimy (4tli September) is given iti the correspon- 
dence ; but as it contains noiiiing that does not appear in the present dispatch, I 
have not thought it necessary to translate it. 

(3) Original \s^ <-^' ") 

> I am not ([uite cert;iin that I have rendered tliese terms rightly. 

(4) Original i^Lji J 

(5) Ai Bangalore. In a note to Letter IV', I have erroneously called him the collector 
of the district. 

(6) Officers of the Kumlachdr, or militia. 

(7) i. e. the Frank, meaning the English. 


rohl)ers of our Sircar, ^^^ and requiring of him not to protect but to deliver 
them u\). You are, at the same time, to report these circumstances to us, 
in order that we may make a representation of the matter to the Governor 
of Madras, and endeavour to obtain possession of the person of the afore- 
said Poll/gar. 

If any of the Piddehs of the Pohjgnr of Punganoor should be still 
concealed in the adjacent woods, you must contrive to discover their 
haunts, and to make prisoners of them. 

You have with you fifty bullock-loads of gunpowder, each load being 
a hundred and twenty seers, making together six thousand seersS^'> You 
liave been also furnished with twelve thousand seers of Carnatic lead, 
and four thousand gun-flints : these articles you will preserve carefully, 
expending them [only] in battle. If you should be in want of more lead, 
powder, or shot, apply to the aforesaid Buktsluj, who has our orders to 
supply you ; and when such supplies reach you, you must transmit to 
him a receipt for the same. 

Mohyuddecn Ali Khan, the Dewdii of Kurpah, and Rajah Ram 
Chundur, have been directed to supply you with gram^'") for the con- 
sumption of the horses of your Kuchurrij. They will, at the same time, 
each send a Miltusiiddy in charge of the gram, who will remain with 
you, and serve out the gram as it may be wanted. Receipts for the same, 
under your seal and signature, must be regularly given by you to the 
aforesaid MiUmuddies, who will deliver them to their respective prin- 

The country of Punganoor appertains to our Sircar, and tve have 

X 2 appointed 

(8) This expression may mean citlur robbers from tlic Sultan's territories, w public 
dcfaulteri!, men who had defrauded iiis government. 

(9) n e. about 12,000 lb. weight. 

(10) This is a species of pulse, with wiiicii they feed cattle, and especially horses, in India. 
The term is unknown to the natives, by whom it is called cinauiah. I do not know from what 
language the English have adopted it. 


appointed Dasia to collect the revenues of it ; you will, therefore, issue 
strict orders to your people not to commit any ravages or depredations 
there ; nor are you to make any iiwursions into the country of the Fringy, 
which adjoins to Punganoor, or to give it any disturbance. On this head 
you must be very strict : and if the Aumils of the Fringy should write 
to you, to desire you not to make any incursions in their country, or to 
give it any molestation, you will send such an answer as may be proper, 
and at the same time report the circumstances to us. 

The pay of the troops under you and Shaikh Omar, will be sent to 
each of you respectively. You will distribute the pay of your own people, 
man hy man ; and he will distribute the pay of the Jyshe under his com- 
mand. Such Piddehs, or others, as may be Avounded, you will remu- 
nerate according to the separate regulations on this head, with which 
you have been furnished. You must also apply yourself to the procuring 
of secret intelligence from the Ryots and others, in that quarter, giving 
to those who communicate it from five to ten rupees, as you may judge 

Dasia is the Umlddr of that place \i. e. Panganoor'] : you will, there- 
fore, afford him every [necessary] encouragement and countenance, and 
make yourself acquainted, by his means, with the [different] roads lead- 
ing through the hills of Oalpilly. The country of the Fringy adjoins to 
Oalpilly ; so that, in order to satisfy or tranquilize the Fringy Tnahtk' 
ddrs, you must, immediately on your arrival there, write to them saying, 
" that the Po/ygar of Punganoor having contumaciously raised his head, 
" you have been sent by us to chastise Ijim ; and therefore request that, 
*' if he should take refuge in their country, he may not receive protec- 
" tion." 

Let a reward of five rupees be given to every man of our people bring- 
ing in the head of a Piddeh belonging to the rebel Polygar ; and let the 
same reward be granted for every prisoner brought in alive. 



The foregoing document is denominated in the original a Hukm-ndmeh, or 
" mandate ;" by which name all the formal or set orders, with which public 
functionaries were furnished, either at the time of their appointment to office, or 
subsequent thereto, were usually called, to distinguish them from the current and 
occasional instructions transmitted to them. They were sometimes divided into 
articles which were regularly numbered ; and, as observed on a former occasion, 
generally concluded with a denunciation of the punishment appointed for a neglect 
or disobedience of the directions contained in them. 

The term Fringy, applied in this dispatch to the English, is generally used 
(by the superior classes among the natives of India, at least) in contempt ; as 
Nusdra, or Nazarene, also is for a Christian. Strictly speaking, however, there 
is nothing reproachful or degrading in the former appellation, as it properly 
means nothing more than a Frank, or European. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN J (Idtc'd Qlk IVasaaey. (VJ th September^ 

What you l«ave written, relating to Kiilu Pundit, is duly understood. 
A letter to hini, framed in tlic manner suggested by you, is sent here- 
with. Let it be delivered to him : and if, notwithstanding this letter, 
he should still prove disinclined to repair to our Presence, and persist in 
his contumacy, an hundred men of the Uskur,^^'> armed with swprcjs and 
daggers, hut witliout firelocks, must be sent, with orders to approach 
him gradually, wliile he is held in conversation [iiy persons to be 
instructed for the purpose]. Tliey must then suddenly rush forward, 


( 1 ) The regular troops wore distinguished by this name. 


ten men upon every one of his'^^ : and, disarming the Pundit and all 
his party, bind them hand and foot, put the whole in irons, and [in this 
manner] dispatch them to the Presence. We enclose a letter of the 
above tenor to Syed Ghuflar,^^^ to whom you will deliver it. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan, DEtrAN of KuRPAH ; dated 9th 

TVasaaey. (18th September.^ 

It has been represented to us, that you have, in a most rigorous and 
peremptory manner, required of several of our sei-vants at Kurpah 
to evacuate houses which they have occupied for years past, and in the 
erection of which they have expended considerable sums of money. 
Such improper proceedings are of evil tendency, and directly contrary 
to our pleasure : you must, therefore, desist from them, nor again 
require of any of our servants to quit their habitations. Act according 
to the instructions which have been delivered to you, and do not pursue 
the suggestions of your own fancy. 


To KuMRUDDEEN J dated 9th TVasaaey. (\Qth September.') 

Agreeably to your request, we have Avritten, and enclose an order 
to Mohyuddeen Ali Khan, the Dewdn of Kurpah, directing him to 


(2) Kala Pundit and his part)', or attendants, consisted, according to this passage, of ten 
persons. (See Letter CXXV.) 

(3) Syed Ghuffar was selected by the Sullan to execute this notable piece of treachery. 

TirrOO SULTAN. lo9 

desist from disturbing our servants in the possession of their houses. 
You must forward the same to him. 

What you write, respecting your desire to proceed unattended [or by 
yourself]'"' to pay your respects to us, is understood. Repair straight, 
yourself and army, to SeringapatamJ^"^ whither we ourselves are pro- 


STo BuDEEA uz ZuMAN, Taalv KDAR of Hu scoTAH ; dated 6th 
TVasaaey. (\5th September.^ 

You Avrite, *' that in consequence of the Ciitwdl being inchided in 
*' the pay abstracts of tlie Kiaidachdr, the Kilaaddr of Hdscotah 
*' [conceiving the ofiice to be in his disposal] had placed a very low 
" and improper person in the Cutwdtij, to the great detriment of the 
" business of your department." It is known. The appointment and 
removal of the Cutwdl rests with you : you will, therefore, replace [as 
you propose] the former Cutwdl, and taking the payment of his monthly 
stipend upon yourself, see that he applies himself with diligence to the 
business of the Sircar. We have written to the aforesaid Kilaaddr on 
the subject of the Ciitivdl, whose appointment, we have told hini, is to 
depend upon you. 

(1) Original iijJj»- ^vliicli has been already explained. 

(2) Though the name of this citv is most commonly written Piitn llironghout the corres- 
pondence, yet it is sometimes, as in the |>resent instance, written tD.^Cy .^ Sirirung-puttu 
Tippoo was at this time at Banga/ore, to uliich place lie had repaired (Fur what purpose does, 
not appear) in ilic beginning of beptember. 



To Ali Rajah Beeby ; dated 9th TVAs^aey. (ISth September.^ 

What you have written, relative to your having paid twenty thousand 
rupees to Meer Zyniil Aabideen, the Foujddr of Zuferdhdd, is under- 
Stood, and meets our approbation. You must, in like manner, discharge 
the remaining balance due by you. Upon your arrival at the Presence, 
we will personally state all matters to you. Tillicherry is situated near 
the Taaluk of that refuge of chastity .O you will, therefore, regularly 
transmit to us whatever intelligence you may [from time to time] be able 
to procure from thence. 


Ali Rajali Bceby was the same person, whom the English, in the west of 
India, sometimes dignified with the title of Queen of Cannanore, of which petty 
state she was the hereditary ruler. I am ignorant, at what period Cannanore 
became tributary to the Mysore chief: but it continued so till the cession of 
Malabar to the English, by the partition treaty of 1792; when all the rights and 
authority claimed by Tippoo Sultan in that province, were transferred to the 
East-India Company. 

Ali Rajah Beeby was a Mabommedan ; and on this account, perhaps, was 
treated by the Sultan with somewhat more distinction and lenity, than he was 
accustomed to show to his other tributaries in Malabar. He would not seem, 
however, to have succeeded in his endeavours to conciliate her good-will, or to 
inspire her with confidence in him. This fact is deducible from the constant 
repugnance, which she evinced to complying with his desire of seeing her at 
Seringapatam ; and which will appear, on more than one occasion, in the course 
of the subsequent correspondence. 

(1) Original »\y yz -i°.''- which as well as »\y ■_:: -f-r" is a common form of address to 



To BuRHA^fLDDEI;^' ; dated \Oth Wasaaey. (19th September.^ 

[After authorizing him to entertain in his service a Hind'wij MUnshj, 
the letter proceeds as follows] : — 

It appears, that Kala Pundit is attended by ten or twelve [armed] 
followers : let [therefore] a hundred men of the Usknr, armed with 
swords and shields, be sent [to his habitation or quarters], with instruc- 
tions to close in with the party, and, overpowering, seize on the whole. 
The aforesaid Pundit, together with his adherents, must then be dis- 
patched to the Presence, as before directed. 


This letter is little more than a repetition of Letter CXX, addressed to the 
same person, and written only two days before. Such an early rc-iteration of his 
orders on the subject, strongly marks the impatience of the Sultan to get posses- 
sion of his victim. 


I To Mahommed Ghyas und Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 14th 

TVAsAAEY. (23d September.^ 

You will proceed from thence to the Presence, whenever the minister 
shall give you your dismission. 

Y On 


On the anniversary of the Dushorrah,^^^ you will distribute among 
the Hindoos, composing your escort, a goat to every ten men ; and on 
the aimiversary of the festival of Zilhijjehp the like number of goats 
among the Musulmans of your party. 


To Syed Ghuefar ; dated from Seringapatam, ^'Jth JVasaaby. 

(6th October.) 

Your letter, inclosing a list of the arms of Kala Pundit, &c. has 
been received. What you write, respecting the seizure and confinement 
in irons of the said Pundit and his adherents, is understood and ap- 
proved. We shall shortly direct you to repair to our Presence : be 
quick, therefore, in dispatching what business you have there. 


This is the last occasion on whicli Kala Pundit is mentioned. Of his ultimate 
fate I know nothing : but it may be safely conjectured, that it was not a mild one. 

(1) A Hindoo festival, occurring at the close of the rainy season. It is at this period that 
the native armies of India usually take the field. The Mahrattahs are said to celebrate this 
festival in a manner peculiar to themselves ; which is, by destroying a village, to denote that 
the campaign is opened. 

(2) This is a Mahommedan festival, celebrated on the tenth of Zilhijjeh, and commonly 
called Bukr-eed and Eeduz-zohd. It is commemorative of the sacrifice of Isaac. 



To Zynul Aabideen Shoostry ; same Date. (6th October.') 

Your letter has been received. How came it, that notwithstanding 
your knowledge of the rainy season, you did not take KiindUehs^^^ with 
you ? This circumstance occasions us great surprize. Let the grain, 
furnished by such of the Byots as have submitted to your authority, be 
paid for. On the other hand, let that belonging to those Ryots who 
have adopted a rebellious course, be plundered, and applied to the use 
of your army. 

Let assistance be afforded to Lucheram, the Huzdry. 


The person to whom the foregoing letter is addressed was a brother of Meer 
Alluni, so well known as minister for English affairs at the court of Hyderabad, 
1 do not know at what period he engaged in the service of Tippoo Sultan ; but I 
believe, that no intercourse, of any kind, subsisted between the brothers. Zynul 
Aabideen, though occasionally employed by the Sultan in situations of trust, 
would appear to have been principally esteemed for his supposed literary qua- 
lifications. He it was who composed the Futhdf Miijdhideen, '*' under the 
immediate direction of the Sultan himself. He was also the author of the 
Sitltdne Tuwdreekh, mentioned by Colonel Wilks^ in the Preface to his valuable 

Y 2 History 

(1) 111 tlie original UjJjc^ a term of wliicli I can obtain no explanation. I ain inclined, 
however, to think, tli,it some description of tunts is meant : perhaps bell-tents, or store- 
tents. Tlic word frequently occurs, and tlic context every where seems to warrant the 
construction I hiivc hinted at. 

(2) See observations on Letter XC, where some account of this work is given. 


History of Mysore : but this work appears to have been little more than a 
rhetorical amplification of the Sultatis own Memoirs, as far as the latter went. 
The reproof given to Zynul Aabidecn, in the present dispatch, is mild in the 
extreme, compared with the invectives which we shall hereafter see bestowed upon 


To KuMRUDDEEN ; dated 29 fh TVasaaey, from Seringapatam. 

(8th October.} 

Your letter, informing us of your arrival with your army on the 
banks of the Tunghudrah,^^^ and of your intention to repair speedily to 
the Presence, has been received. You must hasten your arrival here ; 
and order things in such a manner [on youi* march], that no desertion 
may take place from your army, which [you know] is composed of men 

from all the four quarters, as Kiirpah, &c. You must, 

therefore, employ some of the Ji/ske troops to look after them, so that 
no desertions may happen, but the whole join us in safety. On this 
head the utmost care and strictness are necessary. 


It would appear, from this and other letters in the present collection, that 
desertions were frequent in the armies of the Sultan : but so they are in all the 
native armies of India. It is probable, however, that the evil might be expe- 

(1) 1 am at a loss how to reconcile tliis letter with Letter CX, by which it would appear 
that Kumi-adcleen had begun to cross the Tungbiidra, on his way to Seringapatam, so early 
as the beginning of September. 


rienccd, in a peculiar degree, by Tippoo Sultan, since he would seem to have been 
in the habit of occasionally recruiting his ranks by forced levies ; a practice, of 
which I am not aware that any other example is to be found among the princes or 
states of India. 


To Zynul Aabideen, jBvktshy^^^ of Ehsham, at Fvrrv ku-yJb 
HiSAR -p^ same Date. (8th October.^ 

Your letter, stating the insolvency of tlie late postmaster(^) of Mdnd 
ydr^''^ &c., has been received. What was necessary to be said, regarding 
the above-mentioned postmaster, as well as the postmasters o{ Mankully ^^^ 
was heretofore written at the greatest length. It is wonderful that you 
should not have acted conformably [to those directions :] but that, 
instead of doing so, you should repeatedly address us on the subject, and 
pursue [in this manner] your own fancies. For the future, you must not 
write to us on such matters, but conduct yourself agreeably to our former 

(1) Tlieic appear to have been diniient descriptions of Buktshies. Tlie Buktshies of 
Kushoons were a sort of commissariss and paymasters, and were subordinate to the Sipahddr, 
if not to the Bisdladur, or commandor of a battalion. Tlic Mcer Btiktslnj, however, took rank 
of the Sipahddr. The Buktshies of tlic Ehshdin and JjjsJic were, I believe, tlic superior 
officers of those corps, respectively. 

(2) ChittUdoorg. 

(3) Original a]lj<^^l which 1 conjecture to mean a postmaster. 

(4) I do not understand this term, or proper name, whichever it may be : but the meaning 
may be, the " late postmaster of Malabar." 

(5) This may be intended for Ilurpunhully. 



To ZiNUL Aabideen Shoostrv; dated Serixgapatam, \st 
ZuBURJUDY. QOth October^) 

Ahmed Baig has been dispatched [to you], and other troops will 
shortly follow. In the mean while, you must not remain idle, but pur- 
sue, exterminate, or make prisoners of the rebels, wheresoever they may 
take refuge. You must also quickly inform us of the state of the rains 
in that quarter. 


To the same; dated 3d Zubvrjudy. (\2tk October.^ 

Your letter has been received, and its contents are duly understood. 
What you write, concerning your operations [against the enemy] ; your 
want of gunpowder and grain ; the violence of the rains ; and, lastly, 
your opinion, that though ten more Kushoons were to be sent thither 
nothing could be effected, unless vVe ourselves should proceed in person 
to that quarter, in which case, you think, that every thing would be 
speedily accomplished. All this is known. 

You have with you fifteen hundred bundles of gunpowder, thirty 

rounds of ammunition, and two thousand men of the t^*/ie. That you should 

not, with such a force, have made any effort to chastise the enemy, but 

should be waiting for our arrival, occasions us the utmost amazement, 

is utterly irreconcileable with [every idea of] courage, and warrants a 

strong suspicion of absolute cowardice [in you]. If this were not the 

case, two hundred Jyshe would be fully adequate to the suppression of 

this revolt .('> 


( 1 ) TIic original has it, '< the chasti'serneut of the enemy : " but I have rendered it as above, 
to avoid the perpetual recurrence of the same phrase. 


We therefore order, that, uniting your force with that of Meer 
Zynul Aabideen, the FouJddrP you do together exert yourselves in tlie 
signal chastisement of the Koorgs. You must, in particular, be careful, 
that your people do not disperse, and, by this means, expose themselves 
to be cut off. That country is populous. Collect together such of the 
inhabitants as are well disposed to our government, and giving them 
encouraging assurances, buy their grain, and distribute it among your 
troops. As to the rebels among them, you must pursue them whereso- 
ever they can be found, and chastise them effectually. 


Strong as the censure, conveyed in the preceding letter, undoubtedly is, it will 
presently be seen, that the full measure of the Sultaiis anger against this unfortu- 
nate commander was not yet dealt out. Vide Letters CXXXVI and CXXXV II. 


To Mahommed Ghyas omZNooR Mahombied Khan j sa7ne Date. 

(\2th Odober.} 

Your letter has been received. What you write, respecting your 
having made up and delivered to your followers new flags, banners, &c., 
is understood, and meets our approbation. You must take care, that 
the ^regular] infantry, attached to your escort, perform their exercise 
regularly. You must not, hoivever, expend any powder on these occa- 


(2) Tlie appointment of this Zyniil Aiibidccii to tiic Foujddnj of Zuferdbdd is mentioned 
by the Sultan liimscif in liis Memoiis, It look pluco on the (iist subjugation and settlement 
of that district, in the year 1184. 


Noor IMaliomnied Kh4n being indisposed, it would be highly improper 
that you should, at such a time, be separated. Under these circum- 
stances, you must take up your residence in the same place with him, 
and exert yourself for his recovery. In fine, you must, conjointly, dis- 
charge all the duties of attachment and fidelity that you owe to us. 


To Ghulam Hyder ; same Date. (12 th Oetoher.') 

You write for instructions, with regard to the prices at which you 
should buy certain articles for our use,(') in order that you may regulate 
your purchases accordingly. Old age has certainly made havock on your 
understanding, otherwise you would have known that the Mida^uddies 
here are not the proper persons to determine the market prices there. It 
is the Miitusuddies there, and the instructions given to them on this 
head, which should be referred to on this occasion. Seek the necessary 
information from the Dewdny Kuchurry, and act accordingly. 


2o Burhanuddeen; dated 4th Zvburjudy. (I3th October.^ 

Your letter has been leceived. Your longer continuance at NergUnd, 

is needless ; while it is also productive of the ruin and destruction of your 

army : we therefore write, to desire^'*) you will remove with your forces 

into the country of Kittoor, where forage and gram will be found in 

abundance. Let orders be given to the Kilaaddr of NergUnd, to make 

the necessary repairs to the fort. 


(1) The articles are specified iti the original, but I cannot make them ont. 
(1*) Literal)}', " it is therefore written that you," &c. 

TirroosuLTAN. 169 

The troops of the Uskur,^^'> and others which have been sent [ostensi- 
bly] to forage at T>hdnv(lr, are, in fact, stationed there only to create 
disorder and disputes : these men must, therefore, be recalled. The 
place in question aj)pertains to the cavalry foragers, and not to you [or to 
your people,] 

What you say, of the assembling of the enemy's forces, is known. 
Do you keep your mind collected, and entertain no apprehensions. 
Thousands of this kind of 2>cople are [constuni/i/^ coming; and going^. 


It will be seen, hereafter, that the real object of the Sultan, in directing Bur- 
hanuddeen to remove his camp to Kiftoor, was not to facilitate the procuring of 
supjjlies, but to obtain possession of that place. 

The indifference, if not contempt, with which the Sultan here speaks of the 
movements of the Mahrattah army, is strongly expressive of the low estimation in 
which he always either actually held, or affected to bold, the military character of 
that nation. Of the Nizdms troops he certainly did not entertain a more favorable 
opinion. With respect to the English, it is hardly credible that, with the impres- 
sion which the successes obtained over him by Lord Cornwallis must necessarily 
have produced, he should really have thought so meanly of them, as, to judge by 
the sentiments he has left on record, he would appear to have done, even at a 
period posterior to the war of 179I-2. Spleen, arising from disappointed hopes, 
from baffled ambition, or even from a narrow policy, such as usually regulated his 
conduct, might have led him to write, and perhaps also to speak, in a more dis- 
paraging strain of his European neighbour and antagonist, than accorded strictly 
with his inward conviction or feeling. Arrogance and vanity were, undoubtedly, 
among the most prominent features of the Sidtans mind : but however those 
passions, seconded by the flattery of the people surrounding him, might encourage 

Z him 

(2) jC-c is tlic Arabic o( J^ and both words signify an army in general: bnt Tippoo 
Sultan ajiplicd tiic former term, exclusively, to his regular troops. The Swwdr-uskur were 
the regular cavalry, and the Piddch'Uskur tlic regular infantry. 


him to believe himself superior in military. skill and prowess to the English, it 
seems impossible that his infatuation should have been so great, as to inspire him, 
in reality, with that contempt, which he occasionally professed to entertain for 
them as rivals in arms. 


7b Zynul Aabideen Shoostry; dated 5th Zubvrjudy. 

(\Ath October.') 

Your letter has been received, and the particulars therein stated are 
fully revealed. 

It appears, from the tenor of all the letters which have successively 
reached us from you, that you have conceived a mortal dread of the 
accursed tribe [to which you are opposed]. This being the case, neither 
the chastisement of the worthless crew, nor the proper settlement of our 
affairs [in that quarter], can be expected from you : we therefore direct, 
that you proceed, with the force under your command to Periapatatiiy 
and there remain [till further orders]. 


To the same ; dated from Seringapatam, 6th Zuburjvby, 

(I5th October.) 

Ilour two letters, of the 2d and 5th of Zuhurjudy ,^^^ have bee;i re- 
ceived, and their contents are duly understood. We enclose two Pur- 
wdnehs, one for the Aumil of Htjbutpoor, the other for the Aumil of 


(1) If there is no mistake in these dates, the communication between Seringapatam and 
thesceiicot" ZynQl Aabidgeii's operations must have been quick and uninterrupted, and the 
distance not considerable. 

TIP POO S 11. TAN. 171 

Koondnoor, directing them each to dispatch a thousand goonies of grain'-) 
to that person of n)ighty degree/^) You uill forward these Purwdnchs 
to their address ; and, on receiving the two thousand goonies of grain, 
dispatcli the same to Zuferdhdd. Your wounded you are to send to Hij- 
hutpoor, the Aumil of which place has been written to respecting them. 
Of the two surgeons with you, one must accompany the wounded to 
Hyhutpoor : the other will remain with you. 

A hundred Clashie^*^ have been sent to you from the Presence : a 
tliousand bundles of cartridges have likewise been dispatched. Your 
detachment took with it, in their cartridge-boxes, forty-eight thousand 
musket-cartridges, besides fifteen thousand spare cartridges, making- 
together sixty-three thousand cartridges. You write, " that you have 
*' not remaining more than from fifteen to twenty cartridges in each 
** cartouch-box : " at this rate, the expenditure of cartridges has been 
very great. IVe are curious to kno^v, and desire you will inform us, how 
many of the enemy have been sent to hell, by the expenditure of such a 
number of cartridges. We also desire to be informed of the amount of 
the rebel force. One hundred of your men being wounded, no doubt 
great numbers of the enemy must have been killed and wounded. 

It is truly wonderful, that you, whose pen was employed in describing, 
in the FuthilV 3Idjdhideen, the mode of making war in a close and 
woody country, should, at the moment of your being yourself engaged in 
conducting a similar warfare, have forgotten the rules there laid down. 
If you had carried on your operations according to those rules, you would 
never have sustained the loss you have done.^^> 

Z 2 With 

(2) I do not know the amount of tli'is weight or measure : the Goonies, or Gunnifs, are 
bags made of a sort of hempen cloth. 

(3) This title would appear to have been appHcd, in tliis place, rather snceringly. 

(4) Men employed about tents,' &c. 

(5) For an extract from the FiithuV Miijahideen, containing the rules here spoken of, tlii? 
reader is referred to Appendix, I. 


With respect to your reiterated representations of the expediency of 
our repairing-, in person, to that quarter, we answer, that (God wilHng) 
we shall shortly arrive there with an inco7isideroble force, with which we 
trust wc shall be enabled utterly to kill and destroy the enemy. 

Now that you are about to proceed with grain, and other supplies, to 
Ziiferdbdd, be mindful to regulate your march according to the rules 
laid down in the FuthiW ^Jiij'dhideen for operations in a close country j 
and to conduct the convoy, with circumspection, to its destination. 


It may be inferred, from the foregoing dispatch, that Zynul Aabideen had 
received rather a serious check from the Koorgs. This conjecture derives the 
more support, from the circumstance of the Sultans judging it necessary to pro- 
ceed in person against the insurgents. I have, at this time, no means of ascertain- 
ing what force he actually took with him on this occasion ; but though he affected 
to make so li^ht of the business, it is not probable that he would put any thing 
to hazard by proceeding against such a determined enemy with a very inconsider- 
able force. I am ignorant of the sequel of Zynul Aabideen's history. It is, 
however, probable, that the Sultan did not again entrust him with the management 
of the sword, but confined him, for the future, to the exercise of his pen. 

It seems impossible, that any thing, like that nice sense of honour which usually 
distinguishes persons of a liberal education, and particularly those of the military 
profession, should have existed in an army (or indeed in any other branch of a 
government) the superior officers of which were accustomed to be addressed by 
their sovereign in such coarse and degrading language, as that adopted by Tippoo 
Sultan in expressing his occasional disapprobation of their conduct ; accordingly, 
few, if any, men of superior birth or elevated sentiments were ever known to 
have appeared amongst the higher classes of his subjects. These classes, in fact, 
were almost exclusively composed of persons of humble origin, and mere adven- 
turers ; who having been trained in implicit submission to the will of a cruel and 



unprincipled tyrant, could not be expected to exhibit any portion of that loftiness 
of spirit or generosity of disposition, which still adorn many of the genuine 
descendants of the ancient nobility of the Moghul empire ; and would still make 
them spurn at any action, by whomsoever commanded, which they thought 
incompatible with their habitual notions of honour, or with the obligations of 
family pride. It was not so with the nobles (if nobles they might be called) of 
Tippoo Sultan's court. They were, on all occasions, the passive instruments of 
the irmaster ; at whose nod they were used to murder, betray, and pillage, cer- 
tainly without remonstrance, and, most probably, equally without repugnance. 

But however deficient this order of men may have been iu the species of 
spirit and honor which we have been considering, they would not appear to have 
been wanting in fidelity to his government, not to say attachment to his person. 
With this last sentiment, it was not, perhaps, in the nature of things, that a man 
of his harsh and unconciliating disposition should he capable of inspiring them : °^ 
but their general character of loyalty must be allowed to have been unimpeachable. 
To what degree this adherence to him might proceed from a real sense of duty and 
gratitude, is a question not easy of decision. No doubt, some of his principal 
servants might have been, and probably were, influenced by such motives : yet, I 
confess, I am of opinion, that it was owing less to considerations of this kind,than to 
the precautions adopted by the Sultan for its prevention, that so few instances of 
defection occurred among them, during the diflferent wars in which he was 
engaged. It was his practice to oblige all the chief oflicers of state, and others 
holding employments of material trust, to fix the residence of their families 
permanently in Seringapatam ; from whence their removal, without his knowlcd'fe 
and concurrence, became impossible. This expedient may be easily conceived to 
have had the eflect of confirming the fidelity of many, who might otlierwise have 
been prompted, by discontent, or other reasons, to quit Mysore. But if this 
miserable policy answered the Sultan's immediate purpose, it also promoted one, 


(C) It has been affirmed by some, tliat Tippoo Sultan was in conversation " rcmarliably 
'* lively and entertaining ; " but I liave strong doubts of the correctness of this statement. 
It very ill acconis with liis general ciiaracter, and is, ni sunjc measure, contradicted by 
himself in one of iiis '« Dreams," wiierc he distinctly says, " that it \v<is not his custom to 
" entir into pia) ful discourse widi any one." 


Avhich he little contemplated at the period of its adoption. The final conquest and 
settlement of Tippoo Sultan's dominions by the English, was facilitated by nothing 
so much, as the circumstance of the families of most of the principal men of the 
country having fallen into their hands, along with the fortress of Seringapatam. 


2o KuMRUDDEEN Khan; dated 9th Zuburjudy. (18th Ocfobei:^ 

Desiring him to repair with his army, as expeditiously as possible, 
to the Presence : and signifying, that the design of reducing Adoni loas 


This dispatch was not in my recollection, at the time of my writing my obser- 
vations on Letter XCII, or I should have been inclined to refer the iveighty 
enterprize, there spoken of by the Sultan, to a meditated attack upon Adoni, with 
more confidence than I then thought it right to do. It now clearly appears, that 
this enterprize had certainly been in his contemplation, previously to the date of 
the foregoing letter, and very probably as far back as the end of July. Why the 
attempt was dropped at this time, cannot now be satisfactorily shown : but it is not 
improbable, that the necessity which arose, for his directing his attention to the 
Koorg quarter, might have obliged the Sultan to suspend the execution of his 
purpose for some time longer. 


To Zynul Aabideen Shoostry; dated lOth Zuburjudy. 

(19 th October.^ 
Announcing to him the intended arrival of the Sultan, in person, [at 
Zuferdbdd'], after the festival of Zilhijjeh; but desiring that the circum- 
stance should not be made public. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 'Jth 

ZuBURJUDY. (\Qth Octohe)'.^ 

What you write, on the subject of having made up and delivered new 
flags and banners to your people, is understood and approved. You and 
Noor Mahommed Khan must reside together in the same place, and 
display your zeal in our service on all occasions. What more ? You 
must see, that your men regularly perform their exeicise, but without 
using gunpowder. 


This letter is nearly a transcript of letter CXXXIII, written only four days 
before. Other instances of the like repetition occur in the course of this corres- 

The injunction against expending powder on the field days of the escort, may have 
proceeded either from an economical motive, or from an apprehension that the use of 
it, in the city of Pooiiah, might have given umbrage to the Mahrattahs. There 
can be little doubt, that this would have been the consequence of such a military 
display, in the present humour of that government : and as, notwithstanding all 
his orders to the contrary, it is very certain that he wished his agents to remain 
at Poonah, it behoved him the more to beware of furnishing the ruling power 
there with any fresh ground of complaint or irritation. 


2y Burhanuddeen; dated I3th Zuhuiijudy. (22d October.^ 

Directing him again ('^ to remove with his army into the Kittoor 

country, and to report to the Sultan the state of affairs in that quarter. 

(1) Sec Letter CXXXV. 


Telling him, also, thai after receiving an order from the Presence, lie 
must he careful to act in conformity with it. 


The concluding sentence of the foregoing abridged dispatch is somewhat am- 
biguously expressed in the original. It might either have beeu meant as a rebuke, 
for the general's not having marched to Kittoor, in pursuance of the former orders 
for that purpose ; or it may have signified, that he was to be prepared to execute 
such future directions as the Sultan might send him immediately upon the receipt 
of the same, (contemplating, probably, the subsequent orders of the subject of 
Kitloor.) '' I incline to prefer the latter interpretation. 


To Mah Mirza Khan ; dated lAth Zubvrjudy. (23d October.^ 

The Governor of Madras has written to us, '' that, agreeably to our 
" desire, he has sent strict orders to the Taalukddrs of Sdtghur not to 
" aflbrd protection to the Zeminddr of Piinganoor, or to any people 
*' of the latter district." We therefore direct, that you give no disturb- 
ance to the country of the English, but pursue the business you have 
been sent upon. You will be speedily joined by the Sijjahddr, Imam 
Khan, who has been sent with his Kushoon to reinforce you. 


The Sultan would appear to have been put into better humour than usual with 
the English, by the ready compliance of the government of Fort St. George with 
the application he had made to it, respecting the Zeminddr of Punganoor. He 


(1) See Letter CXLVII. 

1 w*. 

drops, in the present letter, the disrespectful appellation of Fringy, and (grounding 
his order, as it were,"> on the British governor's amicable conduct) directs Mah 
Mirza Khan not to give any disturbance to the English territory. It will be re- 
collected, however, that the same order was issued to this officer, on his first 
appointment to proceed against Oaljnlly. (See Letter CXIX.) 


To Ehsanullah I^han ; dated I8th Zubvrjvdt (27th October.') 

You will put into [or enroll in the corps of] Usud-Illu/es, as many 
Hindoos, mate and female, as are willing, of their own accord, to enter 
into the same : and you will then transmit a return of them to us, it 
being our intention to augment their pay. 


Whether the Usud-Ilhyes, here mentioned, were a distinct body from the 
Ahmedies, spoken of in Letter XLII, or whether this was only another appellation 
for the latter corps, I am unable to say. I rather think, however, that they were 
separate institutions ; but that both were military, and both composed of prose- 
lytes to the Mahommedan faith, though of different descriptions. It is true, that 
there is nothing distinctly said of the conversion of the Hindoos, mentioned in the 
text, to Isldmism : but I think the context, as w ell as the name given them, suffici- 
ently shows, that their embracing the Mahommedan religion, was a necessary con- 
dition of their incorporation with the Usud-Illiyes. This term signifies the Divine 
Lion, or the Lion of God, and was one of the appellations bestowed on Ali. It 
has been already seen, thatTippoo sometimes designated his own state, or country, 
by this name ; calling it, occasionally, the Sircar Unsud-llhye; as well as Ahmedy, 
Hydery, and Khoddddd. 

2 A It 

(1) " We therefore direct," &c. 


It has struck me as possible, that the Ahmedies might have consisted exclusively 
of Christian converts (including the native Christians of Alalabar or Canard), and 
the Usud-Il/ii/es of Hindoo proselytes only. It vrill be easy for any of my Indian 
readers to ascertain what grounds there are for this conjecture. 

With respect to the order for enrolling women among the Usud-Ilhyes, I conclude 
that it referred to the wives of such men as might qualify themselves for admission 
into the corps : but why they should have been enrolled, as if constituting part of 
the corps, it is not easy to comprehend. No one ever heard, I believe, of a female 
regiment in the service of Tippoo Sultan ; though it is a certain fact, that the late 
Nlzdm had a body guard composed of women^, armed with muskets, and partly 
clothed in the manner of Sepoys. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 19fh Zvbvrjuvy. (28th October.^ 

That which is contained in our instructions, respecting the transactions 
of the Sun'dfs [or money-brokers,] is to be considered as an absolute [or 
irrevocable] decree,(') according to which you must act in all matters, 
great or small.^^^ 


To the Governor of Pondicherry ; dated ^Ist Zvburjvdy. 

(30th October.) 

Desiring him to send back to Madras [i. e. to dismiss] the Brahmen 
news-writer residing at Pondicherrt/ [on the part either of the Nabob of 


(1) Original <uCs5 j:^*. 

(2) Original J^jjf- " particular and geueraL" 


Arcot, or the English government] ; and signifying the Sultans wish, 
to purchase [at Pondicherrif] seven or eight thousand firelocks. 


Tlie objection taken by the Sultan to the residence of a news-writer from 
Madras at Pondlcherry, could proceed only from an anxiety to prevent the 
English Government from obtaining information, from the latter place, of the 
correspondence he was at this time carrying on with the French. If such an 
application, as the one here recorded, had come to the knowledge of the British 
government at the period it was made, it would certainly have justified, and 
probably have led to, the gravest suspicions of the Sultans designs. Yet it would 
not appear, that any doubts were entertained, at the period in question, of his 
disposition to maintain the peace, which he had not long before concluded with us. 

I have no means of ascertaining, whether the Sultans request to the Frencli 
governor, respecting the news-writer, was complied with or not. It is not, how- 
ever, likely that it was ; since the governor could have assigned no plausible 
reason for a proceeding, so unusual among friendly powers in India. 


To Meer Zynul Aabideen, and Ahjied Baig, Sipahdar ; dated 
22d ZvisvRJVDY. (31*/ October.^ 

Directing them to dispatch four hundred Goonies of grain to Zufer- 
dhdd ; and to leave a gun and guard^') from each of their divisions at 
Hyhutpoor, from whence the Sultan would bring them on when lie- 
arrived there, which would be soon, as he had that day \-viz. the L^2d 

2 A 2 Ziahurjadij\ 

(1) Original cJj>^ (yuzuk) which likewise si^nines a division, consisting of six rank and 
flic. j\j>^, fijiizukdiirj was the term employed by Tippoo to denote a sentry. 


Zuhurjn(hj^ entered his tents, for the purpose of proceeding against the 


Meer Zynul Aabideen Sfioostry, was informed, in Letter CXXXI, that 
Ahmed Baig had been sent to join him ; so that it is probable, that he is meant 
by the Zynul Aabideen, named in the title of the present letter, though the usual 
addition to his name, or Shonstry, has been omitted. If omitted in this instance, 
it may also have been omitted in the title of Letter CXVII, which see. 


2b BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 29th Zvbvrjudy. Qth Novembei:') 

Your letter, informing us of the arrival of yourself and army near 
the fort of Kittoor, has been received. You must, in the first instance, 
s€7id and invite the Daisye^'> of that place to an interview, and give 
encouraging assurances to his managing servants. You vi'iW. next dispatch 
some rocket-men for the protections^) of the country. After the afore- 
said Daisye shall have arrived at your quarters^ let the fort he occupied 
by a party of the Sircar's troops. 


If the reader should be at any loss to comprehend the drift of the Sultan in the 
preceding letter, his difficulty will be entirely removed, on a perusal of Letter 


I am 

(1) I am not acquainted with the etymology, or proper meaning, of tiiis word; but I 
conceive it to ha» e the same import as Zemindar or Poli/gar. Peiliaps tlic term may be 
derived from Daise, the JJindivj/ for a country. 

(2) In the original ^IjkU- Jdniduiy, wiiicli is a guard posted for tlie protection of vil- 
lages, cultivated lields, &.c, from the depredations of the followers of an army. 


I am ignorant of the situation of Kittoor, if I rightly road the name, which, 
however, is extremely doubtful ; the characters, in which it is written, being 
susceptible of at least a dozen different readings. It may be the Kittoor of 
Captain Moor's map, which is placed north-west of Dhurwdr, about twenty 
miles. The Polygar, or Zcminddr, of Kittoor, is mentioned in the tenth article 
of the treaty of Poonah (concluded between the British government and the 
Mahrattahs, in June 179^) as one of those feudatories, dependent, at the same 
time, both on the courts of Poonah and Hyderabad. It is very possible, that 
he might also have been among the tributaries of Tippoo Sultan ; as the Nabob of 
Shdhnoor certainly was, though declared in the treaty, just referred to, to be 
" subject to service with both " the Nizam and the Paiahwa. 


To the Imaum of Muscat ; dated 4th Hydehy. (\\th Novemher.^ 

[After compliments] A Dorr, the property of Rutn Jee and 

Jeevviui Doss, merchants of Muscat, having in these days [/'. e. lately] 
been dismasted in a storm, came into Byle-Koal,^^^ a sea-port, belonging 
to the Sircar. Although, in such cases, it is customary for the prince, 
or ruler of the place, where a ship happens to be wrecked, to take 
possession of it, and whatever it contains ; yet, as there is no distinction 
between the country of the Sircar and Muscat, and as the above 
mentioned merchants declared themselves to be your subjects, the vessel 
in question, togethei- with all the stores contained in it, has been restored 
to the aforesaid merchants, and is, accordingly, now disjiatched to you, 
along with this friendly epistle. For the rest, peace be with you. 

( 1 ) Name uncertain ; perhaps Batcolc, on the coast of Canara. 



The word, which I have rendered ivrecked, is in the original ui-^—Li (.shihust) 
and such, I believe, is its usual acceptation, when applied to a ship. But this 
interpretation does not well agree with the argument of the text, since the vessel 
in question was only damaged, not ivrecked. Then, whatever the custom may be 
in some countries, with respect to wrecks (properly so called), it is no where, I 
believe, usual to consider vessels, merely dismasted, or otherwise damaged, as 
wrecks : consequently, the Sultan has here pretended to confer a favor, where 
nothing more than a right was rendered (for we are not told that the repairs were 
made at his expence), and laid claim to a credit for having released a ship, which 
he was not authorized, by the practice of any civilized country, to confiscate, or 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 1th 
Hydery. Q.'ith November.^ 

Agreeably to your suggestion, we have written to Burhaniiddeen, 
desiring him, in the event of the hat-wearer,^') Monsieur Tuvias,^^) 
passing over to our army from the forces under Kislin Pundit, to advance 
the aforesaid [hat- wearer] something to defray his expences [on the 
road], and dispatch him to the Presence. 

N. B. A letter, of the same tenor and date, was written to Burhanuddeen. 


The jx;rson here spoken of was probably some French adventurer in the Mah- 
rattah service, who may have made overtures to the Mysore envoys at Poonak for 


(1) Original J:^ i% for which term the people of //tHrfw/an substitute ro/yz-wa/eA, from 
whence, perhaps, tiie word Topaz and Topazes. 

(2) Name uncert.iin. 


deserting to their master, or may have been tampered with by them for that pur- 

Kishu Rao, I beheve, commanded the division of the Mahrattah army, which 
passing the river Kishna, had advanced, towards the end of February of this year 
(1785), with the ostensible view of supporting the Zeminddr of Nergiind; but 
which would appear to have very soon retired again, leaving Burhanuddeen at 
Uberty to resume the siege of that place, and subsequently to reduce both it and 
Ramdoorg, as well as to seize upon Kittoor, without offering him any interruption^ 
I am unable to account for the apparent inactivity of the Mahrattahs during so 
many months. They were, probably, waiting to concert a plan of operations with 
the Nizdm. In the mean while, the Sultan seems to have contented himself with 
acting on the defensive. It was not, accordingly, til! the month of October in the 
following year (1786), that the main armies of the contending powers could be 
said to have come into contact with each other, or to have entered upon offensive 
operations, on a large or general scale. What had preceded, was considered mere 
skirmishing; and, indeed, Tippoo himself appears, in his Memoirs (as will here- 
after be seen), to have dated the actual commencement of the present war, from 
the period when the Mahrattahs, in conjunction with the Nizdm, proceeded to the 
attack of Bdddmy, 


To HuKEEM, Kh.Lvo/ Shahnoor; dated 9th IIvDEnr, 

(16th November.^ 

Your agreeable letter has been received. You write, " that you have 
" discharged to the amount of eighteen lacks of rupees [of our claim 
" upon you] by bankers' accepted bills, and request that we will cither 
" excuse you the remaining eight lacks [due to us] or allow the payment 
*' of it to be postponed to next year." 



It is known. A statement of the sums, of which that friend was, 
through his own negligence, defrauded by his servants, specifying the 
amoiuit of each individual's malversations, was submitted to him. 
Where, then, was the difficulty of making the several plunderers refund 
their plunder, and of paying the same to us [in discharge of our claims] ? 
We desire you will also raise the remaining eight lacks of rupees, and 
transmit the amount, in bankers' bills, by the hands of our bankers, 
whom we wish you to send back to us immediately.^') 


To the Shahnoor Waleh (7. e. the Nabob of Shahnoor) ; dated 
\Qth Hydery. (\7th November.') 

Dispatch to Nursia, the Dewdn of Nugr, one lack of pagodas, on 
account of annual Paishcush for the year Julio, ('*)and take his receipt for 
the same. 


Tiie year Julio had still more than four months to run ; consequently, so far 
from granting Abdul Hukeem any indulgence of the kind he had solicited, the 
Sultan appears determined to make him pay his Paishcush in advance, or, at least, 

before it was fairly due. 


( 1 ) iMy construction of this passage is, that the bankers in question had been sent from 
Seringapatam, for the purpose of settling tliis account witii Abdul Hukeem Khftn, and of 
procuring the payment of the amount due to the Sultan 

(1*) The name of tlic IMalabar year, corresponding with Julio, is .likewise given in the 
original ; but as I am doubtful of its being written accurately, and as it is not of iiny con- 
sequence, I omit it. 


The style of Letter CL was tolerably civil : that of the present letter (written 
only the day after) is abrupt, and rudely jjeremptory. I cannot account for so 
sudden and striking a change in the Sultans mode of address in any other manner, 
than by supposing that he might, in the interval (though only a single day), have 
received some information, tending to excite a suspicion of Abdul Hakeem's attach- 
ment to the Mahrattah interests ; which that chieftain certainly not long after cm 
braced openly, though, probably, driven to do so by the rigorous proceedings of his 


To Tltrbiyut Ali Khan ; dated lOth Hydeiiy, from near Zufkii- 

Jbad. (^17^/t Novemher.^ 

Ordering the Hydery and Kuntardey fanams to be put in circula- 
tion, throughout all the districts depending on Sangalore. 


To Rajah Ram Chukdur; sayne Date. (\'Jih Novemher^ 

To the same effect as the preceding letter ; with this addition, vi%. 
" that no other but the Knidardey and Hydery fanams shall be allowed 
" to pass current " 


To MiiER Kazi3I, Darogiia, or Commercial Consul ; dated lOth 
Hydery, at Muscat. (\'Jth November.^ 

Directing hiui not to dispose, hastily or immediately, of the black 
pepper and sandal wood [in his charge], but to wait till they had 

2 B attained 


attained a desirable price. [Literally, " fill the selling price of tliem 
" equalled liis hearths desire."^ 

N.B. The Sultan, not thinking, perhaps, the preceding orders sufficiently 
explicit, repeated them two days after, in Letter CLVI. 


To the same; dated llth IIydery. (\Qth Nuvemher.^ 

JuzEERAH Djraz [oy Long Island] is in that quarter.") Silk-worms 
and their eggs are produced there. We wish you to procure some of 
both, and to dispatch them to us, together with five or six men, ac- 
quainted with the proper mode of rearing them. 

We direct, that such of our vessels as import at Muscat he unloaded 
in two days ; and that their export lading of sulphur, lead, copper, &c., 
be also completed in two days, and the vessels dispatched to Mungalore. 
If more than four days be consumed in lading and unlading the vessels, 
you shall be responsible for the extra expence [that may be incurred in 
consequence]. You must regularly report to us the day each vessel 
arrives at Muscat, and also the day on which it is dispatched from 

N.B. A separate letter to the same person, and of the same date, directs him to 
engage as servants, and dispatch to Mangalore, ten persons experienced in the 
pearl fishery. 


The Sultan's distrust of the integrity or diligence of his agent is here strongly- 
manifested ; as is also his own want of reflection, in attempting to regulate, with 


(1) Jiizeerah Dirdz (or Long Island) is the Kismish of our maps, and situated in the Gulf 
of Ptrsia. 


such strictness and precision, the business of loading and unloading vessels, which 
must necessarily have depended, in a great degree, on the state of the weather and 
other circumstances, which it might not be in the power of the consul to controul. 
The Sultanas anxiety to establish a pearl fishery on the Coast of Malabar, as well 
as to introduce the culture of the silk-worm into his dominions, appears to have 
been very considerable; but I believe that he failed entirely in both attempts. 


To the same ; dated 12 fh IIydery. (19 th November.^ 

You must not be in haste to dispose of the cinnamon, sandal wood, 
black pepper, and rice, imported at Muscat from Mangalore and 
Khooshhdipoor. Keep them carefully, till they become dear, and will 
yield a [good]] profit, and then sell them. 


To BuRHANUDUEEN ; dated \5lli Hydery. Q2'2d Novemher.) 

We sometime since wrote, to desire that possession might be obtained 
of the fort of Kittoor. You must (no matter by what contrivance or 
pretext) get possession of it for the Sircar. If some degree of violence 
even should be requisite for the purpose, let it be employed : and let the 
present be considered as a most urgent injunction. 

N.B. Two letters, to the same effect as the foregoing one, were written to Syed 
Iluinccd and Syed Ghuffar, both of them belonging to Biirhanuddeen's army. 

2 B 2 



2o the scone ; dated 16th Hybeiiy. (2Zd November.^ 

Your letter has been received. Keeping a strict watch^'^ upon Liich- 
mun Rao, the brother of Sumajee Piindit/^> you must encamp with your 
army within gunshot of the fort of Kittoor, and send for the Daisye and 
Sumajee Pundit. If they should come [to you] it will be well ; otherwise 
you must, with the advice of Syed Humeed and Syed Ghuffar, contrive, 
by some means or other/^^ to obtain possession of the said fortress for the 


To Meer Kazim, and the other Commercial Agents at Muscat, dated 
1 8^/i Hyder y. (25 th November.^ 

Having ascertained in what part of that country saffron is culti- 
vated,('*) engage two persons in our service, and send them thither to 
purchase one or two maimds^'^*^ of the seed, which [when procured] is 
to be dispatched to us. You must also procure silk-worms, and send 
them hither, together with some men acquainted with the mode of ma- 
naging them, to whom you will make an advance of money for their 

N.B. A letter, to the same effect, was written to the Duldl (or public broker) 
at Muscat. 

(1) Original di2i\j xj jaj ji to \iecp insight; to place in arrest; to put under restraint. 

(2) Name uncertain. It may be Tiimdjee. 

(3) Original^^ 

(1*) Literally, " where the seed of saffron is procurable." 

(2*) A niaitnd is a weight or measure varying in different countries. In Hindostan it con- 
sists ot forty seers, or about eighty pounds averdupoisc. 



To Meer Kazim ; same Date. (2oth November.') 

You are to buy yearly, and send to the Aumil of Mangalore, a 
hundred C7/*(') of ahnonds, and thirty Utls of pistachio-nuts. 

You have still [on hand], of former importations, both Sandal wood 
and black pepper : you will now receive more of each. This stock you 
must not [immediately] expose to sale; but give out, that vou have 
received our orders to discontinue the sale thereof [at 3Iuscat], and to 
dispatch it to Juddah (where also we have a factory), and that you are, 
in consequence, about to do so. Having circulated this report, you must 
keep the goods by you, till the price of them advances twenty-five or 
thirty j^^'godas [the candij,'] when you will sell them [without further 


To BuDRuz ZumanKhan; same Date. (2Bth Novejnher.') 

You have done well in making prisoners of the turbulent and seditious, 
including Kurry-tunnnah,^'*^ with their women and children. These last 
must be detained. With respect to Kurry-tunmiah, if he be one of the 
insurgents he must be suspended on a tree. 

[A verse.] " The head of an enemy is best when hurled from the 
" point of a juvelin : as a path-way is best, from whence the bramble 
" has been rooted out." 


(1) Original Jt! wliich lam at present unable to explain. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever, that it is a term of the Sultan's invention, and that it may have been intended to 
express a Muund. Sec, in support of this conjecture, Letter CLXXII, where a similar order 
to the present one is given, and where the word Mawid seems substituted for Vtl. 

(1*) Name extremely uncertain. 



After properly securing the passes, you must proceed, with your 
collected force, in quest of the rebels, making prisoners of as many of 
them as possible. Wc some time ago wrote to you, desiring you would 
contrive some means of getting possession of the person of Moona 
Kool ;(") and we now again write, to say that he must be secured, by 
stratagem or deceit. Let a roll, moreover, of the number of men and 
women already made captives, be transmitted to us. 


The foregoing letter commences with three or four words, of which I am not 
able to make any sense. The transcriber may, probably, have miswritten them. 
They appear thus in my manuscript : i.::^^! j sA) ^\s^ .^^Ji\ which may, no doubt, be 
so read as to be intcrijreted, " You must put [or keep] the cardamums in a pit." 
The writer then proceeds to say, " You have done well, &c." But if the fore- 
going passage be understood literally, it will appear to be a strange and very unin- 
telligible order, to be addressed to an officer at the head of a body of troops 
employed on active service. On the other hand, if it be taken in a metaphorical 
sense, it will be no easy matter to assign a plausible meaning to it. Cavdaminns, 
I believe, are a principal article of the natural produce of the country in which 
Budruz Zuman Khan was, at this period, stationed, and which I suppose to have 
been Bidnore, and the districts situated between that and the sea coast: possibly, 
then, by the word cardamums, the Sultan (who sometimes affected to express 
himself enigmatically) might intend to designate some particular individuals, or 
class, aiiKjng the refractory inhabitants of that quarter, whom he wished to be 
disposed of under ground. It must be owned, however, that this conjecture is 
too-^Ughtly supported to be entitled to much consideration ; and I shall, therefore, 
being unable to suggest a better, leave the difficulty to exercise the ingenuity of 
some of my oriental readers. 


(2) Name uncertain. 


With respect to the Kurrj^-tumniah (as I have written it) mentioned in this 
letter, I am not clear whether it is the proper name of an individual, or an official 
designation. However this may be, it seems extraordinary that the Sultan should 
be under any uncertainty with regard to his being one of the seditious, or insur- 
gents; a doubt of which would seem to be implied, by the qualifying word, rf. 
The meaning, however, might be, that (f Budruz Zuman Khan had any reason 
to believe him to have been particularly Jorward or active in the insurrection, he 
was, in that case, to be hanged. 

Budruz Zuman Khan was one of the principal men at the court of Tippoo Sultan, 
and seems to have possessed the confidence and esteem of his master in a consider- 
able degree.'^' He commanded at Dhdrwdr, when that place was besieged by the 
united English and Mahrattah forces, in \'JQ\ ; and though it appears, by the 
correspondence of that period, that the Sultan was not perfectly satisfied with his 
defence of that place, yet it may be inferred, from subsequent events, that no 
permanent impression to his disadvantage was produced on the occasion. Budruz 
Zuman Khan, and his son, Mirza Bakir, were among the chiefs of Mysore who 
survived their sovereign ; and who, submitting to the British authoritj^, were 
liberally pensioned by the Company's government. 

We have, in the present letter, another example of the flagitious policy which 
the Sultan was, at all times, ready to pursue, for the accomplishment of his views. 
Provided Moona Kool was seized, he did not care by what atrocity that object was 


To the same ; same Date. (2olh November^ 

Write a letter to Moona Kool, inviting him to come to you, and then 
seize tipon his jfci'son. 

(3) He entered into the service of Hydcr Ali (according to Colonel Wilks) in A.D. 1762. 



To Khajeh Seth, Khajeh Heratoon/') and two others, (hmnes 
iHegible) ; dated 19th Hydery. (267 A November.^ 

We have lately learned from Khajeh — , " that you have it in con- 

" temptation to come, with ships laden with merchandize, to our ports, 
" for the purpose of trading ; and that you wish to sail under English 
" or Portuguese colours, and to obtain our special license(-) for these 
" purposes." We highly approve of your intention, and desire you will 
repair, in the utmost confidence, with your merchandize, either to the 
port of Mangalore or to the port of Calicut ; where landing your goods, 
you shall, in the first instance, supply us, at a fair price, with such 
articles as we may want, after which you shall be at liberty to sell the 
remainder at your pleasure, and to take your departure when you like. 

We have accordingly written, and herewith enclose, two Punvdnehs 
to the above effect : one of them to Urshud Baig Khan, the Foujddr of 
Calicut, and the other to Ghulam Hyder, the Aumil of Mangalore ; to 
either of which ports you may resort, as you shall think proper. 

N.B. Then follow the two Purwdnehs, referred to in the foregoing letter. In 
these, the Sultan directs an invoice, or list, of the goods imported, to be trans- 
mitted to him on the arrival of the ships ; in order that he may signify his pleasure 
respecting the articles which he may wish to purchase, previously to a free and 
general sale of the cargoes taking place. It does not appear by the subsequent 
correspondence, whether or not the merchants, in question, thought proper to 
open a trade with Mysore, on the discouraging condition stipulated by the Sultan. 

(1) These were Armenian merchants; but it does not appear in what country they were 
settled. The word «ia-lj. which I have written Khajeh, is usually written and pronounced 
Cojah; but improperiy, Khojah, or Cqjah, signifying an Eunuch, whereas AA^/eA answers 
to Sir, Master, &c. 

(2) Original J^ Kowl. 




To B.AJ All IIa3I CnuNBUR ; dated 20th Hydzry. (^th November.^ 

Respecting a manufactory of musquets to be established in the Fort 
of Klidn-Khdn-hullij : for which purpose, if it should be necessary to 
pull down forty or fifty houses belonging to poor people, it will not 
i'ignij)/, as they will erect other habitations in their room, within the 
Paith [or outer town J. 


No mention being made of any compensation to the poor inhabitants for the 
demolition of their houses, it may be concluded that none was authorized. It 
is probable, indeed, that the houses in question were of very little value : but that 
consideration does not lessen the injustice of the present order, whatever may be 
the case as to the actual hardships which it inflicted. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan; dated 2\st 

Hydery. (28th November.^ 

You write, " that the Bnthmeiis attached to your mission cabal or 
" intrigue [privately] with the managers [ministers] there, indepen- 
" dently of you, and, by this means, occasion prejudice to our affairs." 
It excites our astonishment, that such unwarrantable proceedings should 
take place, notwithstanding your being on the spot. What is the reason 
that you do not flog and [otherwise] severely punish the oflcnders } Let 
us be informed what person has been guilty of this offence. 

2 C You 


You write for a supply of money. Bills or money shall be hereafter 
transmitted to you. 

We have already replied to the letter from Rao Rasta, as well as to 
that from yourselves, which you sent to us by Inkut Rao. 


To BuDRuz ZuMAN Khan ; dated 22d Hydery. (29th November.') 

Your letter, containing an inventory, or memorandum, of plundered 
cattle, money, and goods, ^'^ has been received. You must load the 
money and goods upon five hundred of the aforesaid cattle ; and placing 
a strong guard over them, send them to Ghulani All, at Pdlindg-tdr,^^^ 
from whence a thousand Piddehs are about to be dis])atched to the Pre- 
sence. Your party having joined these, the whole will proceed hither 
together. You must [continue to] make diligent search for, and get 
possession of, more [of the property of the rebels]. 


To IVLvHOMMED Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan; dated 25th 

TIydery. (2d December.) 

Your letter has been received. We approve of the offerings you have 
made at the two Dargdhs [or shiincs]. You also did well, in presenting 
a Bihhdnijoory dress and a Fuzee to Rao Rasta the day he visited you. 

You write, " that it is the intention of Ruo Rasta to dispatch a 
*' confidential person hither with letters for us." It is known, and 


( 1 ) That is, of booty made from the insurgents. 

(2) Nuuic uncertain. 

T I P P O O S U L T A N. 1 95 

it is well. Let Rao Rasta send his confidential servant in charge 
of his secret coiiununications. We must attribute this proceeding' 
to motives of friendship. An answer to the before mentioned Rao's 
[former] letter was forwarded some time ago. A bill for money to 
defray the expences of the people attached to you shall be sent hereafter. 
You moreover write, " that the Miltumiddiesf^^^ with you have [of 
" late] assumed a most presumptuous [or impudent] mode of be- 
" haviour;^-^ holding separate conferences [or carrying on intrigues] 
" with the minister and Hurry Pundit, without your knowledge, and 
" to the prejudice of our aftUirs." You add, " that you have heard 
" this, both from Riio Rasta and from other quarters." It is compre- 
hended. All this arises from your neglect. That your people should 
act in this improper manner, and that you, instead of punishing them 
for so doing, should complain of them to us, is to be attributed to your 
great age, and to the climate of that place \_Poonoh'\. Communicate to 
us the names of the several persons who have been guilty of this shameful 


The ofierings, licre spoken of, were directed to be made in a former letter, 
(which it has not been thought necessary to give), and consisted of a coverlid, or 
counterpane, of Kemkhdb, and fifty rupees in money. The Durguhs (or shrines) 
in question, where those of Hdadinudueen and Sukllnlddeen, situated, I conclude, 
soniewhcrc in the vicinity of Poonah, or at least in the Mahrattah territory. 

It would appear, from the circumstances of Rao Rasta's determining to com- 
municate with Tij)poo, through the medium of an agent or messenger of his own, 

2 C 2 that 

(1) In Letter CXLV tlicy were designated the Drahnuns. Tlie Mutusuddics in ilic Dccan 
arc usually oi that cius^. 

(2) Original sj:Jj\^\ ^$jfO- 


that he was not disjjosed to open himself freely to the Siiltatis envoys ; and 
indeed, the weakness which the latter had recently manifested, in regard to the 
MAtusuddies attached to their mission, was but little calculated to inspire him with 
confidence, either in their ability or discretion. 


To BuDRuz ZuMAN Khan ; dated 26lh Hydery. (3d December.^ 

Directing him to stop for four days at Tul-Kauvery, and to wait 
for further orders from the Presence, previously to his proceeding to the 
Pdy en-Ghaut. Also, to seize upon as many of the rebels and their 
cattle as possible ; and, cutting the rice [around him], to feed his own 
cattle upon it. The closing paragraph of this dispatch is given entire, , 
and is as follows : 

A Purivdneh for Moona Kool is enclosed. Let the same be conveyed 
to him, and consider on some way of getting him to come to you [i. e. 
of getting him into your possession]. 


2o Burhanuddeen ; same Date. (3d Dccemhei'?) 

The letter you sent us has passed under our view, and its contents are 
duly perceived. 

You write, " that seizing on the Vakeel of the Kittoor man, and 
" detaining him in custody, under you own eye, you had dispatched 
" Syed Ghuflar and Syed Humeed with some troops into the Paith 
" [or outer town], where the Daisx/e and Goornath Pundit, the ma- 
" nager, immediately came and presented them with the keys of both 
** castles, of which, as well as of the Paith, instant possession was 

" taken 


" taken by our troops." [You proceed to state,] " That the Da'mje, 
" and Tumsajee Pundit, and some others of superior distinction, were 
" afterwards brought into the victorious camp, and there placed under 
" guards." You furtlier report, " that five hat-wearers [/. e. Eu- 
" ropeans], one of whom rides in a Palankeen, as well as the Ramdoorg 
" man, and one called Pedro, have been made prisoners : that, for the 
" protection of the town, ryots, and inhabitants of the districts in 
" general, you had stationed rocket-men, horse, and also some infantry 
*' guards, in different places : that, for the present, you had put seals 
*' on the store-houses, such as the Tosheh-khdneh belonging- to the 
" Daisye, and placed Jyshe guards over them : tliat you had commis- 
• " sioned Yunkut Runjia, the Aumil of Dhdrwdr, to take the necessary 
" measures for collecting together and encouraging tlie Ryots and 
" others : and that, as soon as our pleasure on the subject should be 
" communicated to you, it was your intention to take an inventory of 
*' all the effects, horses, &c. belonging to the Daisye, under the in- 
" spection of the managers of the Daisye, and to transmit the same to 
" us for our information." 

It is known and approved. In the town and fort [of Kitloor~\ 
are many wealthy persons, possessing lacks [of rupees^ ; some of them 
pi'oper inhabitants of the place, and others belonging to Poonah, from 
which last city there are several MrUusnddies established at Kittoor, in 
whose hands considerable property has been deposited. You must, 
therefore, by offering pecuniary rewards to the inhal)itants of the place, 
endeavour, through their means, to discover the individuals alluded to ; 
and having done so, you must put them, likewise in confinement. It is 
the custom of tliat country, for the most opulent bankers to assume the 
habit of Fakcers, and to make their escape in that disguise.^'^ Pay 


(1) Tiiat is, wlienevcrdrivcnto the extremity by the violence of the times, or the injustice 
of their rulers; which, according to the context, mustl)ave been customary or usual events. 


particular attention to this point : and having duly identified the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of the class in question, secure their persons, and take 
care that their effects are not embezzled, as a strict account of this matter 
will hereafter be required of you. 

Whosoever among the former managers of the Daisye has beeii 
removed from office, and incurred the displeasure of the Duisije, let 
him be encouraged, and some mark of favor be bestowed upon him ; 
and, with the exception of the town and fort, let him be appointed to 
superintend the collections (-) of the country : then ascertaining, through 
his means, the circumstances of the great ones and bankers, you will 
keep the latter in custody. You must, also, through the same channel, 
obtain an account of the property ^^^ of the Daisi/e, as well as that of the * 
principal men and other inhabitants of the place, and having discovered 
where it is, send for and secure the same. You are, moreover, to 
station a guard from Shaikh Unser's corps, and another from Syed 
Ghuffur's, in the town and fort, and over the Tosheh-khdneh and other 
store-houses of the Daisye, to the end that no part of the effects of the 
latter, or of the inhabitants, may, in the disorder of the moment, be 
made away with. Rocket-men must also be stationed in proper places, 
for the protection of the Puith [or outer town.] 

Sending then, in the first instance, for the managers of the Daisi/e^ 
you must tell them, that you propose making an humble application to 
us, to reinstate the Daisi/e in the possession of his country : but that, to 
enable you to do this, it will be neces'sary that a contribution should be 
[previously] paid down; and that if they will, accordingly, agree to raise 
fifty lacks of rupees, and give you [due] security for the same, you will 
represent the case to us ; and obtaining a Punudneh of confirmation in 


(2) Ofigiiial (.iiJrflvc Moitavndut. 

(3) Original ^Sij Zindugy. 

T1P1>00 SULTAN. 199 

their name [/. e. the Daisy es name] restore the place to them. You 

may, at the same time, observe, that such care has been taken of their 

country, that no injury whatever has been sustained by it. Addressing 

them, at Jirsf, in words calculated like these to excite [or humour] their 

avarice, and to inspire them with confidence, you will bring them, after 

some altercation, to agree to pay a Paishcusk; the amount of which being 

settle<l, as well as the manner of discharging it [/. e. whether in money, 

goods, or bankers' bills], you will next, by their means, send for the 

concealed bankers,*^' and ascertain from these the assets in their hands; 

a statement of which, specifying the several bankers' names, must be 

transmitted to us, to the end that the requisite orders for the restoration 

of the place [to the Daisye] may be subsequently dispatched to you. 

In the mean while, you must affix both the seal of the Daisi/e and 

your own on the Tosheh-khdneh , and other storehouses of the Daisye, 

as well as on all such places as contain money or goods in deposit : in 

addition to which, some of the most trusty men of Syed Unser's and 

Syed (ihuffar's Kushoons must be placed as guards over the whole. In 

regard to the horses, camels, and elephants, belonging to the Daisye^ 

you arc to cause an exact account of them to be taken, in conjunction 

with the latter's managei-s, and then to have them removed from the 

Paif/i, and placed in front of, but at some distance from, the Daisye s 

quarters ; where they are to be accompanied by their usual attendants, 

with the exception of horsemen, or other military persons. Here they 

are, moreover, to be provided with grain and fodder, and otherwise 

taken proper care of, at our charge. The family of the Daisye, as also 

all his managing servants, arc to be permitted to remain in their houses; 

over \\hich, however, guards are to be placed, to prevent the egress of 

the persons in question from thence. 


(I) Tlie orif^iiial is licic so obscurely expressed, that' I am very doubtful of Iiaving ren- 
dered it rightly. 


Let the two forts and the ditch be examined by yourself in person, 
conjointly with the Sipohddrs, and let a report of their present condition 
be made to us. Transmit, likewise, a detailed account of the magazines 
and artillery, and state your opinion with respect to the place [that is, as 
to its importance or its strength}. 

You will repeat to the Daisi/e and to his managers, that if they quickly 
agree to a heavy composition or contribution,^^^ and put the same in an 
[immediate] train of j)ayment, their place shall be restored to them. 

Enquire of the JJuisi/e's servants, and let us know, the extent of Kit- 
toor, and what number of forts it contains. Write letters of encourage- 
ment to the actual Aumils, and continue them in office. Send to the 
present KUaaddrs [or governors of forts], desiring them to wait upon 
you ; and [then] superseding them in their commands by servants of our 
own, let the forts be garrisoned by Piddehs from your army. 

Obtain from the Daisyes managers lists of all the Daisyes servants, 
menials and others, and then have them mustered. The Bukfshi/ of 
your cavalry must be directed to take a muster of the Daisye's cavalry, 
in the presence of the Dcdsyes manager. This being done, the cavalry 
in question are to be placed in chai'ge of a particular Hisd/addr [of your 
army], along with whose own corps they must be encamped. The Pid- 
delis [or foot soldiers] must, after being mustered, be consigned to the 
charge of Syed Humecd, and be encamped on his line.'^^ They must 
not have guards openly placed over them, but a strict Avatch is to be 
secretly kept on them. 

Next send for the commanders of [the Daisye's] horse and foot, and 
hold an encouraging language to them, by intimating your expectation 
of shortly receiving our orders for restoring the place [to the Duisye.'] 


(5) Oiigiial ^_^^x4 

(6) Original ^^ misl. 


You will then proceed to tell them, that, in the mean while, they must 
infuse confidence into their people, and get them to take up their quar- 
ters in your camp. This point being gained, and the troops in question 
encamped with your own, let guards be placed over all the aforesaid 
commanders, independent of, and separate from those [previously] posted 
over the Daisyc and the others. They must not be suffered to go among 
their brethren [or comrades] ;(') and you must supply them with such 
provisions and other necessaries as they may require. 

You will take particular care, that no horses are allowed to be kept 
near that part of the camp occupied by the Daisye and his managers ',^^^ 
nor must any of his people be suffered to pass backward and forward, 
without your authority. 

Several persons of consideration, and opulent bankers, reside at 
Shdhpoor, Pulkawmn,^^^ and Gokauk, all three dependencies of Kittoor. 
Shaikh Unser with his Kn^hoon, two Midusuddies, and two intelligent 
JIurkdrehs from the cavalry Kuchurry, together witfi two Risdlas of 
horse, and some Piddehs [foot], must be dispatched to take possession 
of these places. The principal men and bankers being ascertained, must 
then be sent for, and the Amnils of the aforesaid places be continued in 
tlieir offices : for which purpose, you will transmit to them the necessary 
letters of confirmation from yourself and the Daisye. 

Shaikh Unser must be instructed to obtain from the Aumils of the 
before-mentioned three TauMks written engagements, purporting that 
they will be responsible for the flight of any of the inhabitants of their 
respective districts. 

2D We 

(1) Original t^jj]/ 

(8) The object of tliis order was probably to guard against the danger of the Daisyc^s 
effecting his escape on liorscback. 

(9) Name uncertain ; but probably meant for tiie Bulgong, mentioned in Letter 


We shall oursclf shortly arrive in that quarter ; inasmuch as we have, 
by the bles&iug of God, completely settled all the ajftairs of Ziiferdhdd. 


The foregoing dispatch forms one of the few exceptions, afforded by the present 
collection, to the usually concise style of the Sultans mandates. It is diffuse and 
minute in the extreme: from which circumstance may be inferred the importance 
which he attached to the acquisition of Kittoor, and his solicitude to turn Lt to 
the best account. 

We hear little more of Kittoor, or of its Daisye,^"' for a month after the date of 
the present Letter. The interval was probably employed in negociations with that 
chieftain, or Poly gar, the result of which may be collected from the tenor of Letter 

The Sultan would appear to have returned, soon after the date of the preceding 
letter, to his capital. The only notice I have any where met with of his proceed- 
ings, during his stay at Zuferdbdd, or of the manner in which he " settled the 
" affairs " of that quarter, is contained in the brief account he has himself given of 
the business, in a subsequent letter to the Patau chief of Kurnool.^"' The following 
extract, however from his Memoirs, as it relates to a previous settlement of the 
country in question, soon after his accession to the Musnud, may not be unaccept- 
able to the reader. 

Afler a brief, but curious, account of the reduction of the Bui country,"" where 
he caused a new fortress to be erected, to which he gave the name of 3Iu?iz}rdbdd,"'^ 
the Sulian proceeds thus in his narrative : — 

" From 

(10) With the exception of the short Letter CLXX, immediatel}' following. 

(11) See Letter CXC VI. 

(12) Called also 5u//(X)». 

(13) This fortress was erected (according to the Siiliati's own account) on tiie scite of one 
which had been raised about twenty-five years before (or A.D. 1764), by Hybut Jnng (a 
distinguisjied officer in the service of Hyder Ali Khan, better known by the name of Fuz- 
Joollah Khan) but which had been subsequently demolished by the liajah of Bid. " I 

" directed," 


" From hence [/. e. from MunzirdbcUt] I proceeded towards Koorg, some of 
" the principal men of which country seeing that they were without any chief or 
" leader, had, at the time that we were moving against the NazareneSy*^ chosen 
** and placed at their head one of their own body ; to whom, investing him with 
" absolute power, they became obedient. After this, they set about raising dis- 
" turbances in that quarter, and laid siege to a fort newly erected by the Sircar,'''^ 
" and in which the governor [of the district] resided. The garrison being 
" reduced to great straits, surrendered on capitulation ; but were all massacred, 
" on marching out of the place. The fort was completely demolished by the 
" rebels, who through enmity \_i. e. to mark their hatred the more strongly] con- 
" veyed away every stone belonging to it, and threw the whole into the quarry 
" from which it had been originally taken. Elated with this success, they 
" continued to occupy the position they had assumed.''"' When this occurrence 
" came to our blessed hearing,"'' we dispatched a commander, named Hyder AH 
" Baig, with a suitable force, to reduce the Koorg country. The aforesaid com- 
" mander proceeding to the borders of Koorg, had arrived near the fort of Peria- 
" pafam, when the rebels collecting together advanced to meet him. One or two 
" battles ensued : but the aforesaid commander was not able to settle the affairs 
" of that quarter. In this conjuncture, I was proceeding in person from the 
" country of Arcot towards the country of Nitgr, and had got about half way; 

2 D 2 Hereupon 

" dirocted," says ths Sultan, "that it should be constructed with nine sides, than which 
•' there is no better figure" for a fortification, lie cdWvd'w. Munzirdbdd, because the nume- 
rical powers of the several letters composing that word, when added together (according to 
the Ubjee diagram). Indicate the year of the Higera in which the place was conquered, 1/2. 

(14) In the original it is ^\^ ^y '^3' which the Sultan appears, from the context, to have 
meant his father's retinue , so that the period, here referred to, must have been that of the 
invasion of the Carnatic'in 1780. 

(15) The name of this fort is not given in this place, but I conclude, from the context, 
that it was the Merkerrah, afterwards mentioned. 

(IC) The original has it ,v..".,...f.i Uj^- ^\s>. i^j^ Jji U<UJb literally, " they all, becoming 
" self-headed, continued in their places." 

(I") Original C^Lv w«^ 


" Hereupon I detached another army, under the direction of the Rdjak of Kimnik- 
" geery, to the aid of the aforesaid commander, and pursued my march to Niigr ; 
" after the recapture of which, the victorious army was engaged in the reduction 
" of Mangalore. It was during this period, that the two before mentioned com- 
" manders, having advanced, for the purpose of subduing Koorg, two or three 
" coss into the woods, were attacked from all quarters by the Koorgs, who closed 
" up every avenue [to their camp or position]. For three successive days was the 
" conflict maintained ; at the end of which time, my base commanders, consult- 
" ing only the safety of their worthless lives,'"' took to flight, leaving behind them 
" their troops and guns. The Rdjah of Kunnikgeeiy, however, with a few men, 
" maintained their ground [for some time] ; and after amply discharging the 
" obligations of valor, and sending numbers of the enemy to hell, made an 
" offering of their lives for the service of the Usi(d Ilhye Sircar^^^^ 

" In consequence of these events, I proceeded, after the reduction [or subjuga- 
" tion] of Bui, as above related, towards Koorg. From Periapatam the army 
" advanced in two divisions, by different roads, and in two days, by rapid 
" marches, reached the residence'^' of the governor [of the district], where the 
" infidels had taken post. Here I made a great number of prisoners. Kutty Naik, 
" however, the no-chief'^'' of the Koorgs, effecting his escape, with his family 
" and children, through the woods and adjacent hills, concealed himself and 
*' followers in a glen, or valley, '^°' of the Eldichi/ mountains, which was inaccessible 
" both to wild beasts and birds. Hither the Hijdery army pursued the fugitives, 
" and after some search discovering the entrance of the before mentioned glen, 

" encamped 

(18) Original (Jj'b li ^U- literally, " impure so\i\s ox lives." 

(19) I am not quite dear, whether the singlt death of the Riijah, or the sacrifice of his 
whole party, is here meant to be recorded by the Sultan. 

(20) i. e. The place which the Koorgs arc said, in tlie beginning of this extract, to have 
seized and demolished. 

(21) Original J\^jJi or Sirdar, with the privative li prefixed: a term of contempt very 
usual with the Sultan. The name of the Koorg chief is doubtful. 

(22) In the original .U which strictly means a cavern or cavity ; but the context requires 
the interpretation I have adopted. 


" encamped there [for the night]. The following day, taking two Risdlas of 
" Jyshe, about five hundred Piddelis, and two guns with me, and leaving the 
" two guns at the mouth of the glen, I formed an advanced guard of a Jowh [or 
" company] and two hundred Piddelis, which after firing two or three guns, I 
" directed to proceed [into the glen], under the command of a Jowkddr. I 
" followed myself with the two Risdlas, and three or four hundred Piddehs, and 
" accompanied by a few select persons. Though it was now mid-day, the glen, 
" owing to the prodigious lofty trees which overhung it, was so excessively dark, 
" that it was with difficulty a man could see the ground ; while no one could make 
" a step [in advance] till he had cleared his way, by removing with his sword the 
" small trees [bushes] which obstructed it. 

" When we had, in this manner, proceeded about half way through the glen, 
" the darkness was such, that there was no distinguishing on which side the sun 
" was. "' In this distress, great were the efforts which were made to obtain a sight 
" of the sun, as being essential to the discovery of a passage through the glen : 
" but, notwithstanding several men ascended the trees, and [from their tops] 
" looked out for the sun, they were not [for a long while] able to obtain the least 
" glimpse of it. At length a man, who had mounted a tree at some distance 
" from the troops, having seen the sun, came and pointed out to me the western 
" quarter, stating, at the same time, that there remained three hours of day. By 
" knowing the quarter, we were enabled to advance two or three coss further 
" through the glen ; at the opposite extremity [or side] of which we at length 
" arrived. Beyond this end of the glen was a small plain, where three houses of 
" Kutty Naik stood. When we reached the spot it was sun-set ; so I took up my 
" quarters in those houses, drawing up and encamping my followers on each side 
" of Kutty Naik's dwelling. Here, telling my people that the enemy would 
" approach in the night, and after discharging their muskets at a great distance, 
" would set up a howl or noise, in the manner of dogs, swine, and jackals, I 
" strictly forbad their standing to their arms on that account, directing them to 
" sit still, and satisfy themselves with frightening the dogs away.'-^' Accordingly, 


(23) That is, tlicy coulJ not ascertain in what dircclion they were movin". 

(24) Original jb Jub ^^IC> <U t--^ or it may be w:.^ " ijroaning at." 


" towards the morning, the aforesaid dogs and jackals, approaching on every side, 
" fired their musket;^, and set up a great cry ; of which, however, my people, 
" agreeably to orders, took no other notice than by frightening the dogs away : 
" the noise for which purpose was no sooner made, than all the dogs of the desert 
'' fled. 

" When morning came, I set the pioneers and otliers to work upon making a 
" road, fifty yards'"' wide, through the glen, which was accordingly completed by 
" the evening. The following day I sent for the whole army, with which I pro- 
" ccedcd in three marches to the passes,'^' spreading detachments, as I advanced, 
" over the country, for the purpose of seizing on the thieves. The aforesaid 
" Nd'ih, fleeing into the woods, escaped Avith his family, by another road over 
" the passes, to Tlllicherri/ a sea-port belonging to the English. Here dying a 
" natural death, at the end of two or three days, he made his entry into hell : 
" Avhcrcupon orders were sent to his followers from the Presence, directing them 
" to bring his family and effects to the Presence ; and accordingly the thieves, who 
" had accompanied him, leaving Tillicherry, repaired with his family, two or 
" three elephants, and his other effects, to the Presence. 

" The special retinue """ returning fiom hence through the glen and other placet 
*' [by which it had advanced], reached, after some marches, the fort of 
" Merherrah/""^ which the infidels had demolished. Here I halted for two or 

" three 

(25) Original cJ Ziraa or guz, measuring from two and a half to three feet, according 
to the standard used. 

(26) Ori<^inaI ^J^^ a height over whicli a road is conducted. 

(27) Original ^A^ ljS/V' ^^ " ^^^^ special retinue," the writer here means his own. 
This mode of expression is common. 

(2S) In the original it is uniformly written Mcprkcrrah : but as I take the Merkerrah of our 
maps to be the place meant, I conclude the p to have been an accidental interpolation. In 
new naming this place, according to the fantastical mode adopted b}' the Sultan, he was 
obli"ed to call it Zvfcerdbdd'mslf^&di of Zufcrdbdd (the more proper appellation), as otherwise 
the chronogram would have been defective, Zu/irdbdd, or jW^ yielding only J 188, whereas 
the mimber recjuircd was 1198, and therefore Zufcerdbdd became necessary. Merkerrah, 
I fancv, did not long retain its new name oi Zufcrdbdd, which, in the monlh of December 
n86, was transferred to Gurramcomidah. See Letter CXC. 


" three days, during which I examined the spot very carefully, and then issued 
" orders for rebuilding the fort ; to which I nominated a Kilaaddr, &c. appointing 
'' Meer Zyuul Aabideen [at the same time] to be Foujddr of the district. 
" I'rocecding from Merkerrah, I marched ten coss to the residence of the aforesaid 
" Ndik, where there was a small fort, in which I put a garrison, and directed the 
" Foujddr to abide till the conclusion of the rainy season ; which being now very 
" near, I hastened, by successive marches, to Periapatam, and I gave to the 
" [new] {oit oi Merkerrah \he x\2imQ oi Zufeerdbdd ; from which name may be 
" deduced, without any ambiguity, the date of the conquest of the place. From 
" Periapatam I detached a respectable force to the assistance of the Foujddr of 
" Ziifeerdbdd; and then our elevated standards proceeded in the direction of the 
" seat of the Sultan at Putn." 

The Sultan has added to the preceding narrative the following curious and 
important notice: — 

*' When I arrived at Zufeerdbdd, I sent for all the leaders of the rebels, and 
" delivered into their hands written mandates to the following eflfect : — 

" It is the custom with you, for the eldest of five brothers to marry, and for the 
" wife of such brother to be common to all five : hence there cannot be the slightest 
" or remotest doubt of your being all bastards and whoresons. This is about the 
" seventh time that you have acted treasonably towards the Sircar, and plundered 
" our armies : I have now [therefore] vowed to the true God, that if you ever 
" again conduct yourselves traiterously or wickedly, I will not revile or molest a 
" single individual among you, but making Ahmedies^''*^ [i. e. Musulmans] of the 
" whole of you, transplant you all from this country to some other ; by which 
« means, from being illegitimate, your progeny or descendants may become 
" legitimate, and the epithet of whoresons '"" may no longer belong to your tribe." 

(29) It is clear from this passage, tiiat the term AhmeJy was not confined to Christian 
converts to tlie Muhommcttan faith. 

(:J0) Tiic term wliich is here, and in one or two other places, rendered 'whoreson, is in the 
original ^^LsrtjiK^ '. e. a binful moilier," or " one with or having a sinful motlier." 



To Syed Humeed and Syed Ghuffar; dated from ZuferabJId, 
28th Hydery. (oth December.^ 

The humble address sent by you has been received, and the particulars 
of the occupation of the fort of Kittoor, by a garrison of our troops, 
are comprehended. 

You must place guards, composed of trust-worthy men, at different 
points, which must be most carefully watched, in order that a single 
blade of grass may neither be dispersed nor pillaged. Let not the property 
be plundered, as, owing to the want of suitable precautions,*') was the 
case at NergHnd. On this head you must issue and enforce the strictest 
orders, as otherwise you will be held responsible for the consequence. 


To Urshud Baig Khan, Foujdar of Calicut; dated \st Tvlooet. 

(8th Dece7)iher.y 

You must, on some pretence or other, send to Worm-raj, the Edj'ak 
of Kurtindd, to his brother Sabbabut, and to Unnund Kurp, his 
manager ,('*) to come and visit you ; upon their doing which you are to 
secure their persons, and to report the same to us. You must keep this 
matter secret, and make no delay [in the execution thereof] 

(I) Original ^dJ ^,j\ which rendered literally would be " from (or owing to) discou- 
" ragcmcnt," ?". e. pcrliaps " from due encouragement not being given to the inhabitants.'" 
But though this should be the sense of the passage (which however is very doubtiul) it would 
not follow that the Sidtan meant any other than delusive encouragement. Possibly, however, 
the transcriber may have inadvertent!}- written 'fj t" .; instead of ' oi « " want of en- 
" couragement," which would render the passage perfectly intelligible. 

(1*) All these names are somewhat doubtful. A fourth person is mentioned, but his name is 
perfectly illigible. 



To Meer Kazim ; dated 2d Tvlooey. (dlh December.) 

The first sort of sandal wood you must sell at the rate of one 
hundred and twenty pagodas the candy ; the second sort at one hundred 
2)agodas ; the third sort at ninety pagodas; the fourth sort at eighty 
2)agodas ; and black pepper at eighty pagodas the candy. You must not 
sell them at any other \i. e. not at less] prices than these. If you should 
have to keep them even for a year or two, it will not signify. Take care 
that you buy your sulphur and copper cheaply. Purchases of gold 
[bullion] and lead are not required. Buy and send yearly thirty maunds of 
pistachio-nuts, two hundred maunds of almonds, and fifteen maunds of 
Monukkas ^'^ without seeds [or stones]. Go to Hurmuz, and buy there 
large rolling [/. e. perfectly round] pearls : small pearls arc not wanted. 


It is uncertain whether the pistachio-nuts, almonds, and raisins, here ordered 
to be procured, were designed for the Sultans own consumption, or as articles of 
trade, to be retailed in the shops, of which some account has already appeared. 


To Shah Mahommed and Khyrullah ; same Date. (9th Decemher.') 

Directing them to supply themselves with the wood necessary for 
completing the Rung-mahl ,^^*^ in the manner prescribed in their in- 

2 E structions ; 

(1) Called also Kishmish. It is a small sweet raisin, with few or no stones, 
fl*) i.e. a painted hall, or apartment. 


structlons ; and reproaching them with assurance/') for repeatedly- 
applying to the Presence on this subject, and waiting for answers to their 

Commands them, agreeably to their former orders, to procure wood, 
and all other materials they require, in whatever manner they shall think 
proper and practicable, and apply the same to the work in hand. 


This letter would seem to convey to the persons addressed, a power of procuring 
tlie articles in question, by violence, or any other means they might think fit to 


To Rajah Ram Chundur; dated 3d Tulooey. (lOth Decemher.y 

You write, " that at Huscottah, and other places, the Joivkddrs of 
" the Hiizoor are proceeding to relieve [or change] the troops stationed 
" in the [several] forts, whose pay you are, in consequence, agreeably 
" to our orders, preparing to issue; but that, in the mean while, the 
*' Miitusuddies of the Ehslidm Kuchurry say, that certain stoppages are 
" to be made, on account of the appointments [or commissions] of 
*' Jumaaddrs, &c. for which stoppages, you observe, you see no authority 
*' in our instructions [to you]." 

We are amazed at the understanding and good sense [you have dis- 
played]^ on this occasion \ O Those things which arc permanently fixed 


(2) Original (.:;,.ss~^ properly the plural of ^-r* Shaikh, but generally conveying the 
sense p;iven in tlic text. 

(1) This is a sneer ; tlie Sultan meaning, here, tlic contrary of what he says. 


[|or standing orders alone] are inserted in our Ilitkm-ndmchs [or general 
instructions] ; but such fresh matters as this, nliich arc from time to 
time ordained, aie notified in distinct [or separate] orders. How, then, 
should this new regulation be referred to in instructions delivered to you 
[Ijefore it was made] ? 

You further write, " that Syed Peer, the Kilaaddr, demands pay for 
*' men belonging to the Ji/she, Ehshdm, and others, who have not been 
*' regularly returned to the Mutusmldies of the Knchurri/ ; and that 
" you likewise see no authority for this in your instructions." If you 
contravene or exceed the same in any histance, you will have to refund 
what you have over- disbursed. 


The stoppages here spoken of, jjrobahly referred to some tax, or foes, which 
the Sultan might have ordered to be levied on new appointments, for the benefit of 
the government. 

Ram Chundur appears, in the present instance, to have been very unjustly reprov- 
ed ; for, notwithstanding the decisive tone assumed on this occasion by tlie Sultan, 
it may be safely contended, that the Rdjah was strictly justified, both by the general 
scope of his master's instructions, and the particular nature of the case in question, 
in what he did. Is he not told, in the very same letter, " that he will be made 
" to refund all disbursements unauthorized by his instructions?" And does it 
appear, that he was in ])ossession of any regular, or oflicial notification, of tlie 
innovation which he was required to carry into effect ? The Dcwdn was, 
unquestionably, entitled to be duly apprized of a regulation, to which he was 
expected to conform. 

2 E 2 



To Shumsuddeen Khan ;(') dated 5th Tulooey. (I2th December.') 

Directing him to air in the sun eighteen bales of worm-eaten [or 
niotli-eaten] shawls ; and after putting cummin-seed, &c. into the bales, 
to tie them up again, and lay them carefully by. 


To BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; dated 7th Tulooey. (I4fh Decemhei-.') 

Whatever we propose ordering we shall shortly order, on the subject 
of the rebel Moon a Kool. 


To Shah Noorullah ; dated 8th Tulooey. (I5th December.') 

Agreeably to our former orders, you are to proceed to Mangalore; 
and there obtaining from the Aumil of that place whatever supplies [or 
stores] may be required for the use of the ships, you are to dispatch 
the latter to 2zrfyy.('*) 

You write, proposing to take fifteen hundred wax-candles, besides 
wax. TVhere can he the necessity for so many ivax-candles ? Get the 
Aumil to deliver what number may be [really] requisite. The latter has 
been already Avritten to, directing him to supply whatsoever was required 
for the use of the vessels. What more ? 


(I) This person was supeiintendant of the Tosheh-khdiieh dX Seritigapatam. 

(1*) Name uncertain. I had, at first, read and written it AW/j/ or iN^^nrfn/, but altered 
it, on the authority of Colonel Munro. it is a small liarbour on the coast of Canara, where 
ihe SuUaiiSi\i\\)=. lay when unemployed. 


You moreover write, " that the jlumil of Mangolore delivers to you 
*^ only old and black rice," It is known. That rice is good. You must 
take it, and not engage in improper altercation. What more shall we 
wTite ? 


The Sultan having now determined on sending another embassy to Constanti- 
nople, and from thence to France (the one previously dispatched by the same 
route, having, as before stated, been recalled). Shah Noorullah was emplo^'ed to 
make the necessary preparations for the purpose. The same person was subse- 
quently appointed a member of this mission ; which, however, proved equally 
abortive with that which had preceded it, and was, in its turn, succeeded by 
another (as will be seen hereafter) in l/S" . 

It has been said, that the embassies proposed to be sent to the court of France, 
by land, failed through the parsimony of the Sultan, who could not be induced to 
supply the funds necessary on the occasion. Whatever ground there might be for 
this opinion, the foregoing letter certainly announces a determination to regulate 
the expences of the outfit, at least, of the meditated embassy, on principles of 
strict economy. Old and black rice is declared to be good enough for his plenipo- 
tentiaries ; who are likewise given to understand, that they will not be allowed ta 
bum as many candles as they please. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; same Date. (15M December.') 

Directing him to pay monthly four pagodas and a lialf to the Euro- 
pean C/mi/aAC) sent by Syed Mahommed Khan, the Kilaaddr o?Putn, and 
to assign him some employment. 

(\) A Chailah is an adopted slave. He is treated in many respects with the same tender- 
ness as the sons of the family, of which he is considered a member. The Chailah, here men- 
tioned, had of course become a Musulmun. 



2b Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; same Date. 

(\5fh December.^) 

Your two letters, of the 16th and 19th of Hydery [23d and 24th 
November] have been received, and what you state, respecting the mis- 
conduct of the Urahmens, is knoAvn. Tliat you should have suffered 
men, subject to your authority, to act so presumptuously, and not have 
put a stop to the business by scourging and punishing them well, must 
be owing to your great age. Let them still be immediately placed under 
a guard near you ; and give strict orders, that they be not allowed the 
least egress without permission. 

You write, " that you have separately examined each of them, and 
" that one lays the blame on another." [Instead of this] let them be 
separately flogged : and then, after [duly] interrogating them, let each 
man write down his statement [of the matter] with his own hand. Let 
their names, moreover, be reported to us. 

Urgent, or very particular dispatches, must be always forwarded by a 
pair of Hitrkdrehs, and not by the post, which will soon be discon- 

The message which you communicated to us from Unund Rao Rasta 

has been received, and you will give such answer to him as we shall 

hereafter direct. 


(1) Meaning the post to Poomh, wlilcli, notwithstanding the rupture between the two 
governments, was still permitted by tlic Mahrattulis. It will be seen hereafter, that Tippoo 
did not yet consider himself as absolutely at war with that nation ; though, from the hint here 
dropped, respecting the speedy discontinuance of the post, he would seem to have thought 
tliat crisis approaching fast. It may also be inferred, from the toleration of the Sultan's 
post, the continuance of his envoys at Poonah, and their amicable intercourse with some, at 
-least, of the Mahrattah chieftains, that the latter did not, any more than Tippoo, regard the 
hostilities which had hitherto taken place between the parties, as aniounting to open or de- 
cided wai'. 


You did right, in taking to Rao Rasta the [pieces of] clotli, and other 
customary gifts, on occasion of the marriage. But wherefore did you 
take, and why do you continue to take, the Miltusuddies [i. e. the Urali- 
mens so often mentioned] along witli you to Rao Rasta's house ? It is 
owing to such folly as this, on your part, that they liave hecome so pre- 
sumptuous. You should take with you [on such occasions] none but a 
few Hurkdrehs. 

The gifts from the two shrines, together with your memorandum of 
the counterpanes, are arrived. [See Letter CLXVII.] 


To the Seven Superintendants of the Post, at the Seven capital Cities 
of the SuLTANVT (^or Kingdom^ ; dated dth Tulooey. (\Gih De- 


We have fixed the Coss at six thousand Gvz, which distance [or space] 
must be travelled by the postmen in a ghurry and a half [or thirty-three 
minutes and forty-five seconds]. If the letters appertaining to your pro- 
vince [or department] are not delivered according to this rate, and any 
delay arises, you must flog the Hurkdrehs belonging to you : and if the 
delay should proceed from the men of another division of the post, you 
must report the same to us, in writing. You are, moreover, to denote 
the hour, the day of the month, and day of the week, on the super- 
scription of all your dispatches. This order is to be strictly attended to. 


A volume of the Sultan's regulations, in my jxissession, contains the followfng 
notice respecting the Gm«, as established by him : 

« The 



" The number of letters, of which the Kuhnah [or creed] consists being 
" twenty-four, it is therefore ordained, that twenty-four thumb-breadths shall 
" make half a legal Guz ; a thumb-breadth being equal to the aggregate breadth 
'•' of ten grains of one kind of rice, and of seven of another kind." The Kembdlub'' 
[or rope] used in measuring [roads] consists of thirty-two of these ^m2. 

According to this rule, the Guz consisted of about forty-eight thumb-breadths : 
but the directions for ascertaining the thumb-breadth seem too vague to admit of 
any certain or precise calculation. Taking, however, the Guz, here described, at 
thirty inches, or two feet and a half (which gives five-eighths of an inch for each 
thumb-breadth) the coss will amount to fifteen thousand feet, or better than two 
miles and three-quarters ; making the rate of proceeding appointed for the postmen 
rather more than five miles an hour. This, though certainly very practicable, 
when the relays of Hurhdrehs, or postmen, are placed at short distances, consi- 
derably exceeds, I believe, the ordinary rate of the mail in British India ; where, 
happil}', however, the coercive means of accelerating its progress, so familiar to 
the Sultan, are unknown. 

I am not able to specify, w ith any certainty, the seven capital cities intended by 
the title of the present letter : but there can be little or no doubt, that Seringapa- 
tam, Nugr, and Bangalore, were among the number ; while it is not improbable, 
that the other four were Chittledoorg, Goaty, Gurramcoondah, and Sera, 


To Ali Rajah Beeby ; same Date. (\6th December.^ 

We have received your letter by Fukliruddeen, who has also expatiated 
to us upon your situation. The custom of the world is this. Servants 
and dependants hold themselves [at all times] prepared for the perform- 

(I) Original c-JU*^ which may possibly be derived from Jl^ a rope made of the fibres 
of the cocoa-nut : tlie^ and J or r and I being often interchangeable ; and ^ or ii, both in 
Arabic and Persian words, frequently taking the sound of * or tn. 


ance of services ; the execution of orders ; obedience and fidelity. Many 
times have we written to that lady of chaste degree^^ on the subject of 
repairing to our Presence ; in reply to which you have continually brought 
forward evasions and excuses, and still continue to do the same. In this 
case, what is to be done ? Be yourself the judge. 

Rooe Wurm-raj, who presented himself before us, was honored with 
a grant of the farm of the Taaluk of Cherkul, and with other gifts. ' It 
you [in like manner] had come [to us], agreeably to our orders, you 
[also] would assuredly have experienced our bounteous favour. You will 
learn the remaining [or further] particulars from the letter of Fukhrud- 


To the Dewan and Buktshy of each of the Seven Kvchvrries of the 
Seat of the Sultanut Cor Seringapatam^) ; dated \Oth Tvlooey. 
Q7th Dccemher.^ 

Directing the birth- day of the Saltan, or the approaching 14th day 
of Tiilooey [20th December] to be celebrated, in the manner appointed 
in the Hdkm-ndmeh [on that head]. 


In a loose paper in my possession, containing dfrections for the regulation of 
military salutes on various occasions,'"^ there is a note, or memorandum, purport- 
ing, that the Sultan was born on the 14th of Tiilooey of the year of the lllgera 

2 F 1165; 

(I) Original ci-w^c:- 

(l*) I have since Diet with the same regulations in the FuthuV Mujahidccn. 


1165 ; on the anniversary of which day it is ordered, " that a salute'-' of thirty-one 
" guns shall be fired at ten o'clock in the morning, and all the people of the city 
'' observe the same as a festival." 

Whether or not this rejoicing was intended to be general throughout the king- 
dom, or was confined to the capital (Seringapatam), I am unable to say ; but I 
believe that it was customary for the principal officers, however distant from court, 
to transmit Nuzrs of congratulation to the Sultan on the annual return of his 


To Eaatimady Khojeh Firasut;^') dated Wth Tulooet. 

(\Sth December.') 

The memorandum of medicines [perhaps some prescription] which 
you sent has passed under our view ; but the essences,^-*) therein specified, 
belong to the European practice, whereas Mahomnicd Baig is a physician 
of the Greek school. The conclusion to be drawn from this is, that in 
omitting to insert the Greek medicines, and substituting in their place 
those in use among the Europeans, you could have had no other view, 
than that of making a profit by the sale of the latter. 

You must get a memorandum [or list] of Greek medicines made out 
by the above-named [Mahommed Baig], and send it to us, in order that 
we may supply you [with the articles required]. 

I am 

(2) In the original it is " ten gkurries,'" or three hours and forty-five minutes " after sun 
" rise," which, at the winter solstice, answers nearly to ten o'clock in the morning. 

(1) If the title of this letter be correctly given in my manuscript it may be rendered " to 
" the trusty (or trust-worthy) Eunuch, Firasut." 

(2*) Original c:A>Le. plural of Joe. ilr (commonly pronounced uir or ottar) a perfume, 
essence, or essential oil. 



I am obliged to acknowledge, that I do not clearly understand this letter, 
which appears to be addressed to some eunuch, who exercised the business of a 
pharmacopolist ; but whether under the authority, and for the benefit, of the 
Suifan, or on his own individual account, I cannot determine. The former 
supposition would certainly not be at variance with the practice of this extraor- 
dinary character in other cases ; and, in some measure, supported by the general 
tenor of the letter. On the other hand, if the medicines, when compounded, 
were to be sold exclusively on account of the Suifan, there is some difficulty in 
comprehending whence the profit was to arise to the Khojeh, with the pursuit of 
which he is accused by his sovereign. After all, however, the difficulty may 
proceed from nothing but my want of due information on the subject. 

To Ali Rajah Beeby ; dated \2th Tulooey. (19M December^ 

The huuiblc address you sent to us has passed under our view, and 
tlie particulars set forth in it are hecome diUy apparent. 

You write, " tliat the villages of Mdtmail,^^^ &c. have, from days of 
" yore/-^ appertained to you, and been [actually] in your possession ; 
" but that now the revenues of the said villages have been sequestered, 
" on account of our Sircar" It is revealed ; and, in consequence, we 
enclose a letter to Urshud Balg Khan, the Foujddr of Calicut, in which 
we have given him strict orders to relinquish the villages in question, and 
the revenues thereof. Forward the same to him. 

We have repeatedly written to you, desiring you to repair to the 
Presence ; but, instead of coming to us, you have excused yourself 

2 F 2 upon 

(1) Name uncertain. 

(2) Original AsiS ^si 


upou diiferent pretences. For this reason, and in conformity with the 
policy of the moment, the settlement of the TaaMk of Ckerkiil, and 
^he appointment of a separate Aum'iJ, on our hehalf, to the charge of 
the same, has appeared expedient to us. 

Our consideration for the situation of that refuge of chastity, such 
as it is [/. e. such as we have ahvays manifested it to be], has suffered 
no diminution. You will remain [therefore] with collected mind ; and 
if any of our TaaMkddrs should be guilty of oppression, or proceed 
vexatiously toward your TaaMk, let us know his name, and we will send 
him strict orders to desist therefrom. 

N.B. A letter, in conformity with the tenor of the foregoing dispatch, was 
written, under the same date, to Urshud Baig Khan, the Foujddr of Calicut. 


2o Shumsuddeen Khan aud others ;('> dated 13M Tulooey. 

(20th December.^ •». 

Directing them to deposit the produce of the revenues of ^ugr in 
the Tosheh-khdfneh ; and to carry to account [or give credit in their 
account for] the value of all old cloths, in like manner [or at the same 
rate] as the Ddroghds of the Jinsy formerly fixed the same. 


This letter is somewhat perple^cing ; nor am I clear that I understand it rightly. 
The word <J.>-jIj which I have rendered cloths, may mean either cloth in the piece, 
or clothes (wearing apparel). Tlien it is also possible, it may have been intended 
that tVie old cloth, or clothes, in question, should be sold, and the produce carried 
to account : an interpretation which, I think, the ongmal would very well bear out. 

(1) That is, other officers of tbc ToiAtA-ManeA. 

T I r P O O S tl L T A N. 221 


To Bl'RHanvddeen ; dated \4itlt Tulooey, at Night. (2\st December.^ 

Directing him to send for Wenkia Naig, the banker ; and also to 
transmit a Koicl [engagement] and letter of encouragement to Koornath 
Pundit. To write to Syed Mceriin, the Kilnaddr of Dhdriudr, directing 
him to keep a strict watch over the family of Umbajee Ram and his 
nephew, and to take care that they are not suft'ered to go any where. 
Desiring him, moreover, not to think of putting garrisons of the Sircar 
into Shdhpoor, Bulgong, Sec. as they belong to , 


In Letter CLXIX, Burhaniiddeen is directed to place garrisons in Shdhpoor, 
Btilgo)7g, and Gokauk, which are there declared to be dependencies of Kittoor. 
It would now appear, however, that the Sultan had discovered, that those places 
did not belong to Kittoor, but to some other chieftain or state, whom he did not 
wish to oftend by seizing on them. The name is left nearly blank in the manu-' 
script ; tlie original, probably, not having been legible to the transcriber. I have 
said nearly blank, because it is not, in fact, entirely so ; the terminating letters, 
or syllable, of the deficient word being preserved. This is Ai' which occurs at 
the end of many Hindoo words, and among others that of Mahrattah. If the 
places in question belonged to the Malirattahs, it may seem strange, that he 
should not have known this when he «ent the first orders for their seizure. Of 
the desire he might yet have to abstain from any directly aggressive proceedings 
against that people, and to confine himself, for the present, to mere defensive 
measures, some explanation has already been offereil i and more will hereafter be 
furnished by the Sultan himself. 



To BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; dated I5th Tulooey. (22d December.') 

Announcing to hiiuthe Sultan's arrival at Tul-Cauvery ; and directing- 
him, after deputing some person [to take the temporary charge of his 
governments'^] during his absence, to repair, together with his MiUu- 
suddies [or accountants] to the Presence ; when such orders as should be 
necessary would be verbally given him. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated from Tul-Cav^ery, 18fh T'ulooey. 

(25 th December.) 

The Mahrattah forces are assembling. Vigilance and [due attention 
to] the safety of your army are necessary. We therefore write to desire, 
that you will encamp your tioops in a secure situation ; not far asunder, 
but [close together] in the form [or manner] of a rose-budS^*^ You 
must also post piquets, &c. on all sides of your army. Let it not happen 
that the enemy's army surprize you.(^> 

You must, agreeably to our former directions, transmit to us a detailed 
memorandum of the effects of the Daisye, &c. of Kittoor. After 
receiving such memorandum, we will give our orders on the subject, 
according to which you will act. Let also a minute report be made to us 
of the followers of the Daisye, specifying [in particular] the number of 
his managers and principal men, and distinguishing them by name. 

(\) 1 am ignorant what situation BudrQz Zuman Khan filled at this time. 

(I*) Original d^ which means a ^Kt? in general, but more particularly a roje-iz/(/. 
(2) Original Uj which usually signifies treacheiy, but is often applied to an alert, or 
sudden attack. 



The Asiatic armies are not accustomed to encamp in line, as is the practice of 
the more regular armies of Europe ; and though Tippoo adopted many things in 
our tactics, this is one of the points, in which he did not think fit to depart from 
the established usage of the East. Whatever may be thought of the Sulfan'i 
military judgment in this case, it will probably be readily admitted, that the 
figure, by which he has expressed it, is sufficiently significant. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and Noor Mahommed Khan ; dated 23d 

TuLOOEY. (30th December^) 

Directing them to write all their dispatches, whether of weighty 
import or not, with their own hands, and not to make known the 
same to any of the Mihishies, Persian or Hindivy [attached to the 
mission]. Announcing to them, also, the appointment of Mirza Uhsun, 
a Persian Milnshy of the Su/tav, to read [their] letters and write tlie 
answers to them : and concluding with an intimation, tliat when the 
subject of their dispatches related merely to the pay of the people 
belonging to them, they might be written in Uindivi/. 


In translating the passage of the foregoing letter, which notices Mirza Uhsun's 
appointment, I have supplied the pronoun possessive, their, on the supposition 
that the dispatches of the envoys were particularly meant. But the sense may 
be, that Mirza Uhsun was appointed to read and answer Persian letters generally, 
and not those of the envoys alone. What is said of his being employed to write 
the answers, is not to be understood as necessarily meaning any thing more than 
his transcribing them fairly, or writing them from the 'Sultan's dictation. 



To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan ««// Urshudullah Khan, Dejvan and 
BuKTSHY of KvRPAH ; sonw Date. (30ih December.^ 

Notifying the Sultan's pleasure, that Gurramcoondah should, for 
the future, be called Zuferdbdd, and directing the same to be published 
throughout the country. 


I cannot positively state, whether or not Merkerrah of Koorg continued to be 
called Zuferdbdd, after the latter name was transferred to Gurramcoondah : but 
I am inclined to think in tbe negative ; botb because it is not probable tbat the 
same new name should have been applied to two different places, and because,, 
whenever Ziferdbdd is subsequently mentioned, Gurramcoondah would constantly 
seem to be intended. 


2b Ghulam Ali Khan ; dated 24th Tvlooey. (^Ist December^ 

We herewith transmit a letter, which we have lately received from 
Mahommed Shufeea, the Aumil of Manjaiser^^^^ enclosing one to his 
address from his brother, in which an account is given of the conferences 
[|or negociations] going on between the Sultan of Room [/. e. the Grand 
Seignor'] and the English ambassador. Consider well the contents 
thereof, and hasten to accomplish the business upon which you have 
been deputed. 

Sometime ago Othman Khan dispatched a respectable person, with a 
letter from himself and Shah Noorullah to the Sultan of Boom, contain- 

(I) Name uncertain. 


ing a representation of the state of things In these parts ; and it appears, 
that it was subsequently to the arrival of that person [at Constani'uiople], 
that the Sultan of lioom began the conferences [or negociations] in 
question with the English ambassador. 


It is proper I should acknowledge, that I have found this letter extremely per- 
plexing, and that I am far from being satisfied that my interpretation of it is 
accurate. The doubtful passage is that in which the name of Othman Khan 
occurs ; for the original may be understood to mean, either that he (Othman 
Khan) sent a letter to the Grand Seignor, by the hands of " a respectable person," 
or that he himself was that respectable person, and had been deputed on this 
errand by Ghulam Ali Khan and Shah Noorullah. There are difficulties attending 
either construction, none of which am I sufficiently informed to be enabled to 
remove. The slight mention incidentally made of Othman Khan, in other parts 
of the correspondence, does not throw much light on the subject : yet it clearly 
appears, by Letter CCXXXI I, thatOthmin Khan had himself actually proceeded 
to Constantinople. 

With respect to the allusion made to the conferences or negociations of the 
English ambassador at the Parte, it is no less involved in obscurity, than the 
passage relating to Othman Khan. The context would seem to imply, that the 
representation, by whomsoever addressed to the Grand Seignor, regarding the 
situation of affairs in India, had given an unfavorable turn for the English to 
the ncgociation in question : but Ghulam Ali Khan, if still living,**' can alone 
furnish a satisfactory explanation of the matter. 

2 G 

(2) He was living at Seringopatani, in 1809. 



To Meer Kasim Ali Khan, Post-master at Fyze HisJr (Gooty) ; 
dated 24th Tu looey. (^\st December?) 

You write, " that a thousand PiCidehs, five hundred regular infantry, 
** and three hundred horse, belonging to the Ndzim of Kurnool,'^^^ are 
" arrived at Nundidl, with the intention of recovering the country 
** sequestered [or confiscated] by us." It is known. Where is the 
ground for alarm [in this case] ? If they should dare to take such a step, 
they shall see the fruits [or feel the consequences] of it. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated from Tul Cavvery, 28tk Tulooey. 

(4th Ja)iuary I786.) 

Directing him to recall the Risdla of the Sipahddr, Syed Ghufl^ar, 
from Nergdnd, and to send thither, in its stead, two companies of the 
Sipahddr, Syed Humeed's corps : also, desiring him to send for five 
hundred Piddehs to Syed Meeran, the Kilaaddr of Dhdrwdr, and to 
employ the same in the service of the Sircar, 

To Budruz Zuman Khan ; same Date. (4th Januanj.^ 

You must first proceed to Nelaiser [Ncelahser^ and encamping there 
with Leshtia,^'*^ make some delay, on pretext of looking after Sooma, 


(I) Runmust Khan, tlie Patan chief of KuitiooL See Letter CXCVI. 
(1*) Kamc uncertain. 


the Tul-Cauvery man. You will tlien invite Moona Kool, who, together 
with his nephew, went some time ago to visit Leshtia and Rooe Wurm 
Nag, once more to come and see you ; when you must make prisoners 
of himself, his nephew, and whatever followers may be with him, and 
report the same [immediately] to us. If a further force should become 
necessary, write and send for Urshud Baig and Bunkia,^-) and when 
the business is settled, let them return to their respective stations. We 
have sent the requisite orders, on this occasion, to both the above- 
mentioned officers. You must, by every possible trick and contrivance, 
secure the person of the aforesaid rebel.^^^ The above-mentioned officers 
will remain where they now are till you send for them. If you should be 
able to do without them,^^) let them know it, in order that they may 
repair to their proper stations. 

N.B, Tlie letter to Urshud Baig Khan, referred to ia the preceding dispatch, 
follows next in the manuscript ; but is omitted here, as superfluous. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan ; <") dated 29th Tulooey. (5th January.') 

You write, " that you have recently discovered a vein of lead, the ore 
" of which resembles that formerly found ; that you have sent us seven 
" pieces of it by the post ; and that you wish to be instructed, whether 
V to dispatch the lead you may obtain by hired bullocks, or to wait the 
" arrival of some persons from the Presence." It is known. You must 

2 G 2 collect 

(2) Name uncertain. 

(3) Original >x^.c " an exciter of sciiition." 

(4) Literally, " to seize the rebel witliout tlictn." 
{ 1 ) Dcxi'dn of Kitrpah. 


collect the said lead in the fort of Sidhoot. It is an ancient custom ('> 
for a silver mine, that is to say, silver earth,(^> to l)e [always] found under 
a lead-mine : you must, therefore, send for the said earth [or ore], and 
collect it together in the hefore-mentioned place. Persons skilled in 
[such] earth [or ores] will be shortly sent from the Presence [to exa- 
mine it]. 

To RuNMUST Khan ; satne Date. (5th January^ 

[After acknowledging, with the usual compliments, the receipt of a 
letter from Runmust Khan, the writer proceeds thus] : — 

Some time ago, while we happened to be making a progress, slightly 
attended, for the purpose of inspecting the forts of Bangalore, &c. 
the exciters of sedition in the Koorg country, not looking to the 
[probable] consequences [of such conduct], but agreeably to the nature 
of the children of selfishness (') and of opportunity-watching rebels,^^*^ 
conceiving vain hopes from the great distance of our victorious army, 
raised their heads, one and all, in tumult. Immediately on our hearing 
of this circumstance, we proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at 
once, made prisoners of forty thousand occasion-seeking(^*> and sedition- 
exciting ('') Koorgs, who, alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, 
had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, 


(2) That is to say, " it is agreeable to experience." 

(3) Or, ore. 

(I) Original j>^1 ^1 

>Original t_J]5 yU 

(4) Original j^\ Kzi 


inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native 
country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honor of 
Isldm, and incorporated them with our Ahmcdij corps.(^) As these happy 
tidings are calculated, at once, to convey a warning to hypocrites/^) and 
to afford delight to friends, [but more especially toj the chiefs of the 
true believeis, the pen of amity has here recited them [for your infor- 

We now firmly purpose repairing to that quarter [towards K.urnool\ 
and shall accordingly soon arrive there with our victorious forces j whea 
the meeting, which we have so long wished to have with that friend, 
will be accomplished. Rajah Dhurm Doss, and Khajeh Lutfullah, shall 
hereafter be dismissed and dispatched to that friend. We trust you will 
continue, till the period of our interview, to delight and rejoice us by 
your letters. 


It will be recollected by the reader, that the Sultan had been recently ap- 
prized, "' of its being the intention of Runmust Khan to attempt the recovery of 
some part of liis country, which had been taken possession of by the Sultan ; 
the present dispatch, therefore, which is in the true boastful style of a Persian 
Futah ndmeh,^^ or letter of victory, may be fairly considered as intended to in- 
timidate the person to whom it is addressed ; or in Tippoo's own words, " to convey 
" a warning to him " of what he might expect, if, by resisting the Sultan's will, 
he should compel the latter to pay him a visit. It was, moreover, well calculated 


(5) Original ^_f Jw»».l i^J '* Ba.nd o( ^hmedies." 

(fi) Original ^^Ujl;,* d^ littcrally, " as an example to hypocrites," or atheists. 

(7) Sec Letter CXCII. 

(8) It is customary with the princes of the East to announce to one another tlie victories 
they obtain over their enemies. This is done in letters, \vliich, (Voai the subject of them 
are called Futah-yidmehs, or letters of victorj'. 


to prepare the way for the pecuniary demand which we shall presently see made 
upon this Patan chief. 

The foregoing letter contains the only authentic record of the Sultans recent 
expedition against the Koorgs that I have hitherto met with : and if we may give 
credit to his account of its issue, he would appear to have but too well fulfilled, 
on this occasion, the threat with which we have seen him dismiss the assembled 
chiefs of thatnation, in the year 1784. 

" I have vowed to God," said he, " that if you ever again rise in rebellion, I 
*' will make Musulmans of your whole race, and transplant you all from hence to 
" some other country." See Observations on Letter CLXIX. 


To Meer Ahmed Ali ; Taalukdar of NvnsiPOOR, dated 
29th Tv LOOEY. (5th January^ 

Your letter has been received. You write, " that the superseded 
" Aumil has, notwithstanding the guard [placed over him], escaped 
" from the fort." It is known. We have a just claim for thirty 
thousand pagodas on the same Aumil : you must [therefore] speedily 
discover him ; otherwise you will be responsible for the sum in question. 


To Shumsv ddeen ; dated 30th Tvlooey. (6th Juiiuary.^ 

Your letter, with the accompanying memorandum, and statement of 
an engagement entered into by the Miitusuddies, to adjust the account 
of the Bdrgeers ^'^ in a satisfactory manner, has been received, and its 


( 1 ) Horsemen mounted on ordinary horses belonging to the Sircar. The stable liorses are of 
a superior description. 


contents are understood. The memorandum referred to is enclosed [or 
returned herewith]. You must, by coercive means, threats, and 
punishments, compel the Mtitusuddies of the Bdrgeer Kuchurry to get 
ready, with all speed, the aforesaid accounts, enforcing their obedience 
by placing a Suzdwul over them.^-^ You are to consider this as a most 
peremptory injunction. 


To Ghulam Ali Khan ; dated \st Yoostfrr. Qth January^ 

The camphor tree has been [recently] discovered in this part of the 
Sircar's country. ('> We have sent two bottles of the essential oil made 
from it, for your use. You must rub your feet with it, and also take it 
[inwardly] in meat-broth, putting about a tolah weight of it [into a 
bason of broth]. Inform us what benefit you may receive from the 
use of it. What more shall be written ? 


To Meer Kazim ; Darogha at Muscat; dated 6th Yoost/FY. 

(\2th Januarr/,^ 

Your letter, accompanied by a sealed packet of pearls, with a me- 
morandum of the prices at which they were bought, has been received. ' 
The pearls you have sent have, on the whole, been purchased at a very 
heavy price. If they can be procured cheaper in the Bahrain ('*) you nuist 


(2) Or " b}' proceeding against tlicm, in the manner of a ^yMSi/rcK/;" that is, by rigorous 

(1) Tiic 5'«//(/« was, at this time, in tiic neighbourhood of Tul.Cauven/. Ghfiiam Ali 
Khan was afflicted with some scrophuious or rheumatic complaint, whicii rendered iiim 
a cripple. 

(1*) Situated in the Gulf of Persia ; and formerly fanwus for its pearl-fishery. 


send thither for them. There is, at the same time, no objection to 
your buying them at Muscat, when they can be had cheap there. 

Making some advance [of money] to ten divers, dispatch them to the 
Presence, as they arc wanted for the purpose of diving or fishing ^'^> for 
pearls on the shore of Mangaloi'e. 

You write, " that sandal wood and pepper are become cheap [at 
" Muscat].'" It is known. Keep them [therefore] some time by you. 
When they become dear [again] you must sell them. There is no necessity 
for selling them cheap. The cardaniums, however, you may dispose 
of at the current [or market] price [of the day], if that should not 
be a losing one.('^ What you write, respecting their diminution from 
dryness, is understood. If it be only in weight that they are dimin- 
ished, it is of no consequence. You will state [the deficiency] in your 

The factory of Muscat has been placed under the Aiunil [or been made 
a dependency] of Mangalore : you must, therefore, transmit to him the 
accounts of all sales and purchases, as well as of all other receipts and 
disbursements [of the factory]. 

W^e do not want any copper or lead ; but you should buy sulphur, when 
the price of it is moderate.^*) 

You write, respecting an increase to the stipend of Oba Cooler, in 
consequence of his being appointed to the ChurokdryS^^ Let his stipend 
be augmented, to the amount of the monthly pay formerly allowed 
to the Churokdr. 

The morahs'^^ of black pepper must be weighed in bulk, and sold in 


(2) Literally " bringing up," i. e. from the bottom of the sea. 

(3) Original i;Ji,\^Jiu ok c;^,U^ literally, " keeping economy in vicAY." 

(4) Or, '* when you can buy it at a saving price." 

(5) I am unable to give any explanation of this word. 

(6) A measure and weight equal to 80 lbs. avoirdupois. 

T I P P O O S U L T A N. 233 

that state. Wliere is the necessity of opening them, if, by that means, 
any loss should be incurred ? 

You write, recommending an increase to the allowance of Permanund 
IMuUah. It is apparent. Let him have an increase of five rupees. 

The humble addresses of the Imaum, the KhulfW'^ and Bheem Jee, 
the broker, which you forwarded to us, have passed under our view. 
You have been stationed there for the sole purpose of buying and selling : 
whenever [therefore] any occasion arises, in which you can act for our 
advantage, you should do so, though we may not have directed it, and 
without waiting for our orders on the subject.^^^ 

We are in great want of pearls. Purchase to the amount of tea 
thousand rupees worth, as cheaply as you can, and dispatch them to us. 

You write, " that the Dulldl [or broker] has demanded payment of 
*' two hundred and sixty rupees, advanced by him to Mahommed 
*' Ibraheem, and of a hundred and two rupees advanced to Othman 
" Khan [both of them servants of our Sircar']" It is known. Pay 
the amount to the aforesaid broker, and take his receipt for the same 

In your letter of the l/th oi Zilhijjeh, A.H. 1199, you wrote, " that 
*' the second sort of sandal wood, in charge of Ghous JNIahommed 
" Khan, continued on hand, being, in comparison with the third 
" and fourth sorts, in little demand." Let the aforesaid sandal wood 

2 H be 

C?) 1 believe that the chief minister of the Imaum is so called. Tiiough the Sultan herer 
affects to call the letters of the Imaum and Khulfdr urzies, or " liumble addresses," it is not 
to be credited, that these persons, and particularly the former, actually lowered themselves 
in the manner pretended. 

(8) The J'«//a«V meaning, perhaps, is, that if any advantage was promised by tlia pro- 
posal, which ma}' be supposed to have been made by the Imaum, Mecr Kaziin should have 
acceded to it immediately, without any reference to the Sultan. But Mcer Kazini was too 
well acquainted with his master's cliaractcr, to assume such a responsibility. The prince 
ivho could think it necessary to instruct a commercial agent, so minutely as Tippoo has done 
in the present and other letters, was not likely to have approved of that agent's cxercisin"' 
the undefined kind of power, with which he is pretended to have been invested. 


be kept until purchasers are met with, and then sell It to the best 
advantage you can. 

We want ten ship-wrigh(s, acquainted with the construction of Doivs. 
Get them together, and dispatch them hither. 

You must [constanly] date your letters to us, specifying the day, 
month, and year, in the same manner that our orders to you are dated. 

What you write, respecting your having hired a warehouse for our 

goods, is understood ^^^ will shortly be dispatched from the 

Presence : upon the arrival thereof you must prepare a factory-house for 
the use of the Sircar. 

Entertain a hundred Clashies^^'^^ in our service, at the monthly wages 
of seven rupees ; and appointing a Snrddr [or commander] to every 
twenty-five men, dispatch them to the Presence, where, on their arrival, 
they shall be raised to superior rank.^' '^ What more ? 


I possess no information, with regard to the Sultanas project for establishing 
a pearl-fishery in the vicinity of Mmigalore : but it may be inferred, from the 
silence of the subsequent correspondence on the subject, either that the requisite 
divers were not procurable, or that the attempt, if actually made, did not succeed. 
His endeavours to form a marine were somewhat more successful ; but the nature 
of the sea coast in his possession hardly admitted of his attaining to any great 
importance as a maritime power. If, however, such an obstacle really existed to 
the accomplishment of this design, he, at least, would not appear to have been 
sensible of it, since it will be seen, by Appendix K, containing " Regulations 
" for the Marine Department," that only two or three years previously to the 


(9) There is a blank liere in tfie maDuscript. Possibly some materials, towards tlie erection 
of a factory-house, may have been specified. 

(10) Probablj-, ship lascars. 

(11) Literally, <' shall be appointed to oa/jrfe^^, or commiinds." 

T I p r o o s u L T A X. 235 

extinction of his power, he had conceived the idea of creating a very formidable 
naval force. It may, indeed, be reasonably doubted, whether either the resources 
of his country, or of his genius, were equal to the realization of so bold a plan ; 
but it is as well, perhaps, that he was not allowed time for the experiment. 

To RuNMUST Khan ; daled ^th Yoosvfy. Q.2ih January.^ 

In consideration of the friendship and regard [subsisting between us], 
we abated four lacks of rupees, of the eleven lacks justly due to us, as 
Paishcush, from that friend. Having thus fixed the balance payable to 
us at seven lacks of rupees, we some time ago announced the same to 
you. Riijah Dhurram Doss, and Khajeh Lutfiillah, having hereupon 
made an earnest representation to us of your [pecuniary] difficulties, we 
were induced to agree to a further remission of fifty thousand rupees, 
hereby reducing our demand to six lacks and a half, exclusive of twenty- 
five thousand rupees, on account of the <'^ of a former year. The 

amount was thus finally settled at 6,75,000 rupees, for the discharge of 
which the two before-mentioned persons entered into two distinct engage- 
ments ; by one of which it was stipulated, that 3,75,000 rupees should be 
paid by the 5 th Jmndd ill Ouwul, A. H. 1200 ; and by the other, that 
a further sum of 3,75,000 rupees should be paid by the 20lh of Jluj'ub 
of the same year. These two persons having taken leave of us, will 
[we trust] reach you in safety. 

With respect to our relinquishing the districts belonging to that friend, 
and sequestered by us, orders to that effect have been addressed<^-) to the 

2 H 2 Dewdn 

(1) A blank occurs lieic in the manuscript. Tiic worJ wanting is, probably, balance. 

(2) Tlicse orders were most probably provisional, and to be complied with only in the 
event of Runmiist Khin's discharging the demand against liim. 


Dewdn and BiiJdshy of Fj/ze-IIisdr [_Gooti/'] and delivered to the afore- 
said persons p. e. Dhurrum Doss and Liitfiillali]. What friendship 
requires is, that the before-mentioned money should be paid, agreeably 
to the engagements referred to above, in order that the foundations of 
attachment may acquire strength and firmness. An elephant and a 
Mchtdhy^^ dress are sent, in token of our regard. Always make us glad 
and happy by the receipt of your friendly letters. 

LETTER ecu. 

To Meer Moaainuddeen ; dated 'Jth and 10th of Yoosufy. 
(13M and 16th January.^ 

By the favor of the Almighty and the assistance of the Prophet, we 
have arranged and adjusted the affairs of the Taaluk of Zufeerdhdd in 
the most suitable [and satisfactory!] manner ; the tribe of Koorgs, to 
the number of fifty thousand men and women,('^ having been made 
captives, and incorporated with the Ahmedy class. 

Having accomplished this object, we returned prosperously and 
victoriously to the seat of empire(^> at Putn, on the 11th of Yoosiify 
of the year Julio. This being an event calculated to give strength to 
the people of Isldm,^^*^ we wish that brother all joy on the auspicious 

The advance^ of our victorious standards is positively fixed for the 
12th of Yoosiify [18th January] : we therefore write, to desire that 


(3) A sort of silver tissue. 

(1) In Letter CXCVI they arc stated zXfortr/ thousand. 

(2) Original i::..cliLJl;b 

(3*) i. e. " the professors of the same faith." 

(4) Original cJ^\ C^;-ai C^V.}; iwi-«aj'> 


-you will march and join us, with the forces under your command 
[without delay]. 

Memorandum. Three other letters, to the above effect (but to whom addressed 
is not said), were dispatched by the post. 


There is manifestly some error in one or other of the dates given in the fore- 
going letter, to which two different dates {viz. the 7th and 10th Yoosiify) 
are assigned : for what reason I know not, unless it be to denote that it was 
dispatched in duplicate, one copy on the 7th, by an especial messenger, and the 
other on the lOth, by the post. But if these dates are correct, that one which 
purports, that the return of the Sultan to Ser'mgapafam actually took place on 
the 11th Yoosilfy, must, of necessity, be wrong. It is equally certain, that at 
whatever time he arrived there from Zitfeerdhad, he did not march again from 
thence on the 12th of Yoosiify (as here stated to be his intention), since we know, 
from Letter CCXII, that he was still at his capital on the 23d of that month. 
I regret that I do not possess the means of rectifying these mistakes, which, 
however, are fortunately of no material consequence. 

I cannot, at this moment, ascertain who Moaainuddeen was: but the cir- 
cumstance of his being stiled brother by the Sultan, makes it probable that he 
was a kinsman of the latter. 


To the actual and future Aumils of the port of Calicut-, dated 10/// 

YoosdtY. (IQth January.') 

Be it known, that in consideration of the devotion and attachmcjit to 
our government of the iefuge of cou)merce,('> Muo Saith, son of Rao 


(1) Original jb i^jW 


Saitli, DuUdl [or broker], an inhabitant of Muscat, we have, at this 
time, [agreed to] remit the customary anchorage duty, heretofore paid 
to us, in favour of five Dingies of bis [about to import at Calicuf] : you 
will, therefore, on the production of a letter [or certificate] from the 
above-mentioned Dulldl, [purporting that the said Dingles are his], re- 
frain from demanding the aforesaid established duty [of forty rupees per 
Dingij] on the [live] Dutgies in question. Consider this as a peremp- 
tory order. 


To the actual and future Avmils of our Ports [in generaf] ; same Date. 

(\Gth Januanj^ 

Be it known, that we have remitted four-tenths of the duties, levied 
in our ports from time immemorial, on all goods to be bought or sold 
[there], by the refuge of commerce, Muo Saith, son of Rao Saith, 
Dulldl of 3fuiicat : you will, therefore, demand from the agents of the 
said Dulldl, six-tenths of the ancient duties, and no inore. Consider 
this as a peremptory order. 


To the AuMJLS actual and future of the Port of K^'riJl (MaxgA' 
loueJ ; same Date. (I6th January^ 

Be it known, that if, after selling to the agents of the refuge of com- 
merce, Mao Saith, &c., such rice as we may have to dispose of, the 
aforesaid agents should be desirous of purchasing a further quantity of 
that article from the inhabitants of the districts appertaining to Manga- 



lore, it will be well. Yoxi must not forbid, or make any opposition to 
the same. 


To Mao Saith, Dvllal at 3Iuscat;<-^'> same Dale. (I6lh January^ 

Your letter, by Ghous Mahonimctl Khun and Tuikcm Doss, has been 
received, and apprized us, anion*,^ other things, " of your determination 
" to establish a factory [or warehouse^ at Calicnf."^'^^ You have also 
represented to us verbally, by the aforesaid Khan, " that our officers at 
" the port of Calicut charge you for anchorage duty, at the rate of forty 
*' rupees per Dingy, and this duty you request of us to remit." You 
have furthermore stated, " that the Iniaum of Muscat, mIiIIc he levies a 
*' duty of ten per cent, on [the goods of] all other merchants, charges 
*' our merchants no more than six per cent. ; and you, therefore, solicit 
** a similar indulgence from us." You likewise express a desire, " that 
" your Gitmftslitehs may be allowed, as formerly, (after first buying from 
" the numagers of our ports whatever number of morah^ of rice the 
" latter have to dispose of) to purchase, without let or hindrance, from 
" the people of the country, such further quantities of the same article 
" as they may require." It is known. 

[Then follows a recital of the concessions specified in the three preced- 
ing letters, which it is unnecessary to repeat here]. 

With respect to our establishing factories [as you propose] at Port 
Mundry in Kutch, and at the port of Jdmmigr, our intention is, to dis- 
patch, some time hence, trusty persons, with letters and the customary 


(1) Tlic niimc is omitted in the manuscript ; but the tenor of the letter sufhcieiitly proves, 
that it is addressed to Mao Saith. 

(2) Ca/jc«/ is not nciniod in the original ; but ihc context siiews it to be meant. 


tokens of friendship to the Rajahs of both those places. On this occa- 
sion we shall require of you to introduce our agents to the two Edj'ahs, 
and to procure the necessary permission for the establishment of [the 
proposed] factories. 

Agreeably to your request, wc have directed Meer Kazira to settle 
with you for the advances made by you of two hundred and sixty rupees 
to Mahommed Ibrahcem, and one hundred and two rupees to Othman 
Khan, making together the sum of three hundred and sixty-two rupees. 


We collect, from tlie foregoing letter, that Tippoo Sultan bad already so far 
accomplished bis commercial views at Muscat, as to be considered the most 
favoured of the numerous traders with that port. The concessions by which he 
obtained that distinction (for it was hardly any thing more) are not any where 
distinctly stated ; but it is probable, that it bad been granted on a previous under- 
standing between the Imaum and the Sultan's agent, Ghous Mahommed Khan, 
that the Iinaums vessels were to be admitted into the ports of Mysore, on the 
footing specified in the ensuing letter. 

Of the particular immunities here granted to Mao Saith, the remission of four- 
tenths of the customary duties (whether on imports alone, or on exports also, does 
not appear) would, no doubt, have been a very considerable indulgence, if the 
trade had been suffered to be quite free, and if Tippoo himself had not partici- 
pated very largely in it. The Sultan, however, not only exported rice to Muscat 
in bis own vessels, and imported the commodities of that country into Mysore, 
but he also obliged the Muscat merchant to purchase all the government rice on 
hand, at a price fixed probably by himself, before be allowed him to buy else- 
where. In addition to these restraints, there is reason to believe, that the most 
profitable branches of the commerce of his dominions, namely sandal wood, 
beetel-nut, pepper and cardamums, were entirely monopolized by the Sultan, 
Under these circumstances, it may be questioned, whether the encouragement 



ostensibly given to the Muscat traders, was, on the whole, much calculated to 
jiromote the commercial intercourse of the two countries. Of the actual extent of 
that intercourse, at any given period of the Sultan's reign, I possess, at present, 
no accurate means of judging ; though it is probable, that ample materials for this 
purpose were obtained, by the gentlemen who received charge of the different sea- 
ports of Canara and Malabar, at the period of their falling under the authority of 
the English. 

To the Imaum of Muscat ;('> same Date. (IGlh January.^ 

Your pleasing- letter, by Ghous Malionimed Khan, has been received. 
He has also represented to us, verbally, the sentiments of regard and 
union which you entertain for us, and the knowledge whereof has proved 
highly gratifying to us. 

In consideration of the friendship sul)sisting between us, we have, at 
this time, remitted half the amount of the duties heretofore levied in 
our ports on your ships and Daws, and have, accordingly, issued the 
necessary orders to this effect, to the governors of all our sea-ports : do 
you, therefore, continue constantly to send your ships and Doivs, laden 
with merchandize, to our ports. Particulars will be stated to you by 
Meer Kazin>, 

Whereas there is a strict order in force at [all] our sea-ports, forbid- 
ding the sale of rice to any merchants coming from Portuguese, English, 
&c. ports, the latter have, on account of the great scarcity of grain [in 
their own countries], adopted the contrivance of sending other mer- 
chants, in the character of Muscat traders, with money, for the purpose 
of making purchases of rice, &c. at our ports. We have, in conse- 

2 I quence, 

(1) Thoiitrh the name is here also, as in the preceding letter, omitted, there can be no 
doubt, that the person addressed is tiie Imauin of Muscat. 


quence, sent positive directions to the persons in authority at all our 
ports, to consider as Muscat merchants such only as shall produce a 
passport, or certificate, under the seal and signature of the superinten- 
dants of our factory there. To merchants, furnished with such certi- 
ficate, rice Avill be sold,^^) without any excuse [or evasion]]. Let, then, 
that person of eminent rank likewise give orders to the merchants of 
Muscat proceeding to our ports, to provide themselves with the pre- 
scribed passports, for which we have strictly commanded the superinten- 
dantsof our factory not to demand any fees. 


The remission of duties granted in favour of Mao Saith was four-tenths. Tlie 
remission of one-half, mentioned in the present letter, applies, I conclude, exclu- 
sively to the ships and merchandize belonging immediately to the Imaum, who, 
like Tippoo, was the chief merchant of his state ; but a much more intelligent 
and enlightened one, I apprehend, than the Sultan, 


To BuDRUZ ZuMAN Khan ; dated I3th of Yoosufy. (I9th Januari/.y 

Directing him to crucify the miscreant (') Moona Kool, and to send 
for his family, and keep them confined in irons. 

If the nephew of Moona Kool should be more than twenty-five years 
of age, to crucify him also. 


(2) That is, " will be sold by the officers- of government ^ on the Sultanas iccount, and 
" from his granaries." 

( 1 ) Original ^ 


Two hundred of the followers of Moona Kool to be made Ahmedies, 

and put into the (-) Bisdla lately dispatched [from hence] and now 

arrived [at Niigr.'\ 

You(^> yourself must also proceed to Nugr, together with the troops 
under your command ; and, repairing to the second Dewdn of Nugr, 
who is [at this time] at Seo-Kidlah,^'^^ there make a settlement of your 
accounts [with him]. 


There is no trace, in any of the documents in my possession, of the manner in 
which the person of the unfortunate Moona Kool was finally secured ; but the 
instructions given at different times, regarding him, make it sufficiently probable, 
that the object was attained by some foul or treacherous means. 


To Meer Moaala Khan, the superseded ^^^ or late Kilaadar of 
MvDGVL ; dated \^th Yoosufy. (2\st January.^ 

Directing him to send one of his brothers to receive six thousand 
itipees from Ghulam Mohyuddeen, the Fouj'ddr of Kunchioig-ilddh,^^*'^ 
and to repair with his family to the Presence. 

That what he writes, of the handsome behaviour of the chiefs of that 

2 12 place, 

(2) The name whicli 1 have left blank is in the manuscript written Ahmednugr : but I 
know of no such place in Tippoo's dominion, and therefore suspect the right reading to have 
been, *' and put them into tlic Aluncdj/ [corps at] Nugr." 

(3) Tlie second person bciii^ here employed, what follows is to be considered as an exact 
transcript of the original dispatch, and not, as in the preceding part, tlie mere heads of it. 

(4) Name uncertain. 

(1) 111 the original J_.j)k 

(2*) See Letter CCLXXV for some account of this place. 


place, notwithstanding their oaths and engagements, is understood. 
[What follows is in the first person.] 

In contemplation of the very events which have taken place, we, 
before-hand, desired you to repair to us. You, however, chose to exer- 
cise your foresight on the occasion ; and, after all, " the same broth 
" remains in the pot."^^) Such is the way, in which great chiefs show 
their regard for their promises and solemn engagements.^*^ 


Not distinctly knowing who Meer Moaala Khan was, and being but imperfectly 
acquainted with the transactions referred to, I find myself unable to interpret this 
letter in a satisfactory manner. If I might hazard a conjecture on the occasion, it 
would be, that Meer Moaala Khan (who was the same person addressed in Letter 
LXXX) had been governor of the fort of Mudgiil, a place of considerable note 
on the south-west frontier of the Nizdm;'^^ that he had engaged in a secret 
correspondence with Tippoo, to whom he probably meant to deliver up the fort; 
but that his fidelity being reasonably suspected, he had been deprived of his 
government, before his plan of defection was ripe for execution. I am aware, 
however, that there are some passages and allusions in the letter before us, which 
are not sufficiently explained by the preceding hypothesis. We hear no more after 
this of Meer Moaala Khan. 


To Mahommed Ushruf ; same Date. Q2\st January.') 

Your letter, with the enclosed memorandum of money, &c. sent by 
you to the treasury at Putuy has been received. You write for leave to 


(3) This is a proverbial expression, inipoiting " that, tiic vciy thing intended to be pre- 
" vented, or avoided, had happened." 

(•!■) SiJoken ironically. 

(5) Mudgul coTist'ituted (and perhaps still constitute?) the Ja$iye of the sister of tlic lal-r 
Nizam Ali Klian. 


entertain ten new (or additional) UlgiesS^^ It is known. A hundred Pid- 
delis, of those stationed in the fort/-^ are assigned you, for the service of 
the collections and other aflUirs of the Kuchuny : your view, therefore, in 
proposing to entertain these Ulgies, most probably was, to 7nafte a parade 
[with them].(3> You must, at all times, employ the Piddehs [and no 
others^ in the service of the collections, &c. What more ? 


To the Rajah of Pegu ; dated^'*^ 17 fh Bubiyul Oujiul, A. II. 1200. 

Q22d January.^ 

It will be sufficient to give the substance of this letter, which is no 
otherwise of any consequence, than as it adds to the other proofs which 
we possess, of the Sultans desire to establish an intercourse, political or 
commercial, with the most distant nations. 

The writer sets out with observing, " that a long period hud elapsed, 
" since he had had the pleasure of hearing from the Pdjah ;"<-*) and with 
expressing a hope, " that the latter will, in future, fiequently favor 
" him with the agreeable tidings of his welfare." 

He then announces " that he has sent, in token of friendship, by the 
" hands of two of his servants, Mahommed Kasim and Mahommed 


(1) In the original ^1 of wliicli I do not know tlic meaning. 

(2) i. e. Tlie fort of Gootij of tlic Dewany Kuihurri/, of wliicli district Mahommed 
Ushruf appears, hy Letter LXIV, to have bean the Ddrogha. 

(3) Origin;ii ^ ^\j 

(1*) The Mysore date is omitted, hut, from the place wliich the letter occupies in the 
maDuscrijit, it may be concluded to have been the IStii or IGtli Yoosiify (i, e. about the 21st 
January nS6.) 

(2*^ H possibly never had heard from him. Tlic expression may be merely formal, ai>d 
denote omy h.:> anxiety to hear from him. 


" Ibmliecm, a present for the Rdj'ah, consisting of two horses and a 
** MehtdJji/ dress:'(^^ 

He states, *' his view in sending those persons, to be the opening of a 
*' commercial intercourse between the two states [of 3Tysore and Pegu], 
" whereby an exchange of the commodities of each may be estabUshed, 
" to the mutual convenience and advantage of both : he therefore 
" invites the Hdjah to communicate to the agents in question, as also 
** from time to time, by letter, to himself, what articles he may wish to 
" be supplied with, from his [the Sultan s\ country, in order that the 
" same mav be forwarded to him." 

He next observes, " that having hcaid, that rubies of high value, fine 
" colour, and of a superior kind [perhaps s/ze], are to be had in Pegu, 
" he had, in consequence, directed his agents to purchase, through the 
** medium [or by means] of the Pdjah's ministers,^ a certain Jiumber of 
" stones, weighing each from ten to thirty fanams weight." 

Then follows a request, " that the Pdjuh will accordingly order hi.s 
** ministers to assist [his agents], in purchasing the rubies required, at 
" as cheap a price as possible. 


"Whether a second mission was dispatched to Pegu, or the persons first intended 
to be sent were superseded by otiiers, I am unable to determine : but a letter appears, 
under date 23th of Bydzy (31st March 1786) addressed, not to Mahommed 
Kasini and Mahommed Ibraheem, but to Shumsuddeen and Kutbuddeen ; in 
which they arc told, " that their departure for Pegu only waits for the equipment 
" of the ships, which they are accordingly desired to expedite." It nevertheless 
appears, that the ships in question were not ready for sailing, so late as the be- 
ginning of the following June. 

(3) A dress made cf a particular kind of silver tissue. 

(4) Original JJ^ ^\ 



To Ehsanullah Khan; dated from Pvtn, the 23d Yoosvfy. 

Q2dth Jamuiry.') 

Whatever gold, silver, horses, bullocks, &c. the late Kudlr Agha 
may have died possessed of, the whole is to be delivered over to the 
KUaaddr and Umlddr, from whom you will take receipts for the same. 
You did right, in placing the slave of the deceased in the corps of [or 
among] the Usud-Ilhyes. 


The character of this order cannot be determined, on account of our ignorance 
of tbe particular situation of Kadir Agha, who might possibly have been a public 
defaulter, or have died childless. 


To Shah Noorullah ;<*> dated 25lh Yoosvfy. (3\st January^ 

Two copies of the FuthHV Miljdhideen (^^ have been sent to you under 
[our] seal : one by Mahommed Iniaum, the Joivkddr [captain] of the Jyshe; 
the other by our Clia'dahp Kumal. You must have the receipts of these 
books regularly entered by your Mdtusuddies [or accountants]. One of 
them you will give to be kept by the aforesaid Joivkddr, who must be 
directed to exercise his men regularly, in the manner therein prescribed ; 
the other you are to keep yourself: and you will likewise take good 


(1) Proceeding on an embassy to Constantinople. 

(2) For some account of this book see Letter XC, and also Appendix, I. 

(3) This term has been explained at Letter CLXXVIII. 


caie, that the men [composing your escort] perform their exercise 


To Ghulam Ali Khan ;(') dated 26th Voost/rr. (1st Fehruanj^ 


» The people who are to attend you [on your embassy], and who are 
enumerated in the following list, have been dispatched to you, under 
chai'ge of a guard, consisting of five hundred and seven Piddehs, and 
commanded [or superintended] by Ghulam Mohyuddeen Khan, the 
Huktshij of Nugr, and Rung Rao. Upon the arrival of the party, the 
Piddehs are to continue to be employed in taking care of it, until its 
embarkation ; after which, giving them a receipt,*^^^ you must dispatch 
them back to the Presence. 

List of Persons, making altogether Jive hundred and one, with 

muskets, coats, ^r. 

Escort. Men. 

The Joii'kddr, IMubaruk Khan, belonging to the Ussud-Ilhyes 71 

The Joivkddr, Mahonmied Imaum, belonging to the Suzdwul 

JysheS'^ 100 

The Risdla of Fukeer Mahommed, belonging to the Jyshe 250 

[Carried forivard 421 

(1) The colleague of Sliuli NoorCillali, and proceeding likewise to Constantinople. 

(2) Tliat is, an acknowledgement, or certificate, that such a number of persons had been 
deUvered over to them by the guard. 

(3) As a Suzdwul is a baliff or dun, this, I conclude, was a body of men, employed 
particularly in that kind of service. 

T 1 P P O O S U L T A V. 249 

[Brought forward 421 
Servants, &c. viz. 

Kuniul Chailali 1 

Sweepers 2 

Hurkdre/is 10 

Mushaakhies [or torch-bearers] 6 

Bullahs, or Yullahs,(^*'> 4 

Munshy • • -^ 1 


Dohdshies 2 

Mulusuddy 1 


Under the command of Behram 21 

Golunddzes (s) 31 

Mahommed Ah, French and EngUsh interpreter (^ 1 

Total 501 


Tlie only remark which I have to offer on this letter is, that it would appear 

from it, that the people, sent upon this distant embassy, must have proceeded on 

it with great reluctance, since it was necessary, in order to prevent their desertion, 

to keep them, till their embarkation, in custody of a military guard, of equal 

strength with themselves. 

3 K 

(4) lam doubtful as to the riglit reading of lliis word, the meaning of whicli I cannot 

(5) Tiicse arc properly artillcry-mcn ; but we hear of no gi»n being attached to the 

(6) Very probably some European, converted to the Mahommcdan faitii. 



To the same ; same Date. Qst February.^ 

After your anlval at Constantinople, you are, every third day, to 
serve out to the Suzdivuls and men of the Usud-Il/ii/es attached [to 
your mission], four [blank] cartridges each man, and to see that they 
regularly perform their exercise. 


To the same ; dated 28th Yoosvfy. (3d Fehruari/^ 

Your letter has been received, together with a memorandum of the 
remaining articles of supply, which Nursia, the Dewdn <^'^ of Nugr, has 
taken upon himself to dispatch after you. 

You were appointed, and have been sent from hence, for the purpose 
of repairing to Constantinople, and not for that of ivriting to us accounts 
of squabbles. Now, forasmuch as, while you are employed in narrating 
these disputes, the season for sailing is passing away, you must compel 
Nursia ^^^ to provide the articles you require ; and, having done so, you 
must embark them on ship-board, and then proceed [on your voyage]. 
Even if there should be a small deficiency in your surplies, i/ou must not 
make that a pretence, or excuse, for your delay, and for suffering the 
proper season for your proceeding to escape. 

The whole of the men, who are to accompany you, have been dis- 
patched, and will soon join you. 


(1) He is, in other places, called the Taalukddr of Nugr. 

(2) In the original i^yj ^^< ^j> J! which is much the same as Susdwidli/, already 
explained. It docs not appear what means GhOl&m Ali possessed of coercing a person of 
Nursia's authority. 


Agreeably to the desire of that person of magnificent tlcgree/^^ we 
have sent the most peremptory ortlcrs to Nursia, to expedite the re- 
mainder of your supplies. 


When it is considered, that Ghulam AH Khan was among the most distinguished 
men at the court of Tippoo Sultan ; that he was now proceeding on a service, to 
which his master attached much importance ; that his appointment to such a high 
trust (for he was, I beheve, at the head of the commission) would, at least, seem 
to imply, that entire confidence was placed in his zeal, talents, and fidelity ; and, 
iiually, when the frivolous nature of the offence imputed to him is adverted to, 
it is difficult to say, whether the Sultan has manifested most want of temper or of 
wisdom, in the harsh and degrading language here addressed to that person. Of 
his excessive irascibility and asperity of manner, other proofs have already 
appeared, and more will hereafter occur : but, on none of the occasions alluded to, 
did he, perhaps, so little consult, either his true dignity, or, apparently, his true 
interests, as in the present instance, since in proportion as he sunk the consequence 
of his minister, he diminished his own ; while, by thus outraging the feelings of 
that minister, he incurred the risk of damping his ardor, paralyzing his energies, 
and even shaking his loyalty. It must, however, at the same time, be owned, 
that Ghulam Ali Khan was not likely to be so sensible of the indignity offered to 
him, or so apt to resent it, as the view here taken of the subject supposes ; and it 
is only reasonable to conclude, ihat the Sultan knew this sufficiently well. 

2 K2 

(3) Originally ti-Wr* i^-^Le- It is not often that tlie SulUm uses tliis complimentary 
phraseology, in wiiiinjr even to his principal officers. Perhaps, on the present occasion, it 
was meant to compensate for the severity of other parts of this dispatch. Most probahiy 
the address, or c_>Ull as it is called in Persian, suitable to the rank of every person written 
to, was put atiiie head of the letter, though omitted in the register, or letter-book. It is 
very rare, however, that this address, or any part of it, is repeated by the Sultan in the 
body of his letter. 



To BuRHANLDDEEN; dated 2Sfh Yoost/FY. (3d Februart/.^ 

Directing him to dispatch carefully, under a trusty guard, all the 
gold, silver, jewels, horses, elephants, &c. belonging to the Daisye of 
Kittoor, together with the Daisye himself, and his family. 

DLi-ecting, further, that such of the managers [or servants] of the 
Daisye, as were not to be trusted, should be put in irons, as formerly 
ordered, and dispatched to the Presence. 


To Syed Peer; Kilaaoar of Bangalore ; same dale. (3d February.^ 

You write " that about three hundred recruits have been entertained 
" for the Jyske and Ehshdm [corps], and the abstracts of them regularly 
" made out and delivered to the Mutusuddies of the Dewdny,^^^ notwith- 
^< standing which Rajah Ram Chundur brings forward excuses."^^) It 
is known. You have [it would seem] laid your instructions by iti the 
niche of forgetfulness,^^^ or you could not en§^age in such an improper and 
senseless altercation. What the aforesaid Hdjah represents is perfectly 
right. If you would look into your instructions, there would be no 
necessity for your writing to us on the subject. 

(1) Two or three words occur here, which are unintelligible to me. 

(2) 2. e. " evades paying the amount of the abstracts." 

(3) Original Ji^ jUj i. e. " have consigned them to oblivion." 



To Shah Noouullah; dated 29th Yoosufy. (4th February.) 

It is owing to the whoreson trieks and roguery of the elephant 
keepers, that the elephants have been made to get hot : you must, 
therefore, flog them [the keepers] well. If, after all, one of the ele- 
phants proceeding with you should continue hot, you must separate 
him from the other [or others],, by putting him on board a different 

Then follow directions for expediting the departure of the embassy. 

N. B. In a letter of the following day (or 30th Voosiify), the Sultan repeats 
his orders for separating the must (hot) and tame elephants, with an addition, 
purporting, " that the proper medicines should be given to the hot elephant for 
expelling his heat." 


To BuKHANUDDEEN ; dated 29th Yoosufy. (4th Fehruanj.') 

We have heard, that the enemy^') has detached a large force, for the 
purpose of falling suddenly upon [or surprising] your army (^) : we there- 
fore write, to desire that you will, immediately on the receipt of this 
letter, take up a position at Dhdrwdr, and dispatching the whole of your 
baggage into the country of Nugr [the province of Bklnore\ remain 


• (1) Original .^ " the accursed." The MahrattaUs arc, of course, here meant. This 
is the term by wliicli an enemy is usually designated. 

f2) Original ^>iytj Uj which has been before explained, 


yourself with your army unencumbered/^^ You must, on this point, 
employ the strictest precautions. Let it not be (God forbid ! ) that the 
enemy should surprise you. 


To TuRBiYUT An Khan ; dated Seringapatam, 30th Yoosvfy. 

(5th February^ 

Your letter has been received <"> You write, " that keeping 

'* in view [or looking to nothing else than] the proper execution of the 
" public business,(^> you make no distinction of persons, and labour only 
*' to approve your zeal for our service, and to discharge the obligations of 
♦' fidehty ; but that [nevertheless], owing to your evil destiny,^^*) these 
" circumstances have not been made known to us by the superintendants 
" and Hurkdrehs of the post [or intelligence] department there [i. e. 
*' Sa7igalore~\." 

It is comprehended. Your respectability and integrity are [duly] 
Impressed on our mind, and, therefore, did we appoint you to your 
present situation. The aforesaid superintendant and Hurkdrehs are 
employed to write the intelligence of that place ; how is it possible, then, 
that they should do otherwise than represent the actual truth to us ? (^> 


(3) Original i.iJ,jf the baggage of an army being sent away, the army is said to be 

(1) A long, but immaterial passage, relating to pecuniary details, and not entirely 
intelligible to me, is here omitted. 

(2) OvigmaX J^j^ji ^j^ji^ Jpi 

(3*) Original ci^ jjlt Jl^JijS literally " from the insufficiency, or incompetency, of 
my fortune or fate." 

(4) Literally, *' what power have they not to represent the real truth to us" ? 


You moreover state, " that the cheumstance of your inspecting the 
" accounts of the receipts and issues of the Athouny ,(^^ and examining 
" the same justly, and according to tlie rules prescribed in the rcgula- 
*' tions [whereby < a certain saving or advantage arises to tlie Sircur~\, 
" having rendered your interference ^^ extremely disagreeable to them 
" \j. e. to the jli}ioumj~\, they had, in consequence, misrepresented you 
*' to us/') " It is revealed. Whenever, by means of a reference to the 
regulations, any saving [or deduction] can be fairly made in the receipts 
and issues of the Athounij, you must fearlessly carry the same into effect. 

Your account of a certain person, who is extremely well versed in the 
affairs of that country, and who is ready to undertake the realization of 
the balance of eight lacks of jyagodas [due from it], as well as an 
augmentation of two or three lacks on the present revenue, is fully un- 
dei-stood. By the favor of God the Helper, our lofty standards will 
shortly be removed tliither [i. e. to Ba?}galore]y when we will enquire 
into this matter. What more shall we write ? 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 3d Eezidy. (8th Fehrua)y.') 

Your letter has been received. You write, " that you were about to 
*' issue to the eighty men of the Ndimdr tribe,('> who had been incorpo- 
" rated into the Usiid llhyes, the regulated ratious,^^^ and other ad- 

(j) I am unacquainted with tliis word, wliicli may be read AOxoimy or Athoulif, and 
indeed, several otlier ways. Perhaps the intelligence department may be meanu 

(0) Literally " participation." 

(1) Original ^^L^ j^ j^is^. j^J las) literally, " they set forth, or state, the words of 
" opposition." 

(1) Ntiimdr, usually (.ailed by the English Nairs. 

(2) Original i_^1^ 


" vances, for their separate expences, J'royn the date of our orders on 
" the subject ; but that Syed Peer £the Kilaadd.r~\ furthermore demanded 
" certain arrears of pay and rations, due to them previoiisft/ to that 
*' period." The aforesaid Kilaaddr is deprived of his understanding [or 
has lost his wits]. The rations, and other allowances, are to be paid to 
the men in question, fiom the date of our orders [on the subject]. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur and Turbiyut Ali Khan ; dated 4th 

Eezidy. (9th Fehruari/.^ 

At such times as new levies, or recruits, for the Jijshe and Piddehs 
are to be entertained [or taken into the service], you two, and Syed Peer 
[|the Kilaaddr~\, assembUng together in the Kuchurrj/, are [to be mind- 
ful] to entertain none but proper and eligible men. You are also to take 
a muster of the men some time since admitted into the tTi/she, by the 
aforesaid Kilaaddr, and dismissing such of them as shall [appear to you 
to] be unfit [for the service], allow him pay for those only who are fit 
("to be retained]. 


To Budruz Zuman Khan ; dated 8th Eezidy. (I3lh Fehruari/.') 

, Your two letters, with the enclosed memorandums of the Ndimdr [or 

' Nair'] captives, have been received You did right in causing a hundred 

and thirty-five^') of them to be circumcised, and in putting eleven of the 


(I) If the following numbers are right, this ought to be a hundred and five, instead of a 
hundred and thirty-five. 


youngest of these into the Usud Ilhije band [or class], and the remain- 
ing ninety-four into the Ahmedy troop,(^> consigning the whole, at the 
same time, to the charge of the Kilaaddr of Nugr. You must give 
strict orders to the said Kilaaddr, to take the utmost care of these peo- 
ple, so that they shall not perish/^) 

N.B. There follow here some unimjiortant (and not very intelligible) orders, 
respecting certain defaulters and others, subject to the jurisdiction of Budruz 
Zuman Khan. 


It appears from this, and some other passages, that the Sultan, as if pluming 
himself particularly on the institution of the two troops, or corps, of Ahmedies 
and Usud Ilhyes, was extremely attentive to every thing relating to their proper 
care and management, I am uncertain whether these corps continued in existence 
at the period of his death ; but it is probable they did, as they are mentioned in 
documents of a recent date. 


To BuRiiANVDDEEN ; Same Date. (I3lh Febriiary.') 

Your letter has been received, and its contents are comprehended. 
We approve of your having, for the present, with the advice and con- 
currence of the Sipahddrs, encamped with your army in the vicinity of 
Killoor, which [it seems] is a safe and strong position. You will con- 

2 L tinue 

(2) It might be inferred from tliis passage, if there \v;is any difTerence in the consti- 
tution of the Ahmedy and Usud llhye corps, it consisted partly (if not eiitiifly) in tliis: that 
tlie younger converts to Islam were cniollcd in the latter, and the older in tlie forniur. 

(3) Original ^yLJ ■t-ili\i " that tliey may not be spoiled, or go to ruin." 


tinue there, and observe the utmost vigilance, care, and precaution. 
Dispatch the Daisi/e and his managers, with all their effects and cattle, 
to the Presence, under charge of Hyder Ali Baig, one hundred horse, 
and two or three hundred Piddehs. 

You have done right, in taking possession of the two villages of Sipra 
and Jdmooty, belonging to Kittoor ; and in placing in the former fort a 
trusty Sipahddr, Avith a garrison of three hundred Piddehs. 


The orders contained in this letter, respecting the position to be occupied by 
Biirhanuddeen's army, are, it will be perceived, at variance with those trans- 
mitted to that officer about ten days before (Letter CCXX). The latter directed 
a retrogade movement to Dhdncdr, which Burhanuddeen and bis council of war 
would appear to have thought inexpedient : and in this opinion we here perceive 
the Sidtan acquiescing. 


To the same ; dated Seringapatam, 9th Eezidy. (I4th Pebruart/.') 

It is not proper or advisable, that your guns should be planted in 
batteries,^'^ at a distance [from your lines]. You must keep them near 
your army, in the same manner^^^ that you keep your army itself [i. e. in 
close and compact order, as directed in Letter CLXXXVIII]. You 


(1) This is the word employed in the original, it having been vcr)' generally adopted by 
the natives of India. 

(2) Original jy.^XjJ »J^li' J^V* ^^^'^-'i ™^y ^il^o mean, " agreeable to the custom, or 
••' practice, of your army :" but it strikes me, that the interpretation I have adopted is the 
risjlit one. 



must, moreover, continual I y(^> send out for intelligence of the enemy, 
and remain vigilant and prepared at your post/"*^ Keep us, also, [regu- 
larly] informed of these matters [or of all occurrences]. 


The Sultan appears, at this period, to have been in expectation of an early 
attack from the confederate forces ; the commanders of which, however, did not, 
I believe, propose more at present than to cover the siege of Bdddmy, which they 
undertook about this time, and of which place they finally obtained possession, in 
the month of May following. 

It seems rather extraordinary, that the Sultan should have had occasion to teach 
Burhanuddeen so obvious a lesson in tactics, as that with which the present letter 
is introduced : but it must also be owned, that the information before us is too 
scanty, to enable us to form any clear notion of the subject. Much, of course, 
would depend on the actual distance from the camp at which the artillery was 
placed, as well as on the nature of the ground ; and the letter throws no light on 
either of these points. All that is certain is, that Tippoo thought the disposition 
injudicious and dangerous ; while it is likewise probable, that when he formed this 
judgment, he possessed a distinct knowledge of the different local circumstances 
connected with the question. 


To Chishty Yar Khan ; dated Wth Eezidy. (I6th FcLriiari/.') 

Your letter has passed under our view. You represent, " that sensi- 
" ble [/. c. duly qualified] Tarufddrs'^^^ are not to he procured at the 

2 L 2 *' monthly 

(3) Original ^ " success! vcl}-, incessantly." 

(4) Original ^J^ ^J^. 

(I) A jictty officer, employed in the collection of the land revenue. 


" raontlily wages of one ^w^Wff, and that the proper and faithful exe- 
*' cution of the pubUc service cannot be expected from men receiving' 
*' only a pagoda a month : you, therefore, propose, with our permission, 
*' to authorize the different Aumils to make some little increase in the 
" monthly pay of the persons in question," Let the monthly wages of 
the Turufddrs of the laaliiks [or districts] under you be fixed at what 
you may judge proper and necessary to their subsistence, to the end that 
the business of the Sircar may be performed in the best manner. 


To the Shanoor Waleh ;<'> dated \5th Eezidw (20th Fehruari/.') 

Your letter by Gopal Kishn has been received, and has given us great 
pleasure. What you write on the subject of the Paishcush is understood. 
What does it signify ? Let the Paishcush in question be paid, by four 
histalments, to Nursia, the Deivdn of Nugr. A letter, to this effect, is 
herewith enclosed for the said Dewdn, to whom you must foi-ward it. 
With regard to the malversations [or embezzlements], to the extent of 
twenty-sLx lacks of rupees, which have been established against the 
ministers, &c. of that friend, you must examine into the account of the 
same, and enforcing payment thereof, by flogging and other rigorous 
means, transmit to us bankers' acceptances for the amount. 


This letter is rather more civil, in point of style, as well as more accommo- 
dating in its spirit, than the last one to the same person (Letter CLI). Any 


(1) I. e. Abd&l Hukecm Khan, the Patan cliicf of Slulnoor. I ought to have observed 
before, that tliougli I have adopted a different reading, the name is always written in tlie 
nianuseript Sdnoor. See Appendix, D. 


change, in these respects, may be pretty safely referred, in the present case, to 
poh'tical motives, though it would be difficult, at this time, to trace such a change 
to any particular source of that kind. But as the operations of the belligerent* 
began now to take a direction, which must soon compel the Patan to declare 
openly in favour of one or other of the contending parties, Tippoo's object, at 
this moment, might be, either to conciliate that chieftain, or to conceal, under 
an appearance of relaxation from his former demands, the design he had possibly 
already formed, of over-running his country, and of driving him from his capital j 
both of which the Sultan did, very soon after the date of the foregoing letter. 


To NuwAzisH Ali Khan, aSo?? o/" Shujaaud Dowlahj dated 16th 

Eezivy. (2\st Februart/.') 

[After compliments.] Agreeably to your request we have 

advanced a hundred rupees for your expences. Undan SubhyO will, in 
pursuance of our orders, arrive [there.] After I'eceiving the aforesaid 
money, repair to the Presence. We enclose a passport [for you], and 
also a Purwdneh for the above mentioned Subhy, which you will deliver 
to him. 


I am uncertain whether the Shujaaud Dovvlah, mentioned in the suj)erscription 
of this letter, be meant for the father of the present Nabob of Oude, or for some 
nobleman of the Decan, bearing the same title. It is well known, however, that 
the Nahub of that name left several sons, besides Asophud Dowlah, his immediate 
successor, and Saadut Ali Khan, the present Nabob ; who, on the death of their 
father, fled from their brother's court, aud sought an asylum among the neighbour- 

in » 

(1) Name uncertain. 


ing powers. Whether or not Nuvvazish AH was one of these, I am unable to 
determine : but, whoever he might be, the reception here given him was certainly 
sufficiently discouraging. He is no where again mentioned. 


To BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; some Date. (2\st Fehiniari/.') 

Conformably with your humble request,(') a passport has been WTit- 
ten, and is herein enclosed. You must dispatch the necessary equipage, 
and send for your family [to join you]. What more ? 


This letter is inserted, for the purpose of showing, both that no person, of 
whatever rank or consideration, could, when employed at a distance from the 
capital, have his family with him, unless by the express authority of the Sultan; 
and that the latter, occasionally, granted his servants this indulgence. His ex- 
tending it, in the present conjuncture (the commencement of a war of doubtful 
issue), to Budruz Zuman Khan, strongly marks his confidence in the fidelity of 
tliat officer. 


To Urshudullah Khak, Buktsut of the Ehsiiam ; same Date. 

Q2\st February.^ 

Directing him, afiter recovering from the Kilaaddr of Kunnikgeery 
the amount of the embezzlements established against the latter, to dis- 
patch the said Kilaaddr to ('*> 


(1) Original ^U;Jc>-)l " imploring, supplication." 

(1*J It is not said in the original to what place the Kilaaddr was to be sent. Another let- 
ter, on the same subject, says '♦ to the fort " but without specifying what fort. Perhaps 
Seringapatam is meant. 


Mentioning, moreover, that, in future, he is not to take upon himself 
to remove or exchange any of the Kilaaddrs [within his jurisdiction], 
without the express authority of the Sultan; and desiring this to be 
considered as a most positive order. 


To LuTF Ali Khan and Shah Noorullah Khan ; dated 22d 
Eezidy. (2'Jth Fchruary.^ 

Three Kulgies,^'^^ three Surpaishes,^-^ and three Puduks^^ of the value 
of thirty-six thousand two hundred and thirty rupees, '^^^ have been dis- 
patched to you in a casket, to which our private seal [or signet] has been 
affixed. You must open this casket, and having examined its contents, 
seal the whole up again, and keep the same [carefully] by you. 

The three Kulgies, three Surpaishes, and three Puduks, originally 
mentioned [or referred to] in our instructions [to you], bei7ig afterivards 
considered hy us of insufficient value, have, on that account, been 
changed for the more valuable set now sent, and of which a memorandum 
is enclosed. Of this memorandum a copy must be entered in our book 
of instructions. 

(1) The Kulgy, ov Kidghy, is the plume of jewels which surmounts the 

(2) Surpaich, ox Surpaish, \.hd.i\^\.\\c Aigrette. 

(3) I am not clear what is meant by a '_^<^vi fPuduk.J It seems, however, to have been 
a jewel, suspended from the neck. It also appears to have been worn as a badge of distinc- 
tion, by oflSccrs of a certain rank, who are, in consequence, sometimes called Piuluk-wdkhs, 
111 this last sense it answered to our gorgtt : and it tnay be collected, from the FuthurMujd- 
hideen, that the ofliccrs entitled to wear it, were always obliged to appear with it when on 

(4) Equal to about .^"4,500. 



The book of instructions, here mentioned, was among the papers found at 
Seringapatam ; as was also the journal of this very embassy. I regret that I did 
not take copies of these curious documents, which would, no doubt, explain 
many points, on which we must be content, for the present, to remain ignorant. 

It is a well established fact,''' that this embassy, though ostensibly dispatched to 
the Grand Seignor alone, was ultimately to have proceeded, not only to the court of 
Louis XVI, but likewise to that of London ; the mission to the latter being ex- 
pressly designed to veil the secret negociations proposed to be opened with France. 
If, therefore, the jewels enumerated in the foregoing letter comprized the whole 
of what was destined for all the three courts mentioned, it must be allowed, that 
the meditated presents were not formed on such a scale of magnificence, as might 
have been expected from an eastern prince, desirous of impressing three of the 
principal sovereigns of Europe with a high idea of his power and resources. It 
is possible, however, that the casket, specified in this dispatch, may have con- 
stituted only a part of the jewels intended to have been presented. 

The embassy was finally composed of four persons, as appears by the next 


To Ghulam Ali Khan, Lute Ali Khan, Shah Noorullah Khan, 
and Mahommed Huneee ; dated 24fh Eezidy. (\st March.^ 

Your letters have been received, and their contents are understood. 
You write, " that all the stores, supplies, merchandize, &c. are laden 
" on board the ships, and that you only wait for the arrival of the 
" Usud Ilhye men and the jewels, when you will proceed [on your 


{6) See Colonel Beatsoii's N.irrativc, page 179. 



voyage]." It is known. The men, in question, were dispatehed [from 
hence] some time ago, and most probably have reached you before this. 
The jewels are now forwarded, and will arrive. As soon as you have 
received them, hasten your departure, and do not let the scason*^'^ escape 

You write, " that the season for sailing to Juddah is passed, but that 
" the season for JBtissorah and 3Iiiscat is not yet over ;" adding, " that 
*' whatsoever we may please to order on this subject, you will act 
" accordingly." It is known. Some time since Othman Khan, a ser- 
vant of the Sircar, being dispatched by us, reached Hussorah, and 
thence proceeded to Baghdad, from whence he was sent on by the 
JBdiha [of the latter place] to Constaidinople ; which, as we understand, 
is sixty days journey, with a caravan, from Baghdad. Now what 
appears [to us] to be most proper and advisable is, that you likewise 
should proceed by the same route ; that is, first to Bussorah, from 
thence to Baghdad, and from thence to Coyest ant inojde. 

It is our wish to obtain possession of the port of Bussorah in farm. 
Consequently, we are, for several reasons, well pleased at your going 
to that place.(^) Proceeding thither, accordingly, you will examine into 
the state of things there, and make every [necessary] enquiry respecting 
the port, where you will, at the same time, dispose of your mei'chundi'ze. 
From thence you must repair straight to Nujnf, the most noble j^^) where 
presenting our very humble duty, you will represent in the most re- 

2 M spectful 

(1) Oiigiiial f^yt (mosevi) from whence, probabi}-, Monsoon. 

(2) Original ,s:.> V' \z -...\'^ j^^j-" ""J " ''^'"^' '^° "°' S'^'^ '''*^ season fi'( m your liantis ;" or, 
" do not let it slip throiigli your hands." 

(3) i. c. " at its being reiulerctl necessary, by the state of liie Monsoon, tiiat you should 
" 20 there, instead of to JudJah.'^ 

(4) Culled usually Niijuf Ushruf. This is a place of great sanctity with Mahommedans. 
It is situated on the plain of Kerbda, celebrated for the bloody battle fouglit there between 
Yezecd and the sons of Ali. 


spectful and submissive manner, that if it be agreeable [to the priests in 
charge of the holy shrine] to have an aqueduct brought to Nujuf the 
most noble ffroni the Euphrates], and they will signify their pleasure 
to that effect, we will, in the following year, send the necessary people 
and money for its construction. You must report to us, at length, the 
answer which you may receive to this proposal, together with all other 
particulars, in order that we may act accordingly. 

You must not make any further delay, after the arrival of the party 
of Usud Hhjes and the jewels, but proceed [immediately on your 
voyage]. Consider this order as positive. 


The Sultan's project of acquiring possession of Bussorah was, probably, as 
extravaofant as any he ever entertained. By what means he could hope to attain 
such an object, it would be difficult to conceive : but it is probable, that the 
instructions to the embassy, and its journal, which, no doubt, are still extant, 
would throw some light on the subject. It has been said, that the ambassadors 
were empowered to offer Mangalore in exchange for it : but I think it unlikely 
that a prince of the Sultans characteristic jealousy and distrust, should have 
consented to such an arrangement: and the letter before us certainly discoun- 
tenances the notion ; since, besides its not containing the most distant allusion to 
an exchange, it distinctly speaks of his wish " to farm " the port in question. 

There is reason to believe, that the Sultan's project of constructing a canal from 
the Euphrates to Nujuf, if ever seriously entertained by him, was ultimately 
relinquished; since Mirza Abu Talib, who visited this sanctuary in 1803, does 
not mention such a work, though he has recorded a similar one, executed at the 
cxpence of the late Nabob, Asophud Dowlah. 


To BuDRuz ZiTMAN Kha n ; dated 25th Eezidy. (2d March.^ 

After fixing* a proper price on the coats which you have distributed 
among tlie Ji/ahe, you will deduct the amount from their pay. 

Issue to the Serishteddrs of the £/iih(hn, and to the Gomdshtehs, the 
monthly allowances specified in our instructions to you. There is no 
necessity for transmitting to us fresh pay abstracts [for this purpose]. 

You will also make a daily allowance of one pice^'^ to such of the 
children of the Koorgs, between five and ten years old, as you may 
think proper. 


To the same; dated 21th Eezidy. (4th March.^ 

Whatever number of Koorg women and children may, at this time, 
be at Nngr, Koonly-doorg,^^*^ or elsewhere, must be collected together, 
and the allowance formerly assigned for their support be paid to them. 


To Mahommed Ghyas ; same Date. (4th March.} 

Five months ago, we sent by two Hurkdrehs a letter, together with 
a dress, to Moodhojec Bhonsillah, to which we have hitherto had no 
answer : we have, therefore, again dispatched two more Hurkdrelis, 

2 M 2 whom 

(I) A pice is a copper coin, ncaily of the value of u halfpenny. 
(!•} Name uncertain. 


whom you must secretly forward, but not directly or avowedly from 
yourself, with the letter which they have in charge for the aforesaid. 
This matter is to be kept profoundly secret. After being satisfied of the 
[favorable] disposition of the aforesaid, you must, from time to time, 
send a person to him, and privately sound his views ; employing always 
[on the occasion] such language as may be most conducive to the 
improvement of [our mutual] friendship and regard. 


The reader will scarcely require to be informed, that Moodhojee Bhonslllah was 
the Rajah of Berar, and one of the principal members of the Mahrattah state. 
The mode adopted by the Sultan, of drawing this person over to his interests, 
would not appear to have much consulted the dignity of the latter ; however it 
may have been demanded, by the caution necessary to be observed in such a 
correspondence. I possess no means of ascertaining what success Tippoo had in 
this intrigue ; but I believe that Moodhojee Bhonsillah took little or no very active 
part in the ensuing hostilities.'"' It was, indeed, the uniform policy of that 
chieftain, in all the contests of his neighbours, to maintain, as long as possible 
(virtually, at least, if not formally), such a line of neutrality, as generally left it 
very doubtful to which side he most leaned: nor was he used to make much 
distinction, on these occasions, between the chiefs of his own nation, and the 
other circumjacent powers. His son and successor, Raghojee Bhonsillah, has not, 
however, adhered to his father's system, in this respect. 

(1) He is saiJ, in the Persian newspapers of tliis period (referred to in aiiotlier instance at 
Letter CCXCVII.) to have quitted the Maiirattalj army some time in July 1186, and to have 
returned to Nagpoor, leaving his son at the head of a body of five thousand horse behind 
iiim. Whether this apparent, though qualified, defection of the Bhonsillah was occasioned 
by the intrigue alluded to in the present letter, is a point which I do not possess the means 
of ascertaining. 



To BuDRUZ ZuMAN Khan j dated 28th Eezidt. (5fh 3IorcIt.') 

What you write, concerning the death of five hundred Koorgs from 
the smull-pox, is understood. Tlie whole country [thereahouts] is 
covered with underwood. ^'^ They [?'. e. the Koorgs~\ must be kept where 
the chmate [hterally, the water and air] may best agree with them. 

N.B. Two or three letters appear about this time, containing directions for 
collecting gram (for the consumption of twelve thousand stable-horse) in the direc- 
tion of ^an^afore, Chinroydoorg, Ruttungeeri/, and Sttmrpufn {Bulhdry). These 
orders, which also announce the early approach of the Sultan, were, no doubt, 
preparatory to the rapid movement which he was now probably meditating against 


To ZvNUL Aabideen, Bukhshy of the EHsUAMatFrzE-YAB Hisar 
(GootyJ ; dated 29th Eezidy. (6th March.) 

Agreeably to your request, an order has been written, and is herehi 
enclosed, for the post Hurkdrehs of Hnrry-hur, to whom you will 
forward it. 

With respect to lead and powder, do you act according to what is 
written in your instructions. That you should pursue your own opinion, 
in opposition thereto, occasions us the utmost surprise.^'*) 

(1) Original c:.„«j,U. (Jj3^ <UJ!) I liavc considerable doubt witli regard to the meaning 
of this passage. It may signify, " it {i.e. the small-pox) is spread, or prevails, ail over 
" the country." But in this case the word ,j is wanting. 

(I*) The word surprise is here supplied on conjecture, a blank having been left in the 
manuscript, after JU^ " complete, utmost," &c. 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dutcd \st Byazy. (J th March?) 

Intelligence has reached us, ^tating, that Holkar, the Guyckwdr, 
and other forces of the enemy, to the number of thirty thousand horse, 
have set out, with an intention of falUng upon('> tliat light of our eyes. 

It also appears, that the Vakeels of the Sorapoor man, as well as those 
of the Zeminddrs of Gunjunghur, and other dependencies of the Sircar, 
who waited on the worthless^^) commander of the enemy, and opened 
negociations with him, have met with an encouraging reception, and 
been directed to join the enemy's army with their respective troops. This 
is written to that light of our eyes, by way of precaution [or, to put you 
on your guard]. 


To the same ; dated 3d Byazy. (9th March?) 

Tukojee Hulkar and the Guyckivdr have moved towards you with 
foul intentions :('*) you will, therefore, take up a position with your army 
near the fort of Dhdrwdr, and omit not a single measure of precaution 
in that situation. You must, moreover, enjoin all the inhabitants of 
that quarter to be cautious and watchful. 


The Sultan seems here to revert to his former orders (see Letter CCXX) 
respecting the position to be occupied by Burhanuddeen, but which he revoked by 


(1) Original >Xilw j^li " pouring down," as rain. 

(2) Original ^Ij^li literally " no-lcader." This is a favorite term of opprobium with the 
Sultan, when speaking of any chief or commander among his enemies. 

(1*) Original aU^I wi,U 


Letter CCXXV, in compliance, apparently, with the suggestion of that general 
and the superior officers of his army. We shall soon see him wave the point again. 
(Letter CCXLVIII.) 

To Rajah Ram Chundur ; same Date. (9th March.^ 
Notifying to him, that he must recall Sohhah Rao, the Serishteddr 
of Uang^a/ore, to whom he had, of his own authority, given leave of 
ahsence, or otherwise he [Ram Chundiir] would he held responsible for 
the sum of two lacJcs of rupees due to the Sircar [that Is to say, remain- 
ing to be accounted for] hy the aforesaid Serishteddr. 

To Mahommed Wasil, Kilaadar of Tarmurry ; dated 4th ByAzy. 

(10//t March.^ 
Do you apply yourself to the care and defence of your fort; and if 
the vagabond cavalry of Hyderahad<^^ should again appear in your quar- 
ter, chastise them. 

Agreeably to your request, we enclose an order to the BuLhshy of the 
Ehshdm [at Gooty~\, to let you have a supply of jjrovisions, lead, and 
powder, for the use of your fort. Forward the same to him. 


To Meek Moiiib Alt, Bukiishy of the Ehsham at Fyze Hisar 

CGootyJ ; same Date. (lOth March.^ 

Dispatch to the fort of Tdrmurry a supply of provisions, lead, and 

powder, according to the [established] custom and regulations of the 


(1) Original jlj^ju*. ijd.J\J\y^ wliich may also be read, " tlie cavalry of the vagabond of 
" Ht/clerabad" (i.e. the NizdmJ. 


Sircar. [That is to say, in the quantities or proportions of each article 
fixed by the regulations, either for the fort of Tdnmirry specifically, or 
for a fort of that class.] 


To Ghulam Ahmed, Kazy of Nugr ; dated 6th BrJzr. 

(I2th March.) 

We understand what you have represented, regarding a certain Musul- 
man inhabitant of Lukoti/,^^^ " who was in the habit of worshipping 
*' images, in the manner of the ^/»c/oo5, and whom you, inconsequence, 
*' upon hearing of the matter, seized, together with his wife and chil- 
*' dren ; dispatching what money, as well as gold and silver trinkets, 
" they possessed, to the Kuchurry of the Ehshdm, and keeping them 
" under a guard, till you should receive our orders respectmg them." 

You will deal with the aforesaid [offender] according to law, and then 
let him go. In matters relating to our holy law, you are authorized to 
act as you think proper [or, are independent].^-^ 


The fact here recorded, supposing the Kdzi/s statement to be correct, is a very 
curious one, because of rare occurrence : indeed, I never heard of another instance 
of it. I am ignorant what punishment the Mahommedan law has appointed for this 
offence ; but it is most probable, that the property of the present culprit, if not 
entirely confiscated, was, at least, heavily amerced. 

(1) Name uncertain. 

(2) Original S)\k^ jji J^\ i^,jii ?/-j^^jJ 





2o BuRHANUDDEEN ; (Idied lOth ByJzy. (\iith March ^ 

You write, " that having dispatched your baggage to Misrycotah, our 
*' victorious army is now light('> and piepared for action." It is known. 
You must not be precipitate ; but acting prudently and warily, watch for 
a [proper] opportunity of inflicting punishment [on the enemy]. If, 
moreover, they should encamp near you, you must seek for a favorable 
occasion, and make a night attack upon them. 


To the same ; dated 24th ByJzy. (30th March.) 

In case the enemy should encamp near you, watching for a favorable 
opportunity, you must make a night assault upon them, and chastise 

them signally. Your foragers and ('*) must be sent into the close 

country of the interior,*^) on this side of you [that is, in your rear]. 


It is curious to observe the Sultan directing, in this and the preceding letter, a 
night assault to be made on the Mahrattah army, while, on other occasions, when 
that mode of attack has been adopted by the English against himself, he stigmi- 
tises it as a base proceeding, worthy only of robbers. 

2 N 

(1) Original >Jln>- 

(1*) There is a word iicre in llic manuscript illegible. 

(2) Origiiiul ^Js ^A ^yjjSi\ ^j^ CJ^ji 



To the Shanoor Waleh ; dated 26th BrJzr. Qst yJprili) 

Agreeably to your request, we have written and enclose an order to 
Nursia, the Deivdn of Niigr, directing him to accept payment of that 
friend's tribute^') at the end of three months. Forward the same to him. 


To Burhanuddeen ; dated 2d Ahmedy, Year DulloS^*^ Qth April.') 

Your encamping at Misrycotah, as well as your dispatching of the 
Kdzy of Tdrkul to the Presence, was proper. According to your request, 
Purwdnehs are enclosed for the Aumils of the several Taalilks, as like- 
wise for the [different] Kilaaddrs, directing them to furnish you [con- 
stantly] with intelligence of the enemy's [motions]. 

Let loose the marauding horse, and other predatory troops [with you], 
upon the enemy's army, with orders to capture and bring in [to your 
camp] horses without numberS'^^ Take care [at the same time] of your 
own army, and be always prepared [or on your guard]. 


To Mahommed Ali, Avmil of UfzulabJdy Nugr ;('**> same Date. 

Qth April.') 

In like manner as you have caused two thousand Samories,^'^*^ inhabi- 
tants of Zuferdhdd, to flee [the country], even so must you send for 
them back [or cause them to return thither.] 

(1) Original ^>^jj 

(1*) Dullo, or the fortieth year of the cycle, corresponding to A.D. 1736-7. 

(2) Original J^ ^ J.^\ 

(I**) I am not acquainted with the situation of this place. 

(2*) Tiie chief of this tribe is the person called by the Europeans the Zamoruu 




To Mahommed Abdullah, Cutival of the Army ; dated 4th 

Ahmedy. (9th April!) 

One thousand two hundred and-forty two bullocks, belonging to the 
Usitd-Ilhye Kdtht/,^^^ and six hundred bullocks, belonging to the powder- 
magazine, are appointed to be sent to pasture,^-) where you must provide 
for their being fed with thick milk,^^> at the daily allowance of a full 
seer^*^ to every bullock. The [necessary] cowherds must be made to 
remain along with them at the pasturage, for the purpose of serving the 
curds; for which you are to take a regular receipt from them [i. e. from 
the cowherds]. 


It is probable, that the bullocks, here enumerated, were intended to be employed 
on the expedition now meditated by the ;S'M//a« against ^rfort/; and as his move- 
ment thither was intended to be very sudden and rapid, the cattle selected for the 
occasion would, of course, be previously brought into the best condition possible. 
Thick, or curdled milk, is, I believe, considered in India as particularly heartening 

to oxen, 

2 N 3 

(1) A'JMj^ probably means licrc, " depot, or magazine." 

(2) I ratlicr tbitik, that the name of tlic pasturage is given in the original ; but, if so, it is 

(3) Original isJyua^ 

(4) Original <Usi cJj liuk is the term which the Sultan substituted for Seer (a weight 
equal to about ten pounds avoirdupois). 




To the Darogha of the Post- Office at Pvtn ; dated 6th Ahmedy- 

(11 /A April. ^ 

Such fruits as would spoil before they reached our Presence, must be 
taken to, and deUvcred at, the Jinsy Toshth-khdneh, from whence they 
will be forwarded as may be ordered.^ 


This letter is given principally for the purpose of shewing that the Sultan had, 
at the date of it, left Serlngapatam. It does not appear on what day he actually 
moved from thence ; but the last letter, purporting to be written from Sermga- 
patam. is one dated l6th of Bydzy. The intermediate letters, to the date of 
the present one, do not happen to contain the name of the place from whence 
they were dispatched. On the 11th Ahmedy the Sultan writes from Bangalore. 


To Shumsuddeen Khan j dated 9th Ahmedy. (I4th April.} 

Directing the following books, written in a good hand (not crabbed, 
but plain and legible) to be taken from the Sultaris library, and dis- 
patched to the Presence : 


Giiliifdn, 1 volume 

Bostdn, 1 ditto. 

Voosi1/iividZuleekha,2 ditto. 


Amdun ^^^ 

(1) Original Jwl^ juftUi- cu^l y;>>-jL( <!^ ^.U- literally, " I'ney will send tlK-na where ihey 
•' are to be stnt to." 

(2) Perhaps the Amud-ndmeh is meant. 



Several orders, of a similar nature with the above, appear in the present col- 
lection of letters. As the books in the foregoing list are what may be called school- 
books, or such as are usually put into the hands of learners, its may be concluded, 
that the Sultan was accompanied, at this time, by one or more of his younger 


To Meer Mohib Ali, Mukhshy of Ehsham, at Fyze Hisak 
(Gooty) ; dated Wth Aiimedy. (\Qth April. ^ 

On the subject of his securing the person of Ram Rilo, the Serishteddr 
of the Kundachdr, who had absconded, together with the persons of all his 
family ; and intimating to him, tliat he [Moliih Ali] would otherwise be 
made responsible [for the amount of the claims against the fugitive]. 


2b the Sanoor Waleh ; dated BAXGALonE, same Date. (IHt/i Aprit.) 

[After compliments]. . . . What you write, respecting the severity with 
which Rukhunder Naik, &c. press the payment of the eight lacks of rupees 
[due to us by you], as well as your request, that we would send orders to 
the aforesaid Ndik, to desist from his rigorous proceedings in regard to 
this money, is understood. Agreeably to your desire, we luive trans- 
mitted [the necessary] directions to tlie Nd/k, whom you will send back to 
us, acconipunicd by the same persons, on your part, who formerly 
attended upon us; in order that, a valuation being made in [concert with 
them] of the gold, the trinkets, the jewels, &c. which have arrived in 



charge of Weethul Doss, the banker, the same may be [duly] dehvered 
into the Sircar [i. e. paid into our treasury]. 

You write " that the danger occasioned by the enemy's approach 
*• having lately increased, the husbandmen, inhabitants, and others in 
*' that quarter, have, in consequence, taken the most serious alarm ; 
" and that this is the reason of your not having been enabled, hitherto, 
*' to satisfy our fair claims." It is comprehended. God, the Aider, 
pleasing, the enemy will soon be repelled,^') and receive the proper 
reward of their unjust proceedings.(^) After the confidence and tran- 
quillity of the husbandmen, &c. shall have been restored, you must apply 
yourself to the discharge of our demands. 

With a view to your ease and satisfaction, we have remanded the 
aforesaid banker, &c.(^) to our Presence ; in order that all controversy 
and importunity, respecting pecuniary affairs, may be suspended, till 
the re-establishment of quiet.^*) What more shall we pen ? 

N. B. There follows a letter, of the same date and tenor, addressed to Dileer 
Khan Behadur Dileer Jung, whom I conclude to have been the principal minister 
of Abdul Hukeem Khan, the Nabob of Sdnoor. 


To Shumsuddeen Khan ; dated Bangalore, 16th Ahmehy. 

(2\st April?) 

After some directions, concerning certain gold ornaments, which the 
workmen belonging to the Tosheh-khdneh (of which Shumsuddeen was 

(1) Original t^L.* jj^ " setded, repelled." 

(2) Original ,iy^j\y*i>\j Jj^ literally, " their uneven actions." 

(3) This would appear to refer to Rakhunder Naik. 

(4) Original A^s^ *-iJi literally, '« till the settlement of the pending dispute, or troubles." 


tbe supcrintendant) were employed in uuiklng up, the letter thus 
proceeds : 

You write. " that the druggists (') require payment for the articles (^) 
" [furnished by them], and that you wait our orders on the subject." It 
appears by this, that you have entirely laid aside your instructions, and 
never peruse them. If it be written therein, that the articles purchased 
for our use are to be paid for, they must accordingly be paid for: if it 
be written, that they are not to be paid for, [then] they must not be 
paid for. 


If the foregoing letter, which is a close translation of the original, be understood 
in its most plain and obvious sense, . we shall be obliged to conclude, that the 
oppressive system of requisitions, adopted some years after the date of it by the 
French revolutionists, was already known to, and practised by, Tippoo Sultan. It 
is possible, however, that his meaning might have been, that prompt payment was 
to be made for articles purchased on his account, in such cases only as were specified 
in his instructions ; and that, in all other instances, the tradesman was expected 
to submit the period of satisfying his claims to the pleasure and convenience of the 
Sircar. That the Persian reader may be the better enabled to judge how far this 
interpretation is admissible, I will here transcribe the original passage. 

MJtJJ J>jj >iy^ '^J'J^j^ ^^T!-^ ij-i^ ^ A-Ij ^_5^ U^J^J^ XJ\jJ^j Jul <iti.i.b uJ)} lJj_ \ji^\> 

(1) Original ^b^L-J wlio arc also dealers in spices and groceries. 

(2) Original JUic This word usually moans sjiiccs ; but it also si<;nifics the materials 
(particularly chemical) employed in various chemical operations. la this place, it probably 
refers to soiuc articles u( tlic latter kind, used by goldsmitlis. 



To BuRHANl'DDEEN ; dfltcd HaXGALORE, I'Jth AhmEDY. 

(22d April.') 

You state, " that the Kilaaddr of Dhdrwdr having dispatched to our 
" victorious army thirty-five thousand pagodas, over and above the fifty 
" thousand which we had ordered, you had detained the additional sum, 
" and waited our directions respecting it." It is known Apply the 
said money to the use of your army ; and when, hereafter, a fresh order 
ishall he issued to the above-mentioned Kilaaddr to transmit you a fur- 
ther supply, let the present thirty thousand pagodas be deducted from 
the amount. 

You write, " that you had detached u^Jlisdla of horse and a Kushoon 
/' of Jyshe through the woods, with orders to chastise the enemy, if a 
*' favourable opportmiity for the purpose offered, but otherwise to return 
*' to the army by the same route." It is known. In future, you must 
not detach the Jyshe [on such service], but only separate [or straggling] 
parties of horse, to whom you must give orders to seize and bring in all 
the camels, horses, and other booty they can. 


To MiRZA Mahommed Khan Behadir Sumsamul Mulk ; dated 

\Wi Ahmedy. (24th April.) 

[After compliments] Your friendly letter, announcing your 

firm intention of repairing hither with the troops belonging to you, has 
been received, and afforded us the greatest satisfaction. Your [intention 
ofj coming hither is highly approved [by us]. Proceed in the execution 



of your purpose with the utmost confidence and security, and make us 
hapj)y by an interview, for which we are extremely impatient. The 
distance [between us] being considerable, you should bring- along with 
you as great a force as possible.^ By the grace of God, we shall make 
you such appointments, in Jageers and money, as shallbe entirely 
satisfactory to that friend. 

The rosary, kneeling-carpet,*'-) &c., whicli you sent us as tokens of 
friendship, arrived, and afforded us the utmost pleasure. Although, by 
the bounty of the Almighty, we possess an inconceivable number of 
worldly curiosities,(^> yet these, being religious rarities,^^^ are esteemed by 
us equally with the richest treasures.<^> 

It was our wish and intention to have sent that friend a dress, toge- 
ther with some jewels, &c. ; but we have been prevented from doing so, 
by the Hurkdrehs having declined to take charge of them, on account of 
the dangers of the road. 


I have no certain knowledge who Sumsamul Mulk was. The interchange of 
presents, spoken of in the letter, rather discountenances the idea of his being a 
disaffected Omra of the court o^ Hyderabad ; since a correspondence of that sort 
could hardly have escaped detection, and is not likely, therefore, to have been 
hazarded, during the existence of actual hostilities between the two states. The 
same objection applies to the supposition of bis belonging to the train of Dariijah 
(the son of the late Busalut Jung, and nephew of the Soitbah) who, at this period, 

2 O held 

(1) Witli a view to rendering liis junction the more secure. 

(2) Original ijjs" tlic carpet on wiiicli Musuliiians kneel during prayers. 

(3) Original ^yji^[^ 

(4) Original ^li iAsL 

(5) Original .xi <it— jb tuUix;.* jl 


held Adoni in appenage. The former conjecture is further opposed, by the consi- 
deration, that none of the memoirs of Nizam A\i Khan, in my possession, notice 
the defection of this, or any other person of distinction, from his service, during 
the present war. But whoever this SumsamiU Mulk was, it is probable that his 
negociation with the Sultan proved abortive, since we hear no more of him after 
this time. 

To Meer KAzim, Darogua at Muscat, same Date. (24th April.') 

Three letters from you, accompanied by two statements of your 
receipts and disbursements, have passed under our view. 

You have done well, in buying and lading on our ships, rock-salt,^') 
instead of sapphires.^^) 

For the future, you will, in like manner, send rock-salt instead of 

The carpenters [or ship-wrights] at Muscat construct very excellent 
Dows and D'mgies. You must advance to four or five of these carpen- 
ters whatever money they may require for their expences, and dispatch 
them to the port of Mangalore. 

The factory of Muscat is placed under the authority of Ghulam 
Mahommed, the Aumil of Mangalore : you are, therefore, to conduct 
all affairs according to his directions, and not to require our orders in 
any case. 


(IJ Original Jjjk clCw " >ock, or mineral salt." 

(2) Original Jj (JJu«j " sapphire stone." If this term have any other meaning than 
that assigned to it, I am unacquainted with it ; and yet this esplanution is not free of diffi- 



Send some young date-trees/^) with persons skilled in the management 
of them, to the Presence. Buy all the sulphur you can, and lading it 
on our vessels, dispatch the same from time to time.'^^ 

Ghulam All KhA,n, Shilh Nooriillah, &c. have, by our orders, pro- 
ceeded to Constantinople, by the way of 3Xuscat. Advise us, in due 
time, of their arrival. 

You must take care and sell the sandal wood, black pepper, rice, and 
cardamums, belonging to us, to the best advantage, sending an account 
of your sales and purchases regularly to Ghulam Mahommed. 

The accounts of receipts and disbursements, which you sent, are 
arrived. [This had been already mentioned, in the beginning of the 
present letter]. 

Saffron is the produce of Persia, Procure and send us some of the 
seed of it. 

Get the Dulldl [broker] to write to his agents in different places, to 
collect silk-worms, and persons acquainted with the manner of rearing 
them : and [having procured them] let them be dispatched to us.<^> 

Procuring, moreover, some [pearl] divers from Bahrein and Hoor- 
milz ; and making them whatever advances they may require for their 
expences, dispatch them hither, together with their families. 

Sending, likewise, to Btlstakh, and getting from thence five large 
asses, dispatch them to us. 

We have received your account of the occurrences of that quarter 
and of Persia. Continue to make similar communications. 

We have given directions to Ghidam Mahommed [the Aumil of Man- 
galore'] to sell rice, &c. to every merchant producing a certificate \chitty'] 

from you. 

2 O 2 

(3) Original ^^^,^ y\<J.. 

(4) Oiigiiial jc„i\j ijL^^ 

(5) The instructions oi x.\\c Sultan io the Meer-Asofs or revenue department (issued in 
i793) contain particular regulations respecting the culture of the silk-worm. 



It will probably have been observed by the reader, that several of the Sultan's 
former orders are repeated in the foregoing letter, for the second, and some of 
them for the third time. He will, hereafter, be seen to reiterate them again. 

It may be inferred, from the seventh paragraph of the present letter, that the 
embassy to Const ayitinople had, at this time, actually departed from Mangalore. 


To Ghulam Mahommed, Aumil of Mangalore ; same Date. 

(24th Apriir) 

We send herewith three letters, and tvj^o statements of receipts and 
disbursements, received from Meer Kazim : read and keep them care- 
fully by you. 

You are to sell rice, &c. [freely] to every merchant from Mtiscat, 
who brings you a chitti/ [or certificate] from Meer Kazim. 

The above-mentioned [i. e. Meer Kazim] instead of sapphires, has 
bought and sent on our vessels a quantity of rock-salt. What sort of a 
thing is the said rock-salt : and is there any consumption of it in this 
countiy or not ? Communicate [to us] every particular regarding it.. 
Meer Kazim writes, that he has sent a sample of it : let the said sample 
be forwarded to us. 


It would appear, from the beginning of Letter CCLVIII, that Meer Kazim 
had actually dispatched some cargoes of rock-salt ; while, fi-om the concluding 
sentence of Letter CCLIX it might be inferred, that he had sent only a sample 
of it. However this might be, it is curious enough to observe the Sultan, in one 



and the same moment, enquiring the nature of the commodity in question ; 
acknowledging himself ignorant, whether or not there was any demand for it 
among his subjects ; and yet directing it to be shipped for Mysore, by every 



(29th April.) 

We have received your application for letters from us to the Jumaaddrs 
of the enemy's army. We shall arrive soon in person in that quarter, 
when, considering this matter duly, we will give our directions £or 
determine] accordingly. 

You request to know our pleasure regarding the pay of your brother, 
who has heen lately raised to the rank of a Risdladdr. The monthly pay 
of that rank, according to the former regulations of the Jyshe Kuckurry, 
is ten pagodas, exclusive of an allowance of twelve annas fulmy^^^ for 
every man mustered.^-^ Let him be paid accordingly. 


This letter affords another proof of the strange division of tlie military authority 
in the armies of the Sidtun. We here perceive a subordinate officer corresponding 
directly with his sovereign, upon a point of considerable delicacy and importance, 
which apparently belonged, in a peculiar manner, to the jirovince of the com- 
mander-in-chief (Burhunuddecn). It is true, that the Sultan does not adopt the 
suggestion of the Sipahddr ; but neither does he hint, that there was any irregu- 
larity in it. 

I am 

(1) Original ^jiij ij] is.ij\^Jij ^ 

(2) Perhaps recruited may be meant. 


I am bv no means satisfied, that I have correctly translated the paragraph 
relating to the pay of Syed Gliuffiir's brother. Either the original is extremely 
perj)lcxe(l, or I may not rightly have understood its technical phraseology. 



To BuRHANDL DDEEN ; dolcd 2Gth Ahmedy. (\st Moy.') 

We have received your letter, informing us, " that having dctaclicd 
" Shaikh Unser and Syed Ghuftar to the relief of Kit too)-, the former, 
*' taking a different road [from that pursued by Syed Ghuffar], had 
" fallen^') upon the enemy's entrenchments, and after putting to the 
*' sword, or taking prisoners, a thousand of their Piddehs, had entered 
*' Kittoor : that Syed Ghuftar, having proceeded by another route, had 
" attacked a small fort [or redoubt], in which the enemy had placed a 
*' garrison of five hundred men, the whole of which were either killed 
*' or made prisoners : that after this he surprised, in the night, a 

picquet of the enemy, consisting of a thousand horse, of great part of 
" which he made booty ,(-^ and then got [in safety] to Kittoor : finally, 
'* that having infused due confidence into the garrison, and supplied the 
" place with provisions and stores, both Sipahddrs, uniting their forces, 
" directed their march back by a road leading through the woods ; and 
" that you expected them to rejoin the victorious army in the course of 
" twenty-four hours. You proceed to state, " that as soon as they 
" arrive, you will muster the horses [taken], and report the same to 
*' us ;" and you add, " that the Kuzzdk [or predatory] cavalry, 
*' belonging to the Sircar, are constantly bringing in horses taken from 
*' the enemy, which, agreeably to our orders, you purpose relinquishing 
" to them. 


(1) Original j\sil (_aIUr«<iJ»-^J 

(2) Original i.\j^ ei ^*^-^J\-tr.> ' J^- •\ " brought away in booty /!HWi«/c« horses." 


It is known. Upon the two Siphaddrs rejoining you, you must ascer- 
tain, and report to us in detail, the particulars of the gallant behaviour 
of our troops [in the recent engagements] ; in order that we may give 
directions for their being rewarded [according to their deserts]. State, 
likewise, what number of horses liave been taken from the enemy. 

You write, " that seven hundred Piadehs from N^ugr, with a Serish- 
*' teddr, and the Kikuiddr Husainy Baig, had arrived in your camp, foi- 
" the purpose of garrisoning Killoor, and that you had accordingly 
" dispatched the men and the Serisliteddr ; but that Husainy Baig being 
" too ill to proceed thither at present, should be sent as soon as he 
" recovered."(^> You moreover say, " that it is your intention to send 
" back to Dhdrivdr Ghous Mahommed Khan, the second Mimshoor^^^ of 
" that place." 

You uuist keep Husainy Baig with your army, and send Ghous 
Mahommed Khan, who has distinguished himself by his activity at 
Dhdncdr, to [command at] K'Utoor. 

Report to us the particulars of all who have exerted themselves, in 
order that we may bestow rewards on them alsoS^^ 

You must inform the aforesaid Mun^hoor, Ghous Mahommed, and 
Sheer Khrm, the jlumil [of KHtoor\ that if they should find the place 
untenable, or in want of provisions and other supplies, they must not 
sacrifice our troops in its defence, but evacuating it, repair through tlie 
woods to the army : for it is hut a mound of cluy, the existence and 
non-existence of which is the same thing \_i. e. is of no importance either 

(3) The original is very obscure in this place, owing, apparently to the omission of two 
or three worcN, by supplying which the passage is rendered intelligible. IlCisainy Baig seems 
to have been proceeding to Kittoor, as Kilaaddr of that place. 

(4) A Munslioor would appear to have been a kind of town- major, or foi t adjutant. 

(5) This appears to be no more than a repetition of the order given in the second para- 
graph of this letter. 



It is uncertain whether tlie enemy, here spoken of, was the Mahrattah army, 
or only an assemblage of the adherents of the captive Daisi/e, which had attempt- 
ed to regain possession of Kittoor. The circumstance, however, of apicquet of a 
thousand horse, renders the former supposition the most probable. 

The Sultan appears to have been well satisfied with the conduct of his troops on 
this occasion : and if their success was really so extensive as represented by Bur- 
hanuddeen, he had reason to be so. But his report (as recited in the letter before 
us) is expressed in too vague and general terms, to be considered as decisive evidence 
on this point. 


To the some ; dated 2'Jth Ahmedy. (2d May^ 

After some orders for completing- the different Risdias of the army as 
speedily as possible, and for filling up the vacancies in the rank of Risdla- 
ddr, the letter thus concludes : — 

A Eisdiaddr [formerly] belonging to the Bisdla of General Matthews 
has been sent to join you from the Presence. What you write, with 
regard to our issuing orders for your being supplied with the musquets 
you are in want of, is understood. We shall shortly arrive in that quarter, 
when the necessary orders will be given. 


To DiLEER Khan Behadur Dileer Jung^^') dated 28tk Ahmehy. 

(3d Mai/.) 

[After compliments] You write, " that it is now the 

" sowing season, and that, on this occasion, as well as for the purpose 


(1) The minister of Abdul Hiikcem Khan, the Nabob of Shdnoor. 


" of realizing the claims of the Sircar, the presence of Mulhary Pundit 
" and of his son is a matter of the utmost consequence ; and that you, 
" therefore, request we Avill revoke our orders for their attending upon 
" us, and allow you to send Ram Rao, Tummana Pundit, and Winkut 
" Riio, along with Rakhundcr Niiik, in their room." It is known. 

Inasmuch as it is, on several accounts, necessary, at this time, that 
the ahove named, with whom we have certain points to discuss, should 
repair to our Presence, we must repeat our former desire, that the zvhole 
of your managing servants^-^ may be dispatched to us, along with Rak- 
hunder Naik. The negociation [or discussions alluded to] being termi- 
nated, they shall receive their dismission [?'. e. be permitted to return to 


It may be concluded, both from the reluctance of the Patau chief to send Mul- 
hary Pundit and his son to Serlngapatam, and the pertinacity of tlie Sultan in 
requiring tlieir attendance, that these persons were particularly well acquainted with 
the resources of the country, and perhaps with the personal property of their master, 
both of which, there is reason to think, Tippoo had, at tliis time, devoted to 
confiscation. I am unable to say, whether or not the individuals in question ulti- 
matelyrepaired to the Sultans court ; but as Abdul Hukeem had most probably 
already determined not to wait the arrival of the Sultan at SMnoor, it may be 
presumed that they were not dispatched. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; samt' Date. (3d 71/f/y.) 

You must relinquish [or give up] whatever horses and camels may be 
taken from the enemy to the captors, of whom you will buy as many of 

2 P theui 

(2) Original JJ^\ '« Men of business." 


them as they themselves may not want, at a cheap and reasonable price, 
which is to be paid(') to them [immediately]. They must not be allowed 
to sell them elsewhere/^) 

The Jiimaaddrs, who happen to have brcthren^^) with them that are out 
of employ, should be directed to mount the latter on the captured horses, 
and bring them to be mustered and enrolled in our service. 

We lately sent orders to you to withdraw the garrison of the small fort 
of Kiitoor,^^^ and direct it to rejoin your army by the road through the 
woods. We now write to countermand those orders, and to desue, that 
you will send such supplies of provisions, &c. to the said fort, as it may 
be in need of; for we shall shortly come in person to that quarter, and 
the enemy, moreover, have retired from thence. 


It is uncertain whether by the small fort oi Kittoor, the Sultan means the principal 
fortress of that name, lately wrested from the Daisye, or only an outwork or 
detached post ; such as that mentioned in Letter CCLXJ, as having been taken 
by Syed Ghuffar, on his coming to the relief of Kittoor ; or the small fort noticed 
in the report of Burhanuddeen, contained in Letter CCLXL 

I rather think, however, that Kittoor itself is the place intended ; both because 
it is, on other occasions, sometimes called a ajjj and sometimes a x^ and because 
the provisional order for its evacuation, contained in Letter CCLXI (and which is pro- 
bably the order alluded to in the present dispatch) appears free from all ambiguity. 


(1) The order for ;>tjj/m«!/ may appear to be superfluous after that oi purchasing ; but it 
must be recollected, that yayjn^ did not, \n Tippoo's practice, necessarily follow buying. 
See Letter CCLV. 

(2) Original ^j-j or, " without" /. e. to strangers. 

(3) Original cfplji °^i " '"®" ^^ *^''" °^^" tribe," following them in hopes of employ- 

(4) Original j^^ the diminutive of iul> 

(5) By Letter CLXIX it appears, that Kittoor consisted of two forts (or castles), and a 
Paith, or outer town. 




Circular to the following Persons ; dated from Muloong,^^^ 

BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; 

The Kazy of NuGR ; 

Tile Dewan of ditto. 

The I>EirAN and Bukhshy of 


TJie ditto and ditto, at Fyze Hi- 
SAR, (GootyJ ; 

Tlie ditto and ditto, at the Presence. 

The BuKiisiiY of ditto, at Ban- 
galore ; 

NuBBY Shah, Son-in-law to 
Aata-ullah-Shah ; 

BuDHUN Shah, son of Awkil 
Shah ; 

The Kazy of Serjngapatam ; 

The Dejfan and Bukhshy ofJLn- 


ramcooxdaJ ; 


BvlhJryJ ; 
The ditto of Serixgapatam ; 
The DE/rAN, andDowLVT Khan, 

the KilaadAr, of FurrukH" 


The KiLAADAR ■ of Fyze Hisar 

(^Gooty) ; 
The BuKHSHiES of the two Jyshe 


The BuKHSHiES of the five Bar- 


Bu rhanuddeen ; 

MiRZA Hyder Husain ; 

DiLEER DiL Khan; 

The FoujDAR and Bukhshy of 

Ehsham at Calicut; 
Syed Ahmed Saheb ; 
The Kazy of Bangalore ; 

The Umldar^^^ of Manga lore. 

In the time of the seal [or last] of the Prophets (with Avhom be the 
blessing and peace of God) the divine commands were promulgcd. Since 

2 P 2 then 

( 1 ) I am not clear that I read this. name rightly. No such place occurs in our maps ; but 
it cannot be far distant from Bangalore, and must be situated between that place and Great 

(2) In the original Jj Ac or <• stanJard-bearer," which I take to be an error of the 
transcriber for ^bj.^ A " collector or manager of a district." 


then, owing to the decline of the true faith under the succeeding princes, 
they have ceased to be promulged : wc, therefore, witli the help of 
Almighty God, now issue the aforesaid commands ; and, accordingly, 
the above mentioned commands are enclosed, herewith, under our seal 
and signature, to serve as a guide to the true faith. 

You are, in the best [possible] manner to explain the same to all the 
people of Isldm, to the Kdzy,^'^'^ and to the other superiors of your 
Kuchurry [or department], considering the communication thereof to 
the ignorant as one of the most incumbent and obligatory duties of 
religion : for such is the recompence of holy war.W 

You must cause numerous copies of the commands herewith sent to be 
made, and must distribute the same among the people of the faith, the 
Kdzies and others belonging to your department, to the end that they 
may obtain the utmost publicity. 


Nothing can be worse written than the original of this miserable circular. 
Though short, it is, perhaps, as perplexed a production as any that ever })rocccded 
from the pen of the Sultan, who, most probably, dictated every word of it. The 
proclamation to which it refers, and which immediately follows it in my manu- 
script, is in a better style, and was, no doubt, drawn up by some of the Mahom- 
medan theologians of his court. 

A translation of the proclamation here mentioned, appeared, in the year 1793> 
in the Appendix to Major Dirom's judicious and interesting Narrative of Lord 
Cornwallis's last Campaign against Tippoo Sultan ; and if that publication were 


(3) Here, instead of the Kdzy being directed to explain the divine word to true believers, 
as minht have been expected, the governors of forts, &.c. are to explain it, buth to the 
Kdzy and to the people at large. 

(4) Original ci^y^^ j\p.j^\ ^«isH^ <s^ I confess I do not clearly perceive the connexion 
between this and the preceding sentence. 


not now become very scarce, it would be sufficient, perhaps, to refer the reader 
toil, for the document in question: it is proper, however, to observe, that the 
Persian original, from which Colonel Read's translation was taken, appears to have 
differed, in some respects, from the copy recorded in the official register. Of the 
latter the following is a faithful version, for which I am, in a great measure, 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. Stewart, Persian, Arabic, and Hindostany 
Professor at the Honorable the East-India Company's Oriental College at Hertford. 
The original abounds so much in quotations from the Koran, and my knowledge of 
the Arabic is so limited, that, without such assistance, I should have hesitated at 
submitting a translation of it to the reader. 

Proclamation, or Manifesto, of Tlppoo SultanJ^'' 

" Whereas, in conformity with the commands of God and the Prophet 

" [which say] , 

" ' Fight with those who do not believe in God, and in the 

" ' last day ; and who do not consider those things as un- 

" ' lawful, which God and his Propliet have prohibited, 

" ' and profess not the true religion ; and [fight] with those, 

" ' unto whom the scriptures have been given, until they pay 

" ' tribute by right of subjection, and be reduced low.' w 

. . . . " it is our constant object and sincere intention, that those worthless and 

*' stiff-necked infidels, who have turned aside their heads from obedience to the 

" true believers, and openly raised the standards of infidelity, should be chastised 

" by the hands of the faithful, and made either to acknowledge the true religion, 

" or to pay tribute: particularly at this time, when, owing to the imbecility of 

" the princes of Hind, that insolent race having conceived the futile opinion, tliat 

" the true believers are become weak, mean, and contemptible ; and not satisfied 

" even with this, but, preparing for war, have over-run and laid waste the 

" territories of the Moslems, and extended the hand of violence and injustice on 

" the property and honour of the faithful. 


(5) There is no title or inscription to this document in tlic manuscript. 

(6) Chapter IX of the Koran. 


" [Wherefore] we, trusting to the divine power and aid, and supported by 

" our holy rehgion [according to the passage] .-wi^_ 

*' ' Oh true beUevers, shall I show you a merchandize, which 
" * will deliver you from a painful torment [hereafter] ? 
*' ' Believe in God and his Apostle, and defend God's true 
** * religion with your substance and in your persons. This 
•* * [will be] better for you, if you knew it. He will forgive 
*' * you your sins, and introduce you into gardens, through 
" * which rivers flow, and agreeable habitations in places of 
" 'perpetual abode. This [will be] great felicity; and [ye 
" ' shall obtain] other things which you desire, [namely] 
*' ' assistance from God and a speedy victory.'"' 
. . . . " having come to the resolution of prosecuting a holy war [against them],- 

*' deem it expedient [agreeably to the text] ,, , 

" ' Command them to do that which is lawfiil [proper], and 

" ' prohibit their doing that which is unlawful ; and observe 

" * the ordinances of God.' 

. . . . " to make known what is the pure Mahommcdan law, to all and every class 

" of Musulmans, both far and near, and thereby to extract the cotton of negli- 

" gence from the ears of their understanding : and more especially those persons 

" who, unmindful of the meaning of the sacred text, 

" ' Do not obey the unbelievers and hypocrites, for certainly 
" * God is omniscient and all-wise.' 
. . . . " have yielded obedience to the infidels, and engaged in the service of those 
" miserable tribes. It is therefore written to all those who reside in the dominions 

" of the infidels, 

" ' They seek to deceive God and those who do believe ; but 
" ' they deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. 
" * There is an infirmity in tlieir hearts. May God increase 

" ' theiv 

(7) Chapter LXI of the Koran. 


" ' their infirmity ! They shall suffer a grievous punishmentj 
" ' because they have been guilty of falsehood.''" 
. . . " and to whose situation the [above] verse may be justly applied, that con- 
" sidering it to be their indispensable duty to quit the territories of the unbelievers, 
" they should repair, with confident hearts and assured minds, to these parts, 
" where, by the Divine blessing, they shall be still better provided for than they 
" are at present, and their lives, honor, and property, remain under the protec- 
" tion of God ; while such as are without the means of subsistence there, shall 
" have a suitable allowance made to them here. 

" We have accordingly issued premptory ordei"s throughout our dominions to 
" this effect : ' Receive into your protection all persons seeking refuge [in our 
" * territories] and report to the Presence the particulars of their situation, in 
" * order that, if it please God the Aider, due provision may be made for them.' 

" Whosoever shall refuse to give ear to these words, or shall contravene their 
" promulgation, shall be considered as destitute of [every particle of] honor [or 
" zeal], as a stranger to [or no participator in] the bliss derived from [a steady] faith, 
" and as deserving to be banished from the presence of God, to be excluded from 
" the circle of the faithful, and to be accounted as one of the accursed infidels. 

Verse from HqfizJ^^ 
" ' If you place your foot in the path of the law and of religion, HaBz, 
" ' In reward for your zeal, the Chief of Nujuf [Ali] will become your Protector. 
" ' Let them not say of any thing [or on any occasion] I will 
" * do so; but, if it please God [it shall be done]. Grace be 
" * to him who follows this direction.*'"^ 
Although it is probable, that the immediate object of the Sultan, in the foregoing 
proclamation, or manifesto, was to seduce from their allegiance, and draw over to 


(8) Chapter II of the Koran. 

(9) This is not an exact quotation from Hafiz, the original having, instead of ^Oj tjA Sj 
'• the path of the law and of religion," jJ^ai ^IJuU- tj " the path of the family or race of 
'* alms-givers." 

(10) This sentence is supposed by Mr. Stewart to be a Hndccs, or one of the tradiiionary 
wyings attributed to Mahommcd. 



his standard, the Musuhnan subjects of the two powers, with whoin he was, at 
this time, at open war, yet there can be but httle doubt that the Enghsh, together 
with their dependants and tributaries, were also in his contemplation on the 
occasion. It is true, that the latter is not expressly named : neither are the 
RIahrattahs nor the Nizdm. Indeed, with regard to the Nizdm, he could not 
have been distinctly referred to without an apparent absurdity, since he was a 
Mahommedan as well as Tippoo ; who, nevertheless, certainly regarded him in the 
light of an infidel, because he had, more than oncCj associated with infidels against 
the cause of Islam, that is to say, in opposition to him (Tippoo). The argument, 
therefore, was addressed generally to ail Musulmans, in whatever manner subject 
to the enemies, direct or indirect, of the true faith. There was no danger of its 
not being properly applied and understood by those for whom it was intended : no 
Musulman is ever at a loss to comprehend the drift of such appeals. At the same 
time, if any exception had been taken to it by the English, the vague and general 
terms in which it is expressed would have enabled him to maintoin, with sufficient 
plausibility, that he had only in view such Musulmans as were living under the 
authority of those with whom he was actually at war. 

There is one passage in the foregoing production, which appears to point more 
particularly than any other to the English. It is that wherein he complains, not, 
as in Major Dirom's translation, of ravages committed in fiis peculiar territories, 
but (according to my copy of this paper) of the injuries and losses which the 
Musulmans in general had sustained at the hands of the infidels ; alluding distantly 
-(as on other occasions he has done more openly) to our establishment in Bengal, 
the Carnatic, and other Mahommedan states of India. On the whole, it must 
be allowed, that the extensive views of aggrandizement, entertained at this time 
hy the Sultan, are abundantly developed by this curious document. 



To the Commandant, Abdul Nubby ;^'> dated 29th Ahmedy. 

(4th Ma?/.') 

On the subject of liis repairing to the Presence, together with the 
Sepoys belonging to liini (or such Sepoys as he may be enabled to 
bring with him), in perfect confidence and secm'ity : and assuring him, 
that he should be provided for after his arrival, agreeably to the regula- 
tions and appointments of the Sircar. 


To Ali Rajah Beeby ; same Date. (Ath May.') 

Desiring her to transmit incessantly intelligence of what passes at 
JBombay and Tdlicherry. 


To Ghulam Munsoor, Aumil of SiLcoTAH ;('*) dated \st BeuJhy. 

(5th May.) 

Your letter, reporting, " that the Jumaaddr, Syed Ameen, had 
" beat the Bukhnhy, Nuwaz Baig, in such a manner, as to occasion the 
" death of the latter ; and that you had [in consequence] secured the 

2 Q " aforesaid 

( 1 ) Probably the commandant of a corps of regular Sepoys, either in the service of the 
Mahrattalis or of the Aizdi?i. 

(1*) Tins letter serves, in some degree, to mark the prorjrcss of tlie,yM//a7t'i march against 
Adoni. He had advanced, on the 6th May, as far as Great Balapoor. 


" aforesaid Jumaaddr, by putting irons oa his legs and arms," has 
passed under our view. 

Our special retinue will arrive the day after to-morrow at Great 
Balopoor. Securing his [i. e. the murderer's] legs and arms well in 
fetters/') you must place him in a Dooly, and bring him along with 
yourself, under a strong guard, to the Presence. 


To FuzL Ali Khan ; same Date. (5th Moy.^ 

The report which you have sent us, of the gallant conduct of our 
troops, and of the men wounded [in the late actions], is known [or has 
been considered]. Let the wounded receive the compensation fixed by 
our regulations ; and let the horses, and other property taken [from the 
€nemy], be relinquished, according to the orders of the Sircar, to the 
captors [literally, to those who bring them in.~p^ 


To the SiPAHDAR, Mahommed Ali ; same Dale, (^th May^ 

When we ourself arrive in that quarter, the Risdla, tvantmg to com- 
plete your Kushoon, shall be given you. 


This short letter is given, merely for the purpose of showing, in some degree, 
the constitution of a Kushoon. It appears, by this document, that a Risdla was 

a com- 

( 1 ) This had been ah-eady done. 

(2) I have no means of ascertaining wlio Fuzl Ali Khan was, or whether or not he was one 
of the commanders serving under BOrhanQddeen. 


a component part of a Kusltoo/i : but how many of the former were contained in a 
Ku.shoon, I do not clearly know. I am inclined to think, however, that a /TM^/iOtfn 
was a regiment, consisting of two or more Risdlas, or battalions.'" 


To BuRHiVNuDDEKN ; dated 2d Behary. (Qth May.') 

Your letter has been received A rupture has taken place between 
Nizam Ali Khan and the enemy [?'. e. the Mahrattahs], in consequence 
of some pecuniary discussions ; and this has been followed by the afore- 
said Khdns marching away, to the distance of six coss on the other side 
of [^or beyond] Bdddmy. 

We shall shortly relieve both Bdddmy and Bamdoorg in a fit manner 
[i. e. effectually]. Do you [in the mean while] keep your mind at ease. 
You did right in giving up [or resigning] the captured horses and cattle 
[to the captors]. You must do the same thing in future. 


It is certain, that the Nizdm separated about this time from the Mahrattah 
army, and returned to Hyderabad. The measure, however, is ascribed, in 
such memoirs of this period as I have seen, simply to the inconvenience which 
Ris Highness suffered from the heat of the weather. He is stated to have 
left, at the same time, a considerable body of troops, for the purpose of co- 
operating with his allies. 

The Sultan did not fulfil his promise, respecting the refief of Bdddmy, as the 
Mahrattahs obtained possession of that place some time in the month of May. 

2 Q 2 

(1) Since wiiting the above, I liavc met willi some statements of the military establish- 
ments of Tippoo Sultan, which liavc onubied me. to givo llie general ick-a of tlicm, inserted 
ill the Appendix. 


To Meer Kazim, JDarogha at Muscat : same Date. (Qth May.^ 

The rock-salt, of which you sent a sample (see Letter CCLVIII,) 
is very fine : you must, therefore, buy a large quantity of it, and lading 
it on the return Dhigies belonging to the Sircar, which have carried 
thither rice for sale, consign the same, from time to time, to the Aum'd 
of Mangalore, to whom you are also to transmit an account of its cost. 

We are anxious to procure^'^ some seed of the saffron plant, silk- 
worms, young date trees, almonds and pistachio plants, shipwrights,^-^ 
and pearl divers. Get these [men] together, and entertaining them in 
our service, dispatch them to us, together with proper persons for taking- 
care of the young plants, &c. 

We have already written, desiring you to purchase pearls. They must 
be large and brilliant,^') and [in short] of the finest kind.(^> Buy them 
[at as] cheap [a price as you can] and dispatch them to us. 


To Meer Moaayenuddeen ; same Date. (Gth Mat/.') 

In addition to the force already attached to you, four other Kmhoom, 
viz. Mahommed Huleem's, Rujub All's, Shaikh Omar's, and Ahmed 
Baig's, are ordered to join you At the end of to-morrow's march [and, 
for the future] you must encamp these four Kushootis in the form of a 


(1) Original ^\jjj^jy^j^ " arc required, or necessary, at the Presence." 

(2) Original jL.j*j^^l^U^ " carpenters, who construct <foa'5." 

(3) Original J^sA " liaving a [fine] water." 

(4) Original ^ " very good, best." 

TirPOO SUI. TAN. 301 

squarc/"^^ within [or in the centre of] which you are yourself regularly 
to take post. 

We have moreover appointed Mahommed Kiizini and Yenket Rao, 
the Serishteddr of the Ji/she, to these four Kushoons .('') and, finally, 
you will be further re-inforced by the Risdla of Behrdm, and some other 
troops, both horse and foot, under the command of Mohyixddeen Khiin. 


I am not certain who Moaayenuddcen was ; but I have an indistinct notion 
that he was related to the Sidttin. Be this as it may, he would appear, by the 
foregoing letter, to have been an officer of high command and trust. The order 
of encampment, here prescribed to him, was to be observed, it seems, from the 
time of the army's arriving at Great Balapoor. Whether or not this disposition 
was made with any particular view to guarding against a sudden attack, I am 
unable to determine. It is not probable, however, that the Sultan had any 
expectation of encountering an enemy on his present line of march. 


To Bl RHANLDDEEN ; dcitcd 5th Behary. (9th Mai/.') 
Your letter, enclosing one addressed to that light of our eyes by the 
Kilaaddr of Bdddmy,^^'> has been received, and the particulars repre- 
sented therein have become manifest. You must give orders to the 
country people*-^ to he vigilant and careful. You, too, must conduct 
yourself with caution. We enclose a plan, on paper, of the manner in 
which your army is to encamp : let this he copied on parchment, and 
let your army he always encamped agreeably thereto. 

(b) Original \^^4^J^. " on tlic four sides " [of your ground]. 

(6) Ic docs not appear, in wliat capacity these two were to serve. 

(1) Bddd my was at this time besieged by the Mahrattahs. 

(2) Original ^\^CSl< a phrase whieli I do not recollect to have met with elsewhere. 



It is to be regretted, that the plan, here spoken of, has not been preserved, 
along with the letter referring to it, as it would have illustrated the Sultan's ideas 
on the particular branch of tactics in question, better than any other document 
that has hitherto appeared. It is, no doubt, probable that the Futkiil Miijdhideen 
would throw considerable light on the subject. ^'' 

It is remarkable, that in the foregoing short letter, the Sultan, though, in 
general, sparing of such proofs of kindness, applies no less than three different 
expressions of endearment to Bilrhanviddeen ; whom, in the first place, he styles 
Noor-chushm (light of my eyes), in another Sanditt-nishdn (marked for happi- 
ness), and lastly, Burhhoar-ddr (equivalent to darling). These endearing epithets 
can hardly be supposed, in the instance of Tippoo Sultan, to have proceeded from 
genuine affection or attachment ; and may, therefore, perhaps, be more safely 
referred, either to some temporary caprice or fit of good humour ; or, otherwise, 
to some political consideration, which might have suggested to him, at the 
moment, the expediency of assuming a more conciliatory manner towards his 
brother-in-law, than was probably usual with him. 


To Meer Ghulam Mohyuddeen, Kilaadar of Kvxjungood, or 
KvNcuvNGVREH ; dated "Jth JBeiiJry. (llthMoT/.") 

Do you remain, in all respects, firm and tranquil ;^') nor entertain, on 
any account, the least fear. Let us know, what force the enemy has in 
that neighbourhood, and in what situations it is posted. Be particular in 
stating the strength and position [of every division], and the names of 
the several places which they occupy. Take, also, special care, that 


(3) Since writing the above passage, I have had an opportunity of consulting the Futlml 
Mujuhidecn ; in which, however, I have hitherto met witii iiotliing on the subject of castra- 

(1) Original ^-.tJirt " tranquil, assured, confident." 


neither your receipt of this dispatch, nor its contents, become kno^A'll to 
any one. 


This is almost the only letter in the present collection, of those written to the 
Sultavs own servants, which has what is called an Ulkdb, or address. I conclude, 
from hence, that he was not in the habit of using this formulary, excepting on 
particular occasions, like the present, '■' when this sort of compliment might be 
intended to operate as a stimulus to extraordinary exertion ; nor is it improbable, 
that the endearing expressions applied to Burhanuddeen, in Letter CCLXXIV, 
were employed with a similar view. 

The Ulkdb, or address, used on the present occasion, is ilJcuOj^j ti-iji which 
may be rendered " brave and intrepid Sir." This, when contrasted \vith the 
exhortation to courage immediately following, has rather a ludicrous effect. 

It might be inferred, from the tcn6r of the orders contained in this dispatch, 
that it was in the contemplation of the Sultan to beat up the Mahrattah quarters 
in the vicinity of Kunchungood. Whether or not such an enterprise was attempted, 
I am unable to determine. 


To Mahommed Mehdy, Bukhshy of the Ehsham at Seria^gapatjm ; 
dated lOth Behary. (I4th Mat/.) 

You must not suffer any one to come to your house ; and whatever 
business you may have to do, let it be transacted in our Kuchurri/. If, 
nevertheless, people should persist in coming to your liouse, they shall 
be deprived of their ears and nosesJ^^ Pay strict attention to this order. 


(2) Kunjwigood was, at tliis time, seriously menaced, if not al)solutcly invested by tiie 
enemy. It is situated on the east bank of the Tungbudhra, and about twenty miles west of 

(1) Original j.i Juiil^jj Jwk ^^xj ^. (_^^jl This is a curious idiom, the words literally 
meaning, that ti>c ears and noses of the oilenders «' should be dispensed with, or excused." 


It Is surprising to us, that you should act in opposition to your instruc- 
tions. Perhaps you have laid them by in the niche of forgetfulness ; ^^> 
and to this may be owing your present contravention of our will and 
pleasure. Consider what is here said as a strict injunction. 


This order, if understood literally, would amount to the exclusion of every 
person from the habitation of the Buhhshy, who might occasionally have private 
business with him : but thougli the regulation, directing all public affairs to be 
transacted in open Kuchurry, and no where else, was rigidly enforced by the 
Sultan, it can hardly be supposed, that it was meant to extend to the mutual 
intercourse necessary in the conduct of personal or domestic concerns."' It is not 
difficult to comprehend the Sultan's motives for a prohibition of the kind under 
consideration : but, with respect to the punishment appointed for its infraction, it 
may be presumed, in the absence of any proof of its ever being actually inflicted, 
that it was held out only in terrorem. 


Circular, dated IQUiBehary. (I4th Mai/') to 

The Sons o/'Shaikhun Saheb, and 
MusEEM^'> Saheb Cthe Nepheto 
of the ahove-namedj at Beeja- 

Ghvlam Husain, at Avrvnga- 

SAD ; 

SuJJAD Saheb and Ibn Saheb, at 

Hyderabad ; poor. 

[After compliments] Our mind is most anxious for the attain- 
ment of the benefit of an interview with you : but as ail events have their 


(2) See the same expression, Letter CCXVIII. 

(3) The instructions to the Intelligence Department, given in Appendix F, prove, at least, 
that no private visiting or conversation was suffered between men of any note or station. The 
proliihition did noi probably extend to the lower order. 

(1) Name uncertain. 

T I r r o o s u L T A. N. 305 

appointed times, wc, in tlio meanwhile, trouble your reverence with the 
present address, in the confidence that, turning your mind, in an especial 
manner, to the means of promoting the prosperity and advantage of the 
people of Is/dm, and of overthrowing the unrighteous Infidels, you wall 
do whatever may be in your power, to encrease the lustre of the firm 
religion of Mahommed. 

Actuated by similar motives, the persons most distinguished here for 
virtue and excellence, have extracted from the traditions, theological 
tracts, and commentaries, certain religious doctrines, a copy of which 
we enclose for your benevolent notice. We request of your reverence, 
also, to assist the cause, by your admonitions to the faithful ; to all of 
whom we feel an earnest desire of extending that protection and support, 
which we possess the means, no less than the wish, of bestowing upon 


No doubt, the proclamation, or manifesto, at page 293, is the enclosure here 
referred to, and which, hitherto, had probably been circulated only in the terri- 
tories dependent on Mi/sore. But as the chief design of the Sultan, in that 
address, was to draw to his standard the Musulman subjects of other states^ and 
particularly such as lived under the authority of bis immediate enemies, it was 
necessary that it should be promulgated far and near. What means he adopted for 
this purpose, with respect to more distant countries, or whether he made any 
attempt to introduce the document in question into the British dominions, does 
not appear : but here we sec liim selecting as his instruments for publishino- it, 
and promoting its proposed effect, within the dominions of the Mabrattahs and of 
the Nizdm, persons actually residing under the protection of, and owing alle- 
giance to, those very powers ; and who, consequently, could neither pray for the 
success of his arms, nor contribute their endeavours to supply him wilb recruits 
(which was his chief object on the present occasion), without a violation of Iheir 

2 R civil 


civil duties, or without exposing themselves to the most imminent clanger. Tip- 
poo, however, did not allow himself to be restrained by considerations of this 
nature. He was, at all times, in communication with the priests belonging to the 
different shrines, or places of peculiar sanctity among Musulmans, that are scat- 
tered over the Peninsula, but not one of which, I believe, was included within his 
own dominions. The only thing to be wondered at, on this occasion, is the 
temerity of the reverend personages who engaged in such a hazardous correspon- 
dence ; for though it does not appear how the present letter was received by the 
individuals to whom it was addressed, the records found at Seringapatam afford 
abundant proof, that the Sultan, throughout his reign, stood high in the favour of 
this particular class. For this distinction he might, in some degree, be indebted 
to the gifts which he occasionally bestowed on them ; but he, most probably, owed 
it principally to their bigotry. He fought avowedly for the glory and extension of 
their religion ; and that, with zealots, would be a sufficient apology for treason, as 
well as a sufficient motive for risking their personal safety in the advancement of 
his cause. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated Wth Behary. (15ik May?) 

You write, " that Syed Ahmed, a Jowkddr<^^ of the Kushoon of. . . , 
'* . . . . (^> belonging to the Uskur, has recruited some men, without 
" advancing any bounty. "(^> It is known. Let the above-mentioned be 
appointed to the command of one of the new Risdlas lately raised by 
Syed GhufHir. We have appointed and sent from hence another person 

to command the JRisdla of. <^>. He will soon join you. 


(1) A Jowk is a company, and a Jowkddr a captain.' 

(2) Name not perfectly legible : but something like Shaikh Unser. 

(3) Original !(Ju:L-< ^^ 
4) Name illegible. 


When we shall have summoned you to our Presence, and heard [from 
you verl)ally] the particulars of the gallant services of the men helonging 
to the KusUoons of Sved Ghuffar and Shaikh Unser, we will distineuish 
them^^^ [in a suitable manner]. 


To Meer Moaayenuddeen ; same Date, (loth May.) 

Seven sealed orders/'^ specifying [or appointing] the daily marches [of 
your division], are sent herewith. Keep them by you, and return those 
formerly [delivered to you]. Issue directions to the people of your armv, 
to provide themselves with six days' provisions ; and be prepared to exe- 
cute whatever orders you shall hereafter receive. 


The orders, here alluded to, appear to have been of tlie nature of sailing orders 

in our navy. They were each, probably, to be opened on a stated day; when the 

place to which the troops were to march on that particular day would be ascertained. 

Secrecy, of course, was the object of this arrangement: but it does not appear 

upon what service Moaayenuddeen was to be employed. It was now eight days 

since the Sultan had arrived in the vicinity of Great Balapoor ; and he was, 

probably, advanced, at the date of the present orders, as far as Rdidoors, from 

whence Adoni might be easily reached in six marches. On this point, however, 

we are unfortunately left entirely to conjecture, in consequence of none of the 

dispatches of the present period happening to specify the place from whence tiiey 

were written. It is not unlikely, however, that Moaayenuddeen was pushed 

forward for the purpose of investing Adoni, previously to the arrival of the main: 

army before it. 

2 R 2 

(5) Original JbJ» JJblji W^y j|^l^ " siiuU be csullcti," or literally, '•' shall have tlicir heads 

(1) Original ^^^ Jj:^^^-^y 



To the Commanders of the Jive Bargeer Kuchvrries and SvwAb. 
KucHURRY ; dated \^th Behary. (I'^th Mai/.') 

Issue orders to the people under your command to provide themselves 
with six days' provisions, and to leave their tents, paivls, &c. with the 
baggage of the army, taking nothing with them but two horse-halters^'^- 
each man. 


To the Commanders of the two (or hoth) Jyshe Kuchvrries ; same 

Date. (I7M May.) 

Issue orders to your people to provide themselves with six days' pro- 
visions ; and leaving the tents, pawls, &c. belonging to them with the 
baggage of the army, to keep with them [only] the Kdndilehs^^*^ of the 
Sb:ca}\ You must [thus] remain unincumbered [^j'ureedeh']. 


To the BvKHSHJES of the Eusham Kvchurry ; same Date.. 

(17th May.) 

Direct your people to furnish themselves with six days' provisions^ 
to be carried by themselves ;('**) and leaving their tents, ^^07^/^, heavy 
baggage, &c. with the baggage of the army, to remain light and unin- 

(I) Original jjJiflj perhaps two spare halters, for securing any horses that nii"-ht be taken 
from tlie enemy. 

(1*) I have not been able to ascertain what a Kundileh is; but I think it is some sort of 
cloth, or canvass, covering: perhaps for defending the arms and stores from the weather. 

(1**) In the original it is j.ij\jj J^J^j " 7iot to becarried on bullocks." A slight trans- 
position of the first diacritical point would make the sense, *' let them, not keep or take, 
*' any bullocks with them." 



No doubt the troops, here ordered to prepare for a rapid movement, were in- 
tended to compose part of the division proceeding under the command of Moaayen- 
liddecn ; whose force (if we include in it the various corps enumerated in Letter 
CCLXXIII) must have amounted to at least ten thousand men. 


7o Syed Mahommed Khan, Bukhsht of the Usvd Ilhti: ; dated 

17th Beuary. (2\st 3Iai/.) 


We enclose an order to the Aumil of Sumrputn [Bulhdrr/], directing 
him to forward your Palenkeen to you. 

N.B. Then follows the order to the Aumil of Bulhdry. 


It is difficult to say, in what sense the foregoing extract should be understood. 
It may imply, cither that the Buhhshy was not at liberty to send for his Palen/cecn 
without the Sultans authority ; or that, not possessing the means of getting it 
conveyed to him (that is, the necessary carriage), he had been obliged to solicit 
the Sultan to give directions for its being forwarded to him. The former sense 
would, no doubt, consist perfectly well with the despotic nature of the Sultatis 
government, and with the general system of control and restriction which pervaded 
every branch of it : but as the latter interpretation is equally warranted by the 
original, I am inclined to prefer it, on the principle of putting, in all cases of 
absolute doubt, the most favorable construction on his conduct. 



To Urshud Baig Khan, Fovjdar of Calicut. 

Getting possession of the villaii), Goorkul, and of bis wife and 
children, you must forcibly^'^ make Miisulmans of them, and then dis- 
patch the whole under a guard to Putn. 


To Chishty Yar Khan and Zynue Aabideen ; dated 20thBEHARY 

(24th Mai/.) 

Your letter of the I4th Behdry [17th May] was received this day, 
and has informed us of Dowlat Khan's being ill of the stone in the 
bladder : we have, in consequence, sent by the post an emetic [to be 
taken the first day], together with [other proper] medicines for the seven 
subsequent days. These are all separately made up in cloth and sealed. 

The way of taking an emetic is this : dissolving the powder in about 
four tolah weight of hot water, let him swallow it. After this, whenever 
he feels inclined to vomit, he must drink eight tolah weight of warm 
water. When he has vomited five or six times, let him, after an interval 
of six hours, have some broth mixed with rice. In the evening, before 
he eats his dinner,^'*) make him take, in a little cold water, half a tolah 
weight of seed of ^cA-wori,^-^ softened with some oil of almonds. By 
the favor of God, in one or two vomitings, the stranguaiy, or obstruc- 
tion of urine, will be removed. 


(1) There is some obscurity here in the original, which runs <feto-L y^UL.^ Jc^j^^^ If the 
meaning be, as I suppose it is, that they were to be forcibly converted, it should have been 

(1*) The MahommeJans, in India, make the principal meal at night. 

(2) Original J^wl 


The following morning [after the vomit] a dose of the other medicine 
is to be taken in eight tolahs of syrup of db-shd/c/r^^ and radish leaves.^ 
This course is to be pursued for seven days, during which the patient 
need not abstain from acids, but must avoid eating black and red pepper, 
and other heating and flatulent things.'^) The diet should be curry of 
radishes with boiled rice, and his drink an infusion of musk-melon seeds, 
cucumber seeds, and dry thorn,(<'> of each half a tohth weight. By this 
means, if there should even [or actually] be a stone [in the bladder] it 
will be passed/'^ 


2b Mahommed Yoosuf, Cvtival of the BazAr^^ accompamjivg the 
Presence ; dated 3d JaafvryS"^ (6th Jime^ 

You have represented, " that two thousand four hundred and eighty- 
" five bullock loads of rice, gram, &c. were some tizne ago dispatched 
*' to the Presence [/. e. to the Sultan's army] and eleven hundred and 
" nine very lately [or now]." It is known, and appears very extra- 
ordinary to us, that out of fifty or sixty thousand bullock loads, the 


(3) Original -Li, 4_>1 literally, " Iiorii-watcr," of which I do not know the meaning. 

(4) Original c_^ f^j, 

(5) Original *^^ j_yjb t^L-t 

(6) Original lLXI^-jU- 

(7) Original obj\ JJblji literally " will fall or drop." Tiiis is tlic lutttr which was ailudcd 
to at Letter CXV, and the observations suggested liy tlic jjttcr will be found to apply, 
with perhaps still greater force and justice, to the present curious production. 

(1) Called in tiie original ,U\j <_->l^ 

(2) No letters appear between the 20tli Bchdnj and this time, except an unimportant one 
of the 30th Bc'hdiy, wliieii I suspect to be owing to some accidental chasm in the manuscript, 
as this was too busy a conjuncture for the Sullait's pen to have indulged in a fortnght's rest. 
I think that, at the date of this letter, he must have been lying before /tdoni. 


duties on which have been remitted to the LumhdnehsP^ only one or two 
thousand should have been dispatched [to us]. You must give strict 
orders for ten or fifteen thousand loads to be forwarded [hither] at a time- 


To Mahommed Hyder, second Di.iv an of Nvan \ dated Qth Jaafury. 

(9th tTune.^ 

You write, " that Nursia requires our express authority for joining 
" [or inserting] your name [with his own] in the [official] letters to 
" the Anmils." It is known. When you were dispatched from the 
Presence, a [certain] mandate, addressed io Nursia, M'as delivered to 
you. Open and peruse the same, and conform to its contents. If it be 
directed therein, that you are to participate with him in the adminis- 
tration of the revenue business,*^') you will, agreeably thereto, apply 
earnestly and constantly, in conjunction with him, to the affairs of 
the Sircar : If [on the other hand] your participation [therein] should 
be forbidden,^-) you must act accordingly. 


If I rightly understand this letter, which I have translated as closely as I could, 
it is a very strange one. I lay no stress upon the apparently singular circumstance 
of Mahommed Hyder's being referred to a letter which he could not have in his 
possession, since he must have already delivered it to Nursia, to whom it was 
addressed. This difficulty is easily removed, by supposing what is most likely to 


(3) So it is written in the manuscript, but whether propeily or not, thsy arc usually called 

(1) Original (.::,«Ujk which, in a restrained sense, signifies " revenue aftairs." 

(2) Original ^Jy^^ " discontinued, set aside, suspended." ^ ■ 


have been the case, viz. that the letter referred to was only a copy (though not so 
called in the manuscript) with which the under Dewdn had been furnished, for 
his information and guidance. But what appears extraordinary is, that the 
Sultan should have placed the question submitted to him on the hypothetical 
footing he has done, instead of giving a direct answer to it. We cannot imagine 
him to have really forgotten the orders he had transmitted to Nursia on the subject 
in dispute, or, if he had, that the secretary could not have produced a copy of 
them : hence it may be inferred, that the present letter was designed in the way 
of banter. It is pretty evident, from the fact of Nursia's having refused to admit 
Mahommcd Hyder to the privilege he demanded, without the express authority of 
the Sultan, that no such autliority had been conveyed in the mandate referred to : 
and this the Sultan, no doubt, very well knew. The letter to Shumsuddeea 
Khan,^" at page 'J^S, seems to have been written in the same vein. 


To Syed Mahommed Khan; Third DejfJn of Nugr; same Date. 

(9th June:) 

You write, " requesting of us to give directions to our secretaries to 

'* insert your name, along with that of Mahommed Hydcr, the second 

*' Dewdn, in the Purwdnehs [addressed to your department]." It Is 

known. Who has told you (whom we had ordered to rcj)air to the 

Presence) to remain there? and wherefore liave you continued [till now] 

to reside theie ? ^'^ 

2 S 

(3) Sec Letter CCLV. 

(1) The following is the original of tliis curious passage: 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated ^th Jaafury. (\Qth June.') 

Now that you have encamped near Misry-kotah, you must take up a 
strong position there, under the protection of the [adjacent] woods. 
From hence, seizing a fit opportunity, you must fall [suddenly] upon the 

To BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; Same Date. (lOM June.) 

What is the use of your fixing yourself at Sehngak O ? You must 
shift your quarters from one place to another, such as Urkunny, and 
other dependencies of Nugr, and chastise the enemy [as often as an 
opportunity for the purpose may oifer]. 


2o Ali Rajah Beeby ; dated Qth Jaafury. (\\th June.) 

Directing her to join Urshud Baig Khan with her forces, and to 
inflict [?'. e. assist him in inflicting] punishment on the Nairs. 


To Budruz Zuman Khan; dated \Oth Jaafvry. (\3th June.) 

You write, *' that the Piddehs, who had been employed to escort 
" provisions to the fort of Kittoor, wished, on their return from thence, 

" to 

(1) Name uncertain. The expression, wliich I have rendered " fixing yourself," is in 
the original ^z.Jii wliicli strictly signifies " to sit, to sit down:" but here obviously used 
in a figurative sense. 


" to be dispatched to the Presence: but that, in consequence of your 
" hearing of tlie enemy's troops being spread over ^'^ the country about 
" Shdnoor, Sec. you had [judged it best to] distribute them among the 
" forts of Hurridl, Ullooty, SccS''> for the defence of those places, and 
" that you had seated yourself [/. e. established your own quarters] at 
" Sehngah."('^ 

It is known. In the written instructions delivered to you it is directed, 
that you shall keep together, under your immediate command, from 
ten to fifteen thousand men. Conform to these orders, and do not divide 
your forces ; but establish yourself with them somewhere in the province 
of NugVy as at Hurridl, Urkunny, &c. It is now the rainy season : 
send for a Misdla of Jijshe from Kdrktl \_Mungalore'\ and, agreeably to 
your instructions, assembling other Ji/she and Piddehs, to the amount of 
ten or twelve thousand men, take up a position with this force, either 
at Hiirpunhidhj , Urkunny, or some other place, situated [like then)] on 
that [/'. e. the further,^^) or east] side of the Tungluddra. Having done 
this, report the same to us \ and afterwards proceed, according to the 
manner that shall be directed ia the orders [you will receive] from the 


To Abdul Kureem, SipaudJr of the Jyhse Kuchurry, stationed ivith 
Urshud Baio Khan ; dated \Oih Jaafury. (I3th June.} 

You write, " that the villain Goorkul, being wounded, had thrown 
" himself, together with his wife and children, into a fire [kindled for 

2 S 2 " the 

( 1 ) Oiiginal jj^x< ^o ^j\j\ 

(2) ■) 

> Naiue> uncertain. 

(3) J 

(4) lleckoiiing, I buppose, froiii Bidnore. 


" the purpose] which had consumed them [all]." You add, " that the 
" Mdpilahs have all taken to flight." 

It is known. You nmst assemble and keep your men togetlier, and, 
exercising them regularly, hold them always in readiness [for service]. 


It would appear by this letter that the unfortunate Goorkul had eluded the endea- 
vours of Tippoo's commanders to secure his person ; but that, despairing of ultimate 
success, and knowing the fate that awaited himself and family, if they fell into 
the hands of their tyrant, he had resorted to the final remedy and refuge from 
dishonour, so usual among the Hindoos. The studied indifference, as it appears to 
be, with which the Sultan mentioned this dreadful catastrophe, will not have 
escaped the reader's notice. 

To Rajah Ram Chundur ; same Date. (\3th June.) 

You write, " that eighty smiths are required in the musquet manu- 
" factory at Khdn-KhdnhuUi/ ; and that, having made an application 
** for this number to the ylmnils of the surrounding districts, they had 
" answered, that the Ryots excused themselves from furnishing them 
*' just now, on account of its being tillage time." 

It is known. As the tillage of the land does not depend on black- 
smiths, we write to desire, that the most peremptory orders may be issued 
to the Aumils within your jurisdiction, and enforced by bailiff's, for 
providing [immediately] the requisite number of these artificers. 


Whatever might be the case in Mysore, it is, at least, certain, that in the 
provinces of Bengal and Behar, the cultivation of the lands depends, in a very 
material degree, on the manufacturing classes and artizans ; who, at the tillage 



season, are accustomed to quit their ordinary avocations^ and to resume, for the 
necessary time, the labours of husbandry. Even the soldiers, at this period, are 
in the habit of returnins; on furlough to their native villages, for the purpose of 
working in the fields belonging to their respective families. I am inclined to think, 
that the same practice will be found to have obtained in Mysore; and, indeed, the 
reference made to it by the Ryots, sufficiently establishes the fact. At this rate, 
the Sultan could not be ignorant of its existence ; so that, in saying, " the culture 
" of land did not depend upon blacksmiths," he probably sacrificed the truth, and, 
what was worse, persisted in his oppression, chiefly for the sake of a conceit. Eighty' 
men taken from the plough at such a time, would hardly fail to produce a material 
embarrasment in the agricultural operations of the district which was obliged to 
furnish them. 

To Ghulam Husain Khan, Second Munshoor of Bangalore ; dated 

1 1 th Jaafur y. (1 4th June.') 

What you report, of the escape of the European cannon-founder, is 
Understood. You must, in sucli manner [or by such means] as you 
think best, and most practicable, contrive to get him back, otherwise 
bad consequences will follow, for which you shall be made to answer. 

You write, " that instead of five or six rupees, which you have pro- 
" posed paying to the striplings^') belonging to the Jijshe, they demand 
" nine." It is known. Let such as are very young receive the monthly 
pay you have fixed : Avhen they arrive at full age, they will, according 
to custom, receive nine rupees. 

If the gunpowder is not prepared, and the gun-barrels are not con- 
structed agreeably to our instructions, and if every thing else, appertain- 
ing to your department, be not properly executed, you will be culled to 
a strict account [for your neglect]. 

(1) Original j^l "beardless." 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; sume Date. (\Ath June.') 

Your letter lias been received, and its contents are comprehended. 
What vou write, respecting the scarcity of grain, is known. The coun- 
try of Nugr is near [you]. Send from thence for continual and abun- 
dant supplies of grain. What is the meaning of your loitering in one 
place with such an army [as you have] ? You should take ten days 
provisions, and moving rapidly, in different directions, ten and twenty 
coss [at a time], seize an opportunity of striking some signal blow 
against the enemy. We have sent [similai] orders on this subject to the 
Sipahddrs, &c. 

Phurnaveese [/. e. Nana, the Mahrattah minister] is gone [back] to 
Poonah. It is most probable that their army, too, will, by the time the 
river swells, break up, and return discomfited and beaten. 

Remove the son of Hukeem Khan from the command of his Risdhy 
and place him in confinement.^'^ 


It is true, that Nana Phurnaveese returned to Poonah some time about the end 
of May ; and I believe that, either previously to his leaving the Mahrattah army, 
or immediately after his departure, the fort of Bdddmy surrendered. Of this 
event, however, no trace is discoverable in the correspondence. 

If Hukeem Khan be meant for Abdiil Hukeem Khan, the Nabob of Shdnoor, 
(which I conceive to be the case) this passage shows, that the breach between him 
and the Sultan had now become irreparable, and that the Patan had, probably, 


(I) Original jj.l JuL »j^lJ.S^- ^jO^J <«3L)i jl This son of Hukeem Khan is, on another 
occasion, mentioned by the name of AbdCil Samuel Khan. Wliat adds to the probability of 
his being a younger son of AbdCil Hukeem is, that the word Abdul appears to have been a 
common prefix to the names of this family. Thus the son and successor of Abddl Hukeein 
was called Abd&l Khyr Khan (or Klieere Mcer). 


declared openly in favor of the Mahrattahs, We also learn from it, that a son of 
this chieftain actually held, at this time, a military command in one of the corps 
of the army under Burhanuddeen (possibly a battalion of an infantry Kushoott) ; 
for the form of the expression in the original will hardly admit of our supposing 
that the Risdla, in question, was a body of troops furnished by the Patari for the 
service of the Sultan. 


To Mahommed Ghyas and ^oon Mahommed Khan; same Date. 

(\4th June.^ 

It is fifteen days since you arrived at Furrilkh-ydb Ilisdr \Chittle- 
doorg~\. By your stopping in this manner fifteen days in every place, 
you burthen us with your own pay and that of your retinue. Then i< 
would further appear, by the circumstance of your bringing on with you 
the Hurkdrehs of the enemy, that you had no fear [or regard] for your 
lives and honor. It is not well. Send back the enemy's Hurkdrehs, 
and hasten your arrival at the Presence. 


Here ends the Sultan's correspondence with his late ministers at the court of 
Poonah, who had probably received their dismission from thence some time in 
April 1786. Whatever may be thought of the diplomatic qualifications of those 
agents, from the faint sketches of their proceedings occasionally afforded by these 
letters, there would not appear to be any reason for imputing the failure of their 
negociations to any deficiency of talents or address on their part : for the 
Mahrattahs being bent on a rupture, and the Sultan being equally determined not 
to compromise his dignity, or what he deemed to be his rights, it is probable, 
that neither party had, from the beginning, any expectation, or indeed any desire, 
of accommodating their mutual differences ; so that, in fact, all the envoys had to 
do, was to endeavour to amuse the Mahrattah government, by vague and illusory 

professions ; 


professions ; to obtain intelligence of its designs ; and, perhaps, to tamjicr with 
the fidelity of some of its servants. The first of these objects must have been 
always an hopeless one ; and when the notorious parsimony of their master is 
considered, their success, to any material extent, in the other two, may be 
reasonably doubted^ without derogating, in the least, from their general zeal and 


The most prominent feature in the Sultans correspondence with these envoys, 
next to the memorable manoeuvre recorded in Letter LIII, is the fluctuating cha- 
racter of his instructions to them. There seems to have been a perpetual conflict, 
on this occasion, between his pride and his interest ; in the course of which, 
sometimes one, and sometimes the other, prevailed. He appears to have been 
steady, only, in his ungracious treatment of his unhappy agents, whom, to the 
very last moment, he addresses in a style of unmitigated asperity. 

Of Noor Mahommed Khan no more is heard. Mahommed Ghyas^" seems to 
have been subsequently confined to the humble sphere of superintendant of a 
provincial Tosheh-khdneh. Whether they lived to witness the annihilation of 
the Khoddddd Sircar, I know not ; but it is probable they did not, as the Sultati 
reflects on their " great age," fourteen years prior to that event."^ 

(1) My only ground for this conjecture is a letter, addressed, at a subsequent period, to a 
person of this name, and filling tlie office mentioned. 

(2) The following article is extracted from an Hindostan news-paper, dated 25th Septem- 
ber 1786, and kindly communicated to me by my valued friend. Sir John Kennaway, Bart., 
formerly Resident at the Court of Hyderabad. 

" By intelligence from the Dccun, dated about the 29tli of August, it appears, that a 
" report prevailed there, that Noor Mahommed Khan, and the other J'akceh of Tippoo 
" Sultan, (who, some time before, had been sent away by Nana Phurnaveese from Bdddmj/, 
" because that minister did not approve of their remaining any longer in the Mahrattah 
" camp), were accused by the Sultan, on their arrival in his presence, with having betrayed 
" his interests, by secretly encouraging the Mahrattahs, who otherwise would never have 
" hazarded the measure, to pass the Kishna, and advance into his country ; and that, not 
«' being enabled to give a satisfactory answer to this charge, the Sultan had caused them to 
*' be put to death, as a public example to others." 



To RujUB Alt, Kilaadar of Gujunder Gvrhh ;^^^ dated IBth 


By the Divine favor, the fort of Adoni' is on the point of being re- 
duced. God wilHng, after setthng matters here, the special retinue will 
augment the lustre of that quarter [/. e. we shall proceed thither]. You 
must [in the interim] keep your mind at ease, and attend duly to the 
caie and safety of the fort, [by] placing [the necessary] guards, and 
remaining always on the alert. You may, moreover, consider us as 

N.B. A letter, of the same tenor and date, was written to Jymum Khan, 
Kllaaddr of Kopul ; and both were sent to Zynul Aabideen, Bukhshy of Ehshdm, 
at Chittledoorg, with orders to forward them ; and, at the same time, to exhort 
them, from himself, to be of good cheer, and to remain firm at their posts. 


To TuRBiYUT 1^1.1 Khan and Rajah Ram Chundur ; same Date. 

(18^ A June^ 

Directing them to dispatch to Fyze Hisdr [Gootij], on hired bul- 
locks, five thousand twenty-four-pounds shot, and the same number of 
cightecn-pounds shot.*'*^ 

2 T 

( I ) Tliis is a town and fortress of consiclcrablo note, situated between Kopul and Badthuy. 
It once belonged to Rtigonalli Rio. Ii was ceded to llie Mahrattahs, by the partition treaty 
of n92. 

(1*) 0.iginal J^ji^jJ^jJrTJ''^-^ 



To Mauommed Shui'IvEa, Darogha of the Artilkvy ; scone Date. 

(I8th June.) 

Agreeably to the orders of the Presence, you must bring with you 
guns [of the calibres] of twelve and nine Jlutls \i. e. nine and twelve- 



It is probable, though my manuscript is silent on the subject, that the number 
of guns of each kind was specified in the original, as otherwise this order would 
appear to leave it to the judgment of the Ddrogha, to bring what number he 
pleased. A supposition utterly inadmissible. 


To UsuD Ali KhaNjC^ from Ali Riza and Bal Mukn Doss ; dated 

loth JaafvryS-) (I8th June.) 

We mentioned verbally to you four artlcles,^^) which were submitted 
for your acceptance ; and we now wish you to come and say, which of 
those four articles you Avill agree to, in order that we may make a suit- 
able representation [to our master], and get the business finally settled. 
The honour of a world [alluding to the female part of Mohiibut Jung's 


(1) He is called in the title, or heading, of tlie following letter, the «' Jdoni Wiileh" or 
" ^yrfyHi man." 

(2) Tliis is the only occasion on which any letters, except tliose written hy or in the name 
of tlic Sidlan hiuiiolf, have been entered in tiie present collection, 

(3) Originu! ^^l^ 


family] is in the fort, and numberless people are collected therein. To 
be instrumental, with your eyes open/^^ to the ruin of peo{)le*s honour, 
is contrary to discretion ;<^'^ while any further procrastination of the matter 
is pregnant Avith the most serious mischief, and must lead to the destruc- 
tion of the inhabitants of the place. As to [the arrival of] succours, 
and the swoln state of the rivers, the case is abundantly manifest. [/'. e. 
you are cut oft* from all hopes of relief]. Under these circumstances, it is 
clearly proper and most advisable, that you should set about an [imme- 
diate] adjustment, whereby you will secure the ease and prosperity of 
God's creatures. 


It does not appear from the correspondence, on what day the Sultan arrived 
before Adoni ; but as it is probable, that he would lose no time in summoning the 
place, the commencement of the siege by Tippoo, in person, may be safely 
reckoned fi-om the loth June. It had, perhaps, been previously invested by 
Moaayenuddeeu : but this is uncertain. 

If the Usud Ali Khan, here addressed, be not the same person who has since 
made some figure (as well under that name, as by the title of MuzufTerulmulk) at 
the court of Jlyderabud, I am unable to say who he was. However this may be, 
the present negociator would appear to have acquitted himself in a very able man- 
ner ; since he succeeded in amusing Tippoo with expectations of the early submis- 
sion of his master, Mohabut Jung, and by this means, while be induced the 
Sultan to abstain from vigorous operations against Adoni, gave time to the Nizdm 
to send a considerable force, under Musheer lil Mulk and Syfe ul Miilk, to its 
relief; or rather, for the purpose of removing the ladies of Mohabut Jung's family, 
who were shut up in it, to Hyderabad, This object, which Tippoo either did 

2 T 2 not 

(4) Original <fcL-J^j j j..yj " seeing and knowing." 

(j) Oiigin.ll j^;jJ! JU s^ " tlic contrary to considering of the future." 


not suspect, or could not effectually oppose, being accomplished, tiiose commanders 
left the fortc') to its fate, which was, ere long, decided : for not being in a condition 
to maintain a siege, the Sultan soon became master of it. 

The conduct of Tippoo, upon this occasion, has been said to have excited con- 
siderable surprise among his commanders, and has since given rise to some specu- 
lation, as to the causes of it, among his biographers. It has been affirmed, that 
the fort might have been easily carried at the same time with the Paith, or town ; 
upon the storm and capture of which the garrison and inhabitants retired in great 
disorder to the fort, the gates of which were found wide open, and even, as pre- 
tended, unguarded. Intelligence, thereof, being conveyed to the Sitlfan, and 
accompanied by a request from Lally, and others, to be permitted to profit by 
the opportunity, thus unexpectedly offered, he forbad the attempt, observing, in 
effect, " that he was sure those within the fort would, in very good time, spon- 
" taneously place themselves in his power." The writer, from whom I take this 
account, and who is a very intelligent Musulman,"' in the employ of Colonel Colin 
M'Kenzie, appears to infer, from this circumstance, that the Sultan never had any 
serious intention of reducing Adonl ; and that his movement against it had no other 
object than that of alarming the Xizdtn for the safety of the females of his family 
residing there, and of detaching him, by that means, from his connexion with the 
Mahrattahs. But the solitary fact, upon which this opinion seems to rest, is not, I 
think (admitting its authenticity) sufficiently strong, to support it against the evi- 
dence leading to a different conclusion. That fact is perhaps susceptible of a more 
satisfactory, and less improbable explanation, ^he Sultan might have doubted the 
correctness of the information, upon which the expediency of attempting the fort 
had been rested : he might have thought the undertaking too hazardous ; or he might 
even have been averse to exposing the women within the place to the dangers of an 
assault. That he hoped, by his present enterprize, to oblige the Nizdm to forsake the 


(6) yldoni is called, in the Jsujial register, and by the Mahomniedans of the Dccan, 
Jintidz Ghur. 

{!) Of Mcer llCisain Ali, the person here alludeJ to, some further mention will Le found 
in Appendi.s D. 


Malirattalis, is very likely : but this purpose would not have been effected by any- 
proceeding, which might, in its consequences, have cast a stain upon the honor of 
his Highness's family ; wliereas, by getting them into his power, by virtue of a 
capitulation, he would have been sure of attaining that object. On the whole, 
therefore, there would not appear to be any sufficient reason for doubting, that 
the end which ho really had in view, from the beginning, was not the mere 
reduction of Adorn, which would have been an inadequate compensation for the 
exertion he had made, but the capture, in honor and safety, of the Haram 
contained within its walls. 

It is to be wished, that the four articles, referred to in the preceding letter, had 
been preserved. They would, no doubt, have thrown considerable light on the 
present subject : yet we are not entirely destitute of other information respecting 
it, since the following extract from the Sultan's Memoirs will be found to contain, 
not only some notice of his expedition against Adoni, but also his statement of 
the origin of the war, subsisting at this time between him and the confederated 

" Occurrences of the year Busd, or ?/ear of Mahommed 1214. 

" I had just completed the arrangements whicli have been mentioned,'^^ when 

" intelligence 

(8) The reader will probably not be displciised at being presented, in lliis place, with tiiat 
portion of tlie MiMDoiis iinmediatolv ])icrciiing the one given in tlic text, and referreil to 
therein by the Sullan, on whose extraorilinai}' character it will be Coiuid to throw no incon- 
siderable liglit. I have translated it as closely as I could, without involving the sense in ob- 
scurity : but the original is written in such a perplexed and barbarous style, as has made tiiis 
a very diiHciiit task. 

" After sending o(T tlie Ahmedics [in the way that has been related],* the special retinue 
" [or cavalcade] pioceeded to the seat of the Sultanut, Piiln. Here, with a view to the 
" [proper] arrangement of affairs, great and small, I framed various llukm-mhiiehs [or ordi- 
" nances] and numerous other things ; all in the very best manner, and comprehending in- 
" stitutes, civil and fiscal, general as well as particular rules for war and peace [literally, 
" for the battle and the banqxtef], and regulations for the government of the people at large. 
" They moreover treated of the [proper] mode of dealing with the noble and the ignoble 
" [or the high and low], of taking [or levying] tribute Irom the subjcet, and of alTording 
" protection to the people; of making progress through the country, and inspecting the 
" fortresses; and of duly guarding the kingdom on all sides. In fine, they comprised nu- 

'* merous 

• Sec Observations on Letter XLII. 


" intelligence arrived that the Malirattahs" and Nizam Ali Khan, forgetting their 
" ancient obligations [to us], whereof an account has been already written,""" and 
" becoming ungrateful, had assembled together a large army, with the intention 
" of making a joint attack on the Ahmedy dominions. 

" At that time, [or hereupon] several of those holding offices"" under the 
« Usud Ilhi/e government humbly represented, that after providing for the 
" defence of the fortresses, and putting the armies in a state of preparation, it 
" would be proper to set about confronting [or opposing] them [/. e. the Mahrat- 
" talis and the Nizdni]. To this I answered: ' Six months ago, when the 
" ' Valieeh of both the chieftains were about to receive their dismission [from 
" ' me], I said to them [the Fakeeli}, that I had heard that their masters, 
<« < forgetting ancient obligations [or my ancient claims] upon them, meditated 
" ' upon making such a return to them, as was the practice only of the most 
*' ' despicable of men. This [said I] is not a right thing. Fear God [and 
« ' know], that good should not be requited with evil. A proceeding of this 
" ' kind will [assuredly] draw on your masters the vengeance of the divine 

" ' tribunal. 

<' merous new inventions, and fresh contrivances •witlimit measure : and I ordained that the 
" same should be preserved in our elevated famil}-, and [be transmitted througii] our emi- 
" ncnt raec to the end that our sons of exalted ilcp^ree, and our grandsons of iihistrious 
*' descent, "-cneration after generation, deriving from the perusal of the abundant benefus 
" and ample advantages with which they are replete, may be thereby enabled to administer 
" the various affairs of state, and tiie important concerns of sovereignty, with due order 
<' and regularity. Tiicrcfore, whatever ruler, not being of our line, shall surre|)titionsly 
" adopt these our ordinances and institutes, will, in consequence thereof, be reckoned as 
" one of our offspring." 

The substance of the latter part of the foregoing extract lias been given by Colonel VVilks 
(in the Preface to his History of Mysoor) from the Si'dtdnc Tu'i'drctkh of ZynCd Aabideen 
Shoostry, the ground work of which production, as has been already observed elsewhere, 
was the Tdreekh e Khodd-dudi/, or Tippoo Sultan's Memoirs, as written, originally, by 

(9) In the original <)jij^ (MurrdtchJ; for an explanation of which perversion of the true 
name the reader is referred to the preface of Colonel Wilks's History of Mj/soor. 

(10) See observations on Letter VIII. 
(U) Original \a^^ 

T I r r o o sv LT A N. 327 

" ' tribunal/''' [For my part] these are my intentions. The good which has 
" ' been rendered to you by the Usud Ilhije Sircar is clear and evident to the 
" ' whole world. ''^' Moved by the humble supplications, as well as by the tender 
" ' age of your master/'^' who had avowed himself to be our son, we"^- took upon 
" ' ourselves [or willingly incurred] the evils [or dangers] which [menaced] your 
" ' house and your life : and [hence] it is more manifest, even than the sun, that 
" ' it was we who secured the duration of your master's house. With all this [or 
" ' notwithstanding this] I am desirous that your misdoings [or the wrongs you 
" ' have done me] should become still more apparent to all mankind, and 
" ' [therefore] I will never move from hence, with hostile designs, mitil both 
" ' the chieftains in question shall have entered my dominions, have ravaged 
" ' countries to the value of ten or twenty lacks of rupees, and have laid siege to 
" ' one or two fortified places. They should [or let them], therefore^ act in 
" ' conformity with their engagements.'''"' 

" But what does it signify ? With the blessing of the [divine] Helper, after 
" they shall have entered our dominions, we will move from hence. 

" Accordingly, two months after this, the two confederated armies (on whom, 
" and on their parents also, be the curse of God I) laid siege to the fort of 
" Bdddmi/, and committed depredations, between the two rivers K'lshna and 
" TooiJgbhudra,'^''" to the amount of fifteen or twenty lacks of rupees. Hereupon 

" I marched 

(12) Original i'^b "court, place of ;\udiencc, royul tribune." 

(13) Original <iiiJl jii ^Uj " the wliole of God's creatures." 

(1 !•) Here the SnUdti sj!cal;sas if addressing tlie Malirattah Vaketl !i]o\\c. 

(15) Meaning, of course, iiis father, in whose life-time the transaction alluded to took 

(IG) I am inclined to think, that tiic Stdtait's speech to tiic T'likixls ends lu re ; and that llie 
short paragra|>h, which follows, was addressed to the persons who had advised what ho 
deemed a premature movement against the enemy. 

(17) So is the name of tliis river written in the original ; and 1 have often met with it so 
written in oilier manuscripts, though tiie more usual orlhograpiiy is, I believe, Tooiubiiddru. 
The tract of country here spoken of is sometimes called the Dodb (or t-.vo rivers, i. c. the 
cpun/rj/ situated betxceen two rivers'], it is so designated, for instance, in the treaty con- 
cluded at Seringapataiii, m 1792. 


" r*" marched to Bangalore, where I remained ten or twelve days, and [from 
" hence] dispatched a respectable person, together with an intelligent officer of 
" spies, to Madhojee Bhonsillah, the chief of Ndgpoor,'-'*^ to whom I addressed a 
" letter to the following effect : 

" * What is the reason that you^'"' have forgotten [your] ancient obligations 
" ' [to us] and taken [or learned] the lesson of the whoreson?'"" Fear God, 
" ' otherwise your shameful actions will [assuredly] draw upon you their due 
" ' punishment.""'' 

" I also wrote and dispatched [letters], to the same purport, to Hurry Pundit 
■'■ Phurkia and to Rao Rasta, commanders of the army of the infidels. 

" I more- 

(18) In the original u:J!jA^ U the nearest translation of which that I am capable of giving 
is, *' we happy," or " we prosperous." It is a common form of expression vvitli sovereigns, 
and has been adopted by all the pseudo-princes of India. I have even known a private per- 
son (bearing, however, the title of Nabob, and descended from a decayed family formerly 
in some power) arrogate it to himself. 

(19) There is here a considerable degree of obscurity in the manuscript, which I sus- 
pect to arise from the omission of some proper name. The passage in the original runs 
LLJ^ ^JiJ.< L:i-«i,«-« \\ i- ^- through the medium, or by means, of Madhojee. Probably 
the meaiiino- is, that the letter in question was to be delivered to Madhojee, through the 
channel of some person, whose name has been inadvertently omitted by the transcriber. 

(20) Orii^inal ,^lU-ii (3'e) a second plural formed from UJi (you); as if the Sultan were 
addressino- all the cliicftains named in one and the same letter. This is, of course, either 
one of the anomalies so usual with the author, or an error ol' the transcriber. The Sultan 
here implicates the Ndgpoor chief in the supposed ingratitude of the Paishwa, although 
Madhojee Bhonaillah had taken but little share in the transactions alluded to. 

(21) Original ^Iks^ pU as once or twice btforc. It is uncertain, wheiher the Nizam, 
or the Paishwa, be here alluded to; this gross appcU.ition being sometimes given by the 
Sultan to one, and sometimes to the other. It is scarcc'Iy credible, liowever, that he should 
speak of the Pa;.?/(M'a in this offensive manner, in letters addressed to the chieftains of the 
Mahrattah state. If, therefore, it was actually used (which, after all, might not be the case, 
tliou"-h so Slated in the narrative) it is most prol>ablc that it reFcrrcd to the Nizam; to whom, 
indeed, the implied character of a teadier, or giver of lessons, was far more applicable than 
to the Paishzea, who was at this time very young. 

(22) Original s^. ,^y^ ^^ cs}^J^. >J^y ^. '•'"'ill arrive at the due requital of their 
•' misdoing." 

T 1 P P O O S U L T A N. 


" I moreover interrogated the Sirdars [or chief officers] of the army, respect- 
" ing the [best] mode of conducting the war, and the attack*"' [most proper] to 
" be made [in the first instance] ; when they all, according to their [respective] 
" abilities [or powers], delivered their opinions : none of which, however, were 
" agreeable to my mind. At this time [or hereupon] calling upon God the 
" Bountiful, and imploring his aid, I said, ' Please the Almighty God, I will 
'■' ' proceed against Adoni, which is at a distance from the boundary of the Sircar, 
" ' and is a strong place, where the honor" of Nizam Ali Khan is lodged. 
" ' Attacking this place, we must obtain possession of it. If, for the sake [or 
" ' preservation] of their honor, the two .S/rrfar**^'' should come [to its relief], 
" ' we shall see [the extent of] their strength and power.' This opinion [or 
" plan] was apparently/ assented to by all those in attendance [upon mej ; but 
" God [only] knows what they inwardly [or really] thought [on the occasion]. 

" After this, quitting Bangalore, I proceeded by long marches to Adoni,'^"^ 
" against which I opened trenches ; but was [purposely] careless and dilatory in 
" making my approaches, in order that, hearing of the situation of Busalut 
" Jung's son, and of their women, the two infidel and renegade'"' armies might 
" advance together [to their assistance]. Having, at the end of a month, mounted 

2 U batteries 

(23) Original /•^(^j^L^^y^ "and in what niaiitier to form a design," or, " wlut 
" sort of expedition to undertake." 

(2t) Original ^^j.i\j (ndvioos) by wliicli is usually understood the lioiioiir of ii person, as 
connected with, or depending on tliat of the females of his tauiily. Hence the word very 
conmionly denotes the Haram. 

(25) Tliere being no reason to suppose th^t the Mahrattahs had any women in Adoni, the 
Sultan might possibly mean that their honour was committed with that of their ally. IJut it is 
equally possible, that the expression, in ipiestion, may have proceeded solely from that per- 
plexity of style, which so much distinguishes all the more laboured productions of his pen. 

(26) This name is uniformly written ^.JbJ in the manuscript. 

(27) The epithet jj^ " renegade," or " apostate," is hero evidently designed lo apply 
to the army of the Aizdm, as that of cJji^ "infidel" is to the Mahrattah army. The 
Sultan always affected to consider the Nizam in the light of an apostate, on account of the 
political connections he had formed with infidels, to the prejudice, as lie put it, of the Ma- 
hommcdan faith ; or, in other words, of his own ambitious views. 


" batteries near the ditch, I was employed in breaching the place, when intel- 
" ligence came, that the two aforesaid armies, headed by Moghul Ali Khan,'"'* 
" brother of Nizam Ali Rhan,Sohrab Jung, '"'Taigh Jung,''"' TehburJung, "' Gun- 
" naish Pundit, Apa Bulwunt, and others,''^' were arrived at the other [or opposite] 
** side of the river Tuughhudra. At that time I saw no good [or convenient] place 
*' for intercepting the two armies ; "' and, moreover, the army of the Usud lUiije 
" Sircar was dispersed in [prosecution of j the siege of the fort. On this account 
" I moved from that place'^*^ [or shifted my camp] to the distance of half a coss 
" on the flank [or on one side] of the road of the aforesaid armies. By this 
" movement the latter were thrown into the utmost dismay and confusion ; and 
" in this state''^'' proceeding along the skirts of the hills, [at length] reached the 
" aforesaid fort, near to which they remained encamped during three days. On 
" the fourth day they took out all the people of the fort ; but were in suclr 
" distraction and alarm [at the time], that they left behind the whole of the 
wearing apj}arel of the females, and every article of household furniture [be- 

(2S) I do not find this personage mentioned on the present occasion by any other authority. 

(29) I tliink this was one of the titles of the Nizdm''s niiuistcr, Musliceriil MQlk, afterwards 
called A^eemCil Omra, and finally Aristoo .lah. It is proper to observe, however, that the 
j'«//a« affetis to write Shooriib (salt-water) instead of Sohrdb (an eminent name in Persian 
history) on the principle explained by Colonel Wilks, in the Preface to his valuable History 
of Mysore, page xxii. 

(30) Called also SyfCd MCilk and ShumsOl Omra. 

(31) I do not know who is here meant. The name is properly Tuhavwfn- Jung, but pur- 
posely miswritten by the Sultan. 

(32) Two words follow here in the original ^J^^ iJ^ i^\^\i which I do not clearly com- 
prehend. iS^ (tildijeh) is a patrole, a picqiiet, &c. ^ (ban) a rocket. Perhaps the 
persons spoken of were commanders of bodies of rocket-men, and of particular corps cm- 
ployed as picquets, or patroles. 

(33) i. c. " I perceived no practicable means of intercepting them." 

(34) Meaning "the position or ground" which he had previously occupied. 

(33) In the original it is Jje-^.^\:yl " falling and rising :" a phrase which, though strongly 
expressive in the Persian language, is dilHcult to be preserved in a translation. 

Tirroo SULTAN. 331 

longing to them]. In this naked ^"= condition, carrying the women along with 
them, they took at midnight the road of flight, and made a shameful retreat/"* 

'•' Immediately on receiving the intelligence [of their flight], I armed com- 
" pletely,'"' and, with the design of intercepting the fugitives, pursued them 
" with the the utmost celerity. As, however, owing to the rain, and to the miry 
" state of the roads, the patroles had been on the ivhole '^'' very negligent [or 
" tardy] in making their report [of the enemy's retreat] ; and, as, o« the whole, '^^^'^ 
" the artillery, owing likewise to the same circumstance, followed very slowly, 
" the aforesaid armies were enabled to effect their esc"&pe across the river, 
" Tunghuddra ; but not without leaving behind them, in their disorder and 
" alarm, an elephant and some ^*°^ 

" At this time [or on this occasion] the power [of God] \vas [wonderfully] 
" manifested to all the world, in the following manner. While the fugitive 
" army was crossing the river, the water was not higher than the waist ; but in 
" the space of six hours, at the end of which the army of the Usud Ilhye Sircar 
" arrived in close pursuit [of the enemy], it had risen to a level with the banks'^": 
*' and thus was that prey, which the net had [so nearly] overspread, enabled, 
" by the divine pleasure [or power] to escape in safety.'"' 

2 U 2 « After 

(36) Original iJu *- The term is here employed somewhat equivocally. It mav be un- 
derstood in its usual ligunitive sense of " light" or " unencumbered ;" but the context would 
seem to imply, that tiic writer intended it to be taken in the sense of " naked or bare." 

(37) The action, here alluded to, would appear, by an Hindostan neuspjiper of this 
period, to have taken place on the 27th June nS(>. 

(38) Original x^ J-^Ccj f — * I at" "ot clear whether the Sultan meant to apply these 
^Yords to his army at large, or to himself only. 

(39) (yj*) Original .i*J.lj_y 

(40) There is a word here in the manuscript which I do not undcrst.ind, but which is probably 
the name of some wheeled carriage. The original is, in this place, more than usually 
jierplexed and obscure, and 1 have, in consequence, been compelled to take some little 
freedom in the translation. The Sultan would appear to have been conscious, that there 
was somelliing in the translation he was relating, not altogether creditable to liis military 
character, and, in his attempt to gloss over the business, he has accordingly fallen into the- 
Diost bewildered style that can be imagined. 

(41) Original ._,J^ (_J_.j_^ 

(42) Original jJj^jJ^ ^^'^ " carried off their lives." 


" After putting the enemy to flight, the high [or eminent] army marched [back] 
** to the vicinity of the fort [/', e. Adoni], where I lay encamped for five days, in 
" the course of which [I caused] the fort of Adoni to be entirely demolished *"'. 
*' 1 then bestowed the country of Adoni in Jageer upon Kiitbuddeen Khan, 
" Bukhshy of the Bd7--huchurri/,^"' to whom, moreover, I gave the Nobut,^*''^ five 
" elephants, and a /acA o/" rM/^te* in money ;'^^^ directing that, after fixing [his 
" authority] firmly in the Jageer, he should leave two thousand horse, and make 
" such other arrangements as might be necessary for its defence,^"' and then 
*' return himself to his attendance upon our person, '''^^ 

*' After this, marching from thence [i. e. Adoni], I proceeded to the banks of 
" the Tungbiiddra, &c." 

The sequel of the Sultans brief account of this war will be given hereafter, in 
•its proper place. 

The foregoing narrative is not, perhaps, calculated to exhibit the Sultan to any 
great advantage, either as a politician or a general. If (as would seem from his 
own account and the correspondence of Usud Ali Khan to have been the fact) 


(43) The fort of ^doni appears, by the Hindostan newspapers already referred to, to 
have been taken possession of by the Sultan on the 11th of July 1786. 

(44) The Bdr-kuchurri/ was the department of regular infantry. The Bukhshy of a 
Kushoon was an office subordinate to the Sipahddr and to the Risdladdr : but the Bukhshy of a 
Jiucfiurry, or one of the general divisions of the army, appears to have corresponded in some 
degree with a general officer of our staff. 

(45) The Nobut is the privilege of retaining a band of military musicians, who are usually 
stationed over the gateway of the person's house, enjoying the honor ; and occasionally join 
his retinue in his visits of form. 

(46) Tbb lack of iTipees would appear, from the manner and place in which it is mentioned, 
to have been a present. It is more probable, however, that this money was an advance, on 
account of the pay and other espences of the force to be employed under KQtbuddecn. 

(4T* ") 

y „ ^Original .\ *.li .aI^ l<. . ^Jyj.'' "i^,' r^-*'' J.""- i.."' I confess myself to be quite un- 
certain as to the right meaning of this passage. It m.ay import, that he was to remain with 
two thousand horse on his Jageer, but to hold himself always in readiness to join the Sultan 
when ordered ; or the sense may be, that which 1 have given in the text. HQsain Ali states, 
that KutbCiJdeen, unable to maintain his footing in the district, was compelled, some time 
after the Sultan's departure from Adoni, to retire to Gooty. 


his chief aim, in the present expedition, was to get the females of Mohabut 
Jung's family into his power, by means of a capitulation ; il is obvious, that this 
end was more likely to have been attained by a vigorous and menacing attack of 
the place, than by the slow and feeble mode of proceeding which he adopted. In 
the former case, the garrison might possibly have been intimidated into an early 
surrender, before the allied forces could come to its relief : as it was, it had every 
encouragement to hold out till their arrival. The Sultan appears to have been 
betrayed into this first error, by the expectation of accomplishing his object 
through negociation : and this grand mistake was followed by another, of a 
military kind, which completely frustrated his views. He suffered the enemy, 
not only to reach Adoni without any material attempt to intercept them, but 
to remain in its vicinity during three or four days ; and finally to remove the 
garrison and women in safety, without the least interruption. It is in vain that 
he endeavours to disguise these blunders : his endeavours, for this purpose, only 
prove his secret consciousness of them. 


From the same to the same, and of the same Date. (18^/t June.') 

Your note has been received, and its contents are understood. You 
write, " that hitherto, in pursuance of the intimation of the Presence,^') 
V you have not been deficient in [your endeavours to bring] the [pending] 
" negociation [to a conclusion], and that, even now, nothing is gone 
" [or lost]."W You proceed to state, that you wish we would represent 
" the matter, agreeably to your former proposals, to the Presence ; and 
*' getting a settlement made accordingly, which would redound to our 


( 1 ) This may refer either to Tippoo or to his own master, Mohabut Jung ; but I indiue to 
think that the former is here intended. 

(2) Original c:-J/ ^ 


" honour/^> apprize you tbereof ;" and you exhort us, '' to exert our 
*' most strenuous endeavours, to obtain and send you a favourable 
** ansxA'cr." 

It is known. Tbe firmament is prepared W and ripe with the ruin of 
the house [of your master]. Pity I a thousand pities I that you, Sir, 
should not have opened your eyes, or contemplated the certain conse- 
quences of these proceedings ; but, instead of this, should write, " that, 
*' even now, nothing is ^one [or lost]." This circumstance has excited 
in us the utmost siu-prise and amazement. That frieud [or you] did 
lately, on the part of the ]3egiims,^^^ supplicate, in the most humble and 
earnest manner, for an accommodation and adjustment of this business. 
In consideration hereof, and solicitous to avert the dreadful evils which 
menaced the honor of a ivorld, collected together within the fort (for, 
in any sinister event,'^'^) ruin to the house and Joss of honour^'^ to numberless 
creatures must ensue), we represented the case in such various lights 
[and so efficaciously] to the resplendent Presence, as brought our boun- 
tiful master to agree to a settlement. That friend, notwithstanding this, 
now introduces [or brings forward] excuses, respecting an adjustment of 
the matter : hence it would seem, that you, Sir, are desirous of bringing 
about the ruin of your master's house, and the misery of the people. 
This is an evil which no one can remedy. [Still, however, we would 
fain impress upon your mind] the propriety of weighing in the scales of 
wisdom the good and bad of tliis business ; and, having obtained from 


{?,) Or, "good name:" ttiat is, as being the instruments of so just and liumane an ar- 
iMiigenieiit as the one alluded to. 

(4) Original i.\».-,,„ - CS^ '■ (• " fate is impending" or " ready [to strike]." 
^5) The superior ladies of tiie ^/a/i/ ; princesses. 
(6) I. e. " An assault of the fort." 

(1) Original LSy.ju-y^ " * spilling, shedding, or flowing of honour," (as of blood); 
iippUed more particularly to female houour. 


vour master full powers for its adjustnient, of your repairing hither, in 
order that, somehow or other, the negociatlon may be terminated ; inas- 
much as the interest and prosperity of a whole world are herein concerned 
[or are at stake]. Any further delay must, on the other hand, be pro- 
ductive of the most serious evils, which it will be no longer in your power, 
or in ours, to ward off. By the Divine favour, that friend is conversant 
in all worldly affairs, and duly acrpiaintcd with the ups and downs^'^^ of 
fortune [or life]. You have, moreover, witnessed with your own eyes, 
the fate of many ancient rulers ; such as those of Kurpah and Gooti/. 
With such examples [before you], to permit [this thing] is far removed 
from [or irreconcilable with] foresight [or prudence], as well as incom- 
patible with [your] attachment to the interest [of your master]. At any 
rate, it is the imperious duty of the subdued [or powerless] to omit no 
means of conciliating the powerful ; but, by every possible submission 
and demonstration of humility, to avert the ruin impending over them : 
it is [therefore] fitting, that that friend, accompanied by two [other] 
persons of weight and consideration, should repair hither to-morrow, in 
order that we may jointly represent matters in such a way to the Pre- 
sence, as shall lead to the accomplishment of whatever may [best] con- 
duce to the benefit of God's creatures. 


Fro7n the same to the same ; dated I6th Jaafury. (19 th Jnnc.^ 

The letter you sent has sliown the face of arrival, and made us ac- 
quainted with the circumstances therein written. You state, " that 
" after obviating all difliculties*^') to day, you will come, accompanied by 


(8) This is literal ; the original being ajUj ;lj . (..-^-iJ 

(1) Original jj^wi^.v-i^J' Jjoj j;^.** " huviiig ailjusicJ all points in ilisputc." 


'f. the persons of respeetability [or credit, before mentioned] for the 
" purpose of putting [every thing] in a [proper] train [of adjustment]." 
It is known, and highly approved. The habits of friendship and mutual 
interest have, of old [or from former times], firmly and truly subsisted 
between our lord and master (long may his prosperity endure V) and your 
master.*-^ A regard to this circumstance, joined to compassion for the 
situation of [God's] creatures, has disposed the blessed mind [of the 
former] to an accommodation ; in which [disposition] he has been more 
especially confirmed by your humble supplications, aided by the repre- 
sentations of us, your friends, and others participating in the present 
ncgociation. It is, therefore, proper, that that friend, obtaining full 
powers to conclude a settlement, and accompanied by the persons of 
credit [before alluded to], should repair hither, and finally arrange the 
business, according to your agreement ; inasmuch as his Highness, our 
master, has these two objects greatly at heart ; namely, first, the relief 
of [God's] creatures •,^^'> and, secondly, the corroboration of the founda- 
tions of ancient friendship. AVhat more ? 


From the same to the same ; dated TVednesdaij Night, IStk JaafuryS^> 

(2\st June?) 

We will [punctually] attend, Sir, to your appointment for to-morrow 
morning. Do you come also, Sir, accompanied by your confidential 
[friends] ; when we will proceed together to the Presence. 

(2) Alluding, most probably, to the political connexion formerly subsisting between Busa- 
hit Jui'.g (the father of Moliabiit Jung) and Hyder Ali. 

(3) Original ^l■^ J!^^ (►=V' " '^o'"P'**'''°" ^""^ *''^ condition of Cod's creatures." 

(1) This letter should properly follow the one which it now precedes; but it is inserted 
here, for tlic purpose of preserving the coniinuit}' of the subject. 



Nothing further is recorded in the correspondence respecting this negociation, 
which was probably bro^cen off about this time, by the appearance of the reHeving 
army. With the exception of a shght notice in Letter CCCVIII, Adoni is not 
even mentioned in any of the succeeding dispatches, till we arrive at the period 
when, in consequence of the peace concluded with the Mahrattahs and the N'lzdm, 
the Sultan announces to Kiitbuddeen Khan the revocation of the grant he had 
made to the latter of that district in Jdgecr. 


2b BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated \'Jth Jaafury. (20ih June^ 

On the subject of his chastising the enemy, and desiring him to keep 
moving round them at the distance of ten or twelve coss. Directing him, 
also, to procure supplies of grain from Nugr and to distribute the same 
among his troops. 


Circular, dated 18th Jaafury (2\si June), to the following 


Zynul Aabideen, 
Mahommed Huleem, 
Meeran Husain, 
HusAiN Khanpoonv, 
RujUB Ali Baig, 

You are to retain with your Kushoons such young and active women, 
only, of those belonging to it, as may be capable of keeping pace with 

2 X the 

Shaikh Imam, 
Imam Khan, 
Ahmed Baig, 
Ghulam Mohyuddeen, 
Shaikh Omau. 


the victorious army in its [approaching] marches. The rest, who may 
be aged and infirm, are, with the other heavy baggage, to be sent off to 
Fyze Hindi- \_Gootij\. In addition to your constant [or usual] stock of 
provisions, you must supply yourself with a sufficient quantity [to be 
kept in reserve] for the consumption of ten days. What more ? 


It is probable, that the Sultan was now preparing to make some movement 
against the allied force, of the approach of which to the relief of Adoni he may be 
presumed to have received intelligence about this time. The foregoing circular is 
followed in the manuscript by a short note to Moaayenuddeen, desiring him to 
hasten to the Presence, as soon as he had finished his repast. 


To BuDRuz ZumanKhanj dated 2\st Ja AFC iiY. (24th June.') 
According to your Hukm-ndmeh [or written instructions], your 
army should consist of ten thousand men, including Ji/she, horse, and 
Piddehs. Call the detached troops, or out posts, together; and do you, 
for tlie present, proceed and join Biirhaniiddcen with your army, and 
co-operate with him in the chastisement of the enemy. 

Your appointment of Mudara Baig to the Kiluaddry of Jlmmdpoor is 
approved. You must, by means of the aforesaid, ^^i. together [/. e. 
raise for the service of the Sircar'\ as many horsemen as possihle. 


To Burhanuddeen ; same Date. Q2Ath Jime^ 
Two letters from you have passed under our view, and the particulars 
set forth in them are distinctly manifested. 


T I r P O O SULTAN. 339 

What you write, of having chastised and defeated the enemy, is 
understood. Budruz Zuman Khan has also been ordered to join you 
with the forces under his command, and to co-operate with you in the 
chastisement of the enemy. The aforesaid Khdn will, accordingly, join 
you with his troops. As he possesses great practical knowledge and expe- 
rience in war, you will, as a matter of course,*^') consult with him on all 
measures relating to the operations [you are conducting]. You must, 
also, keep moving round the enemy, at the distance of from two to three 
coss, in order that you may, by this means, straiten their foragers.^-^ 

What you write, with regard to your having relinquished to the 
captors the horses and camels taken from the enemy, is known ; and 
we approve of the same. 

We lately wrote to you, desiring you to turn, or pass, the rear of the 
enemy, and join us ^\'ith your army. That, however, is not now neces-* 
sary. You must remain where you are, in the districts of Kiltoor, 
Dhdrwdr, and Shdnoor, and apply yourself to the chastisement of the 
enemy. Please God, we shall soon be disengaged from the business 
which occupies us here, when, after inflicting signal punishment on such 
part of the enemy's forces as may [venture to] advance oji this side of 
Adoni, we shall proceed, by the route of Hurpunhulhj, and crossing the 
Tungbhuddra, pursue [from thence] our march to that quarter [/. e. to 
join you]. 

What you have stated, of the commendable services of Ghous Ma- 
hommed Khan, and of Sheer Khan, the Umlddr, and others, is com- 
prehended, and we have, in consequence, issued orders to Mahonuued 
Ilyder and to Nursia, the Taaldkddrs of Niigr, to send you two pair of 

2X2 gold, 

(1) jtji^J:^ " A necessary point, artiuk', consciiuenoc." 

(.) So I nnderstaiul ilic oriniiKil oF this passago ; whicli, liowovi-r, by the altor.itioii 
ot a single (liuciitical point, would imply, tlwt Bftriiririuddcon's facilities of foiaging would, 
by this means, be augmented. 


gold, and thirty pair of silver /ui//calis,^^'> each pair of the weight of one 
seerS*^ The former of these you are to present to the first Munshoor 
[Ghous Mahomnied Khan], and to Sheer Khan, the Umlddr aforesaid. 
Thie silver ones are to be given to the inferior officers, as marks of our 

Of the Coolies attached to you, keep as many [onlyj as you may 
{^absolutely] require, and distribute the rest among the four Kushoons 
[^with you], for the service of the Doolies [or litters], in which the sick 
and wounded must be dispatched to the circumjacent forts. 

You write, " that you have it in contemplation to make a night attack 
*' upon the enemy." It is revealed. Where [or when] will you have 
an opportunity of making a night attack ? You should, however, keep 
moving round the enemy, at the distance of three or four coss,'^^'> in order 
that, if a favourable occasion should present itself, you may [fall upon 
and] chastise them. 


The foregoing letter appears twice in the collection, but in different places, and 
with some variations. I have followed the entry which seemed to me the most 
perfect of the two. In the copy, however, which I suppose to have been can- 
celled, the following material paragraph occurs : 

'' What you write of the bacTiivardness of the cavalry is understood. You 
" must give orders to their Buhhshy to exert himself, for the purpose of infusing 
" into them a proper spirit, so that they may not, hereafter, act in a cowardly 
" manner, at the [critical] moment of service." 

(3) A Hulkah is a kind of bracelet or ring, won) round tlie wrist. 

(4) In the original *U-CiJ or a light seer, opposed to a seer of full or perfect weight. 
A full seer is equal to about two pounds avordupoise. The lig/it seer does not exceed a 
pound and a li;Uf. 

(5) I.i a preceding part of this letter, the distance prescribed is from two to three coss. 
In Letter CCCV it is stated at ten or twelve coss. 



To Meer Turab Ali ; dated 22d ShaabaxS'^ (28th June.') 
This is a letter from the Sultan, inviting the person addressed to repair to his 
court, where he promises him a favourable reception, and a provision suitable to 
his rank and qualifications. It would not appear to be an answer to any direct 
overture in writing from Turab Ali, but to have resulted from some verbal commu- 
nication made to the Sultan by a Hindoo agent, named Laleh Wullub Doss. 

I take this Meer Turab Ali to be the same person who will hereafter be found 
making some figure in the intrigues carried on by Tippoo, in the year 1 796-7, at 
the court of Ilijderabad. He was probably, at this period, a dependant of Moha- 
but Jung. It does not appear from the correspondence, whether or not he 
accepted the Sultan's proposals on the present occasion ; but other documents 
furnish reason to think he did not. It is not unlikely, that he might have satisfied 
the Sultan that he could serve him better where he then was, than by actually 
joining him ; which, however, he ultimately did, after the lajjse of some years. 


To the SiPAHDAit, Mahommed Ali ; dated 21 th Jaafvry. (30th Jane.) 

You write, " that the Ddrogha of the J'aisy attachcil to your Kushoon 
" having, without your knowledge, sent the bullocks [belonging to your 

" guns] to graze, the enemy's people came "('*) You must, 

after flogging the aforesaid Ddroi^ha, discharge him [from our service]. 

With respect to the Risdladdr, Bubr Ali Baig, whom you represent to 
be very troublesome'^) to the men of the Risdla, and to the Jowkddrs, 


(1) Correspontiin;^, I bflicvo, with tlic 20tli of June n3(i: consequently, this letler should 
properly h.ivc (ollowcd Letter CCCIII. 

(1*) Either the Sipal)ddr left the rest to b(! ^Ui-ssed by liis master, or the transcriber omitted 
what should have followed, nanielv, the wordN " and carried them otl." The latter is the 
most probable, as will appear from Ixttcr CCCXXIII, where the same subjrct recurs. 

(2) Original LiJii-i which is not less vague in its signilicution than the word by whicli I 
bave been obliged to render it. 


you must give lilm such strict orders [or admonisli him so severely]] as 
shall prevent him from repcatiug his improper practices. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; sawe Date. (SOfh Jnne.^ 

You write, " that some of^') the Kilaaddrs and Byots of the [adja- 
" cent] Taaldks [or districts], having thrown off their allegiance(-> to us, 
*' convey intelligence to the enemy, and, moreover, supply the latter 
" with provisions." It is known. You must seize upon the [offenders], 
punish them,*^^) and hang them upon trees, as examples to others. 


To Z\"svL, Aabideen ; Bukhsiiy of Ehsham at Fvrrvkh-yah 
HisAit, CCltittledoorgJ ; same Date. (30th June.') 

Your letter, enclosing one [to your ('*) address] from the Kilaaddr 
of Kopul, has heen received. Y^ou state, " that you had [some time 


(1) Tlioiigl) this restriction of tlie sense is not aiithorized by tiie manuscript, yet it seems 

more probable that the words which I liavc ventured to supijly should have been omiued by 

the transcriber, than that the disaffection, or disloyalty, referred to, should have been so 

•universal, as the original, without this correction, would imply. The inhabitants of a fron- 

tier province mi'^ht waver in their attachment; but as all the Kilaaddrs must have been 

of the Sultans own appointment, it would be difficult to believe that they should all have 

proved unfaithful to him. . 

(2*) Original iSJ:»J-\> " having revolteJ, or rebelled." 

(3) The sense may be, and punish them by hanging them, &c.," or " that some were to 

be punished (perhaps flogged) and others to bo hung." The original is J'i^j'^j '^L ^^ 

(I*) Orighia! Jj .^ .\ jj«1j la:^ <U.i> where the word ki (khuttj sufficiently denotes that the 
enclosure referrca to was addressed to ZynCd Aabideen ; since, if it bad been adJresscd to 
the Sultan, it would have been called an urzee, inilcad of a Ahull. 


*' before] written to us, on the subject of providing for the security of the 
" fort of Kopul, and of dispatching [thither] a thousand or five hundred 
" trusty men [to reinforce the garrison], but that no answer had [yet] been 
" sent by us to your letter." It is known. Some time has clasped since 
we gave orders for the dispatch of the trusty men [in question], and also 
replied to your letters.^'*^ We will now, however, send people [or a re- 
inforcement] to the aforesaid fort [directly] from the Presence. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; clufeil 2d DJrJey. (pth July.') 

We have learned of the flight of the enemy's army from Iloohly^^^ ; 
and that that light of our eyes has encamped at Kulhungi/,^-^ a very 
strong and [well] protected situation. The rains, however, are violent 
at that place : you must [therefore] encamp on [or move to] some spot, 
where the rain is more moderate, in order that your horses, &c. [or your 
cattle] may not perish, or your people suffer inconvenience. 

You write, on the subject of confining AbdCd Sumud Khun,^^> the son 
of Hukcem Khan, " that Dilcer Dil Khan having represented him to 
" be attached to the Sircar, and as entertaining no dangerous views of 
" any kind, you propose waiting a repetition of our orders for his 
" arrest." It is known. You must secure his person, and send him 
[a prisoner] to Nugr. 

Agreeably to your desire, we have written [and enclosed] orders to 
the Tualdkddr of Nugr, and to the [several] ylumils of that district, 


(2*) The answers rcfcricJ to Iiad probably miscariicil. 

0) Oiig'mul Vij j» wliitij circumstances make probable is designed for 7/oyi/y. 

(2) Name uncertain ; but perhaps liic Kailkunda of Captain Moor. 
C?) Sec Letter CCXCVI. 


to dispatch supplies of grain to you. You must forward the said orders 
to them, and apply for the grain [you require]. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 4th DJraey. gth July.) 

You have represented to us, " that Syed Peer, the Kilaaddr of that 
" place [_Bangalore\, requires a separate order from us to himself [as a 
*' warrant], for his dispatching to the Presence the cannon-shot [for 
" which we lately wrote to you]." It is known. Cannon-shot are not 
now wanted : they must, therefore, not be sent. 


As Syed Peer was not reproved for declining to obey an order not addressed to 
himself, it may be concluded, that lie was justified in what he did by the re- 
gulations of his department ; and, consequently, that the Sultan had issued his 
orders in an informal manner. 

It moreover may be inferred from the foregoing letter, that the Sultan's 
operations against Adoni had now terminated. 


To RuKMUST Kuan, FoujdAr^^^ of Kurnool; same Date. (JthJidy.) 

[After compliments] A long period has clasped, during 

Avhich you have not delighted or gladdened me with the joyful tidings of 


(I) Tills Icrni lilerally signifies, •' cnc liaving charge of an army;" but, in itsordinaiy 
accept ition, it means an officer of government, cNcrcising tlic civil and military juiisdiction 
of a district, to wliicli is sometimes added the administration or collection of the revenues, 
iliougii this is usually a distinct employment, and held by an Aumil. 


your health and happiness. This neglect is very distant from the esta- 
blished rules of friendship, since friendship renders it incumbent [on 
you] to afford me regularly the satisfaction of receiving letters [from 
you], containing accounts of your welfare. 

The victorious army being arrived in these parts,^-) it is fitting that 
that friend should afford me the pleasure of an interview [with him], 
in order that the foundations of mutual regard and amity may be 
strengthened, and that various points, which can only be properly 
discharged in a personal intercourse,^'^) may be finally adjusted [be- 
tween us]. 


I am unable to say, whether the interview, here proposed by the Sultan, took 
place or not. It is probable, that Runmust Khan would endeavour to evade it, if 
for no other reason than because he could not consent to such a meeting, without 
rendering himself obnoxious to the suspicions and displeasure of the Nizdm, whose 
feudatory be was. 

It must not be concluded, from the circumstance of the Patan chieftain being 
designated Fotijddr in the title of the foregoing letter, that he was actually 
addressed by this disparaging appellation. Such an affront could not be reconciled 
with the general style of the letter, which is not deficient in courtesy. It is 
very possible, however, that the Sultan might have been in the habit of speaking 
of him, to bis secretaries and others, as the Foiijddr of Kurnool, and that term, 
like that of Sdnoor IFdle/i, might, in this manner, have come to be adopted by 
the transcribers, or registers, of the correspondence. 

2 Y 

(2) This letter was probably written while the Sullan was in the vicinity of Adoni, whicli 
is only about seventy miles from Kurnool. 

(3) Original ^y ^ An expression whicii, if used by any otiier person but Tippoo, 
might be coiistruc-il as meaning ** a convivial meeting ;" which, of course, could not have 
been in his contemplation. 



2b Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated 6fh DarAey. (9th July.') 

Directing him to issue the pay of the men raised by Syed Peer, the 
Kilaaddr \oi Hangalore], according to the return transmitted; with an 
intimation, that if the aforesaid Kilaaddr should entertain any infirm, 
useless, or old men, he would be compelled to refund the advances made 
to them. Ordei'ing, moreover, a receipt to be demanded of the above- 
named Kilfiaddr, for all articles delivered to him ; and signifying, in 
short, that Rum Chundur was not to supply him with any thing, without 
taking his receipt for the same/'> 


Circular, scane Date, (9th July), to 

Khajeh Ibud Khan, 
Khajeh Uzeemullah Khan, 

Mahommed Kuli Khan, 
IsHMAEL Baig Humdany and 

Ishmael Baig Isfahany/'*) 

Inviting them to repair, with collected minds [i. e. with confidence]^ 
to the Presence, and to bring with them as many horsemen as possible : 
promising that the whole shall be provided for, according to their merits 
and to the regulations of tlie Sircar. 

(1) Literally, " there is ?io necessi'tj/ for delivering any articles to him without a receipt." 

(I*) It is probable that alh these were officers ia the service of the Nizam, or of Mohabui 


LEn^ER cccxviir. 

To Meer Maiiojmmed Sadik, Deu-ax of the livzooii^^ (or Pre- 
sence) ; same Date. (9ih July?) 

Directing him to ascertain and trace the goods and furniture'^"-^ in 
the possession of the inliabitants of that place [meaning Serwgopatam~\ 
and to make a report of the same. 


The phrase ^^sJL>j *^ i'^-: which I have rendered " to trace" is usually applied 
to the recovery of things concealed: the order, therefore, implies, that a strict 
search, or examination, was to be made. What the Sultans object, in this inqui- 
sition, was, does not appear ; but it was most probably directed with a view to 
some contribution, which he might have had in contemplation to levy on his 
subjects, in aid of his finances. There is no authority, however, that I know of, 
for supposing that any such contribution was actually levied at this period. 


To BuRttANUDDEEN J dated 9th Daraey. (\2th Juhj.') 

Directing him to station a Risdla of the Jj/she, under Shaikh 
Boodhun (brother to Shaikh Unser), at Dhdrwdr ; and to dispatch, 
with great care, to Chittledoorg , the Daisye and other hostages. 

2 Y 2 

(1) " Minister of the Presence:" such it seems was the official designation of Meer Si- 
dik at this period. Wiietiicr or not any ciiangc subsequently took place in it, I am unable 
to state positively. He was afterwards, at the institution of the Meer Asofs, placed at their 
head; but, probably, still continued to be styled "/>ewflrt of the Zfwzoor." 

(2) Original (^UL j (^li»-l This expression does not usually, I believe, include the idea 
of money : and yet the context would here seem to imply as much. 



The Daisije, here mentioned, is, no doubt, the unfortunate chief of Kittoor, 
of whom the last notice was taken in Letter CLXX. Another dispatch, on the 
same subject, makes it rather uncertain, whether the Dalsye himself was to be 
removed to Chlttledoorg, or only such of his servants or dependants as were 
deprived of their liberty at the same time with him, and who are distinguished m 
t1ie original by the term Ool, or hostages. 


2b Shumsuddeen Khan and Ghulabi Hyder, Daroghas of the 
Tosheu-Khaneh, (at PuryJ ; dated 14ih Daraey. Q'Jth Jul?/.') 

A Book, entitled Fukhnfs Shilyookh [or " the glory of the Shaikhs"'], 
has been dispatched to you by the post. Of this book you are to get forty 
copies correctly and plainly Avritten by the transcribers there [i. e. at 
Seringapatani], leaving fifteen blank leaves at the beginning and end of 
each copy. Let this be expeditiously done,<'> and let the several copies 
be forwarded to us as they are finished, and an entry be made of the 
same in the register of your department. 

You must compare the books, which were sent to you pately] by the 
post, with the catalogue forwarded [at the same timej, and depositing 
them in our library, make an entry thereof in the register of the [proper^ 
<lepartment. Of the books in question we have retained seven volumes. 


The book here directed to be copied is mentioned in Major Stewart's catalogue, 
at page 15/ ; where it is stated to be a treatise on the duties of pious Musulmans. 

(1) Tn the original jjJIj^jIj ois- wliicltmay possibly mean, "htthzm ha bound" 


So many copies were doubtlessly ordered, with a view to the general dissemination 
of the doctrines inculcated in the work, which, of course, corresponded with the 
Sultan's own intolerant and bigottcd principles. 

It is not improbable, that the books, mentioned in the last paragraph of the 
preceding letter, were part of the booty acquired at Adoni. 


To RuNMUST Khan, Chief of Kurnool ; dated \2th Bumuzan, 
A. H. 1200. (or dth July I786.) 

Mentioning the dismissal of Dhuruni Doss, who would verbally 
communicate matters circumstautially ; and recommending to him to 
continue to cultivate the union subsisting of old [hetween the two 
families or states], as this [line of conduct] would be productive of 
salutary cuds. 

N.B. This letter should properly have followed Letter CCCXVIII. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN J duted from Kurgoor, I4lh DJr.iey. 

(\7th Jufi/.) 

On the subjects of stationing the Bisdla of Shaikh Boodhun, accord- 
ing to former orders [see Letter CCCXIX] at Dlidrwdr ; of sending 
for the Aumil of that place, Yenkut Rungia, and keeping him careftdfi/^^> 
with himself ; of appointing Sheer Khan, the Umlddr of KUtoor, to 
the Umlddnj of Dhdrwdr ; and of dispatching Mahommcd Ghous Khan 
to Dhdrwdr. 


(1) It woiilil seem by tlio context, that Yciikut Uungiii was in di-giacc. 


Announcing to liim, moreover, that the Sulfcm was about to cross the 
rivcr'-^ at Gung-KurkniU,^^^ and would soon arrive [?'. e. would soon join 
liini] ; and enjoining him [in the mean while] not to give battle preci- 

Informing him, finally, that the special retinue was arrived at Kur- 
goor ; and directing him to send orders for the demolition of the fort 
of Kittoor, and for the return of the garrison to his army. 


To the SiPAHDAR, Mahommed Ali ; same Date, (l^th July.^ 

Two Urzies [or humble addresses] have been received from you, 
wherein you mention " that the Ddrogha of the Jinsy of your Kicshoon 
" had, without your knowledge, sent [your] bullocks to graze ; that 
" the eneniy's horse came and carried them oft"; that you had, [in con- 
" sequence] placed him [the Ddrogha] under a guard ; and that 
" Mahommed Kazim, interceding for him with Burhiinuddecn, had 
" procured his release." 

We formerly wrote, and we now again write to say, that the above- 
mentioned Ddrogha must be dismissed from our service, and another 
appointed in his place. 


(2) I conclude the Toovihuddra to be here meant. I am not certain, however, that 

(3) Gung-kurkndt is the right name of the passage spoken of, tiiough it is so written in 
two or three places. It does not appear in any of our maps. I take Kurgoor to be the Ktr- 
goadc of Colonel Wilks' map, placed about twenty-five miles south-west of Adoui ; though 
Kurgoor would appear, by the next letter, to be situated on, or near, the i)ai)k of the Toom- 
biiddra, i\om \\\\\ch Kcrgoade I'i, at li-asf, fointecn miles according to the maj). 

(4) As ill a few other instances, this part of the abstract is in the words of the original 
letter »«^ 4jj^ ^jj .wrf *ji> U "We, too, crossing the river, will soon arrive;" where it 
is remarkable, tliat the iw//aH employs both the pronoun personal U (we), and the verb in 
the fubt person, of which I doubt whether there are two otlier e.\aniplcs in the whole corre- 
spondence. One more occurs in Letter CCCLVI, to MCilaim Jung. 


Oar most holy camiy'> is pitched on tlie banks of the Tiingbuddra , and 
you may reckon on the special retinue speedily reflecting splendor on that 


If any orders were sent to Buihanudden, respecting the Ddrogha of Mahoin- 
med All's Jinsi/, tlicy do not appear. It is not improbable, however, that under 
the loose system, by which the military authorities were regulated in the Sultans 
armies, the present directions to the Sipahddr were deemed sufficient for the 


3b GnuLAM Hl SAIN Khan, Mvxshoor of Bangalore ; dated 18M 

Dauaey. (2\st Jidy.^ 

Directing him to employ the Kumdties, or labourers, belonging to 
the fort, in erecting habitations for the Ahmedies ; to attend, in due 
time, to the provisioning of the place ; to wx'iie his Urzies [to the Sidtan7\ 
conjointly with the Kilaaddr ; and to examine carefully into all affairs 
relating to the fort, as business was in progress, that made attention 
necessary in all things, great and small.<'*> 

Ordering him, finally, to make his written instructions the rule of his 

(1) Original j^^jj) *«ir« Tiiis is tlie iannuage of royalty, which the »yw//rt72 occasionally 
uses in writing to his own subjects and dependants. ,J' j ....i^ " resplendent presence," and 
Ui-JjJj U " our prosperous person," arc of the same nature. These forms do not,, how- 
ever, occur very freciuentiy in tlie present correspondence. Tiic Memoirs furnish ratiicr 
more examples of them. It is probable, that in his oral intercourfc with his people, he 
constantly employed the style of majesty. 

(\*) Original ^j^jj>- "particular and general." 



To KuTBUL MuLK ; Same Date. (2lst Juli/.') 

Directing him to circulate among the Musulman inhabitants of that 
place [meaning jldoiif] the mandates containing the arguments, expla- 
nations, and statements ;^^^ and also to transmit [copies of] the same to 
Hyderabad and ^urungahad. 


There can be no doubt, that the documents referred to in this brief entry, or 
memorandum, under the designation of arguments, &c. are the circular letter and 
proclamation inserted at page 291, and which the Sultan appears to have been 
anxious to disseminate, wherever there was any chance of their procuring him 
partizans, or of inducing Musulman adventurers to repair to his standard. We 
shall, accordingly, presently see him transmitting the same persuasions to the ex- 
tremities of Hindostan, in which quarter, however, his success was not likely to 
keep pace with his wishes, (whatever might be the case in the dominions of his 
immediate neighbours); inasmuch as the contest for power between Madhajee Sain- 
deah and the Moghul chieftains of Hindostan had not yet terminated; and because, 
while that contest continued, the inducements to the Musulmans to emigrate from 
thence were not so strong as they subsequently became, upon the complete esta- 
blishment of the Mahrattah authority throughout the provinces lying between the 
Chiimhid and the Ganges. But even in this last conjuncture, when there did not 
any longer exist, to the northward of the Toombuddra , a single Mahommedan leader, 
capable of affording employment to the scattered bands of Moghuls and Patans, 
who were now left without a master, the Sultan would not appear to have obtained 
any material accession of strength from the side of Hindostan : the chief reason 


[i) Original JWl j e:^ jW j J.;^*^^^ " mandates containing aiguments and cxpiana- 
" lions with accounts or expositions [of the actual circumstances or state oi Islam in India].' 


of which, most probably, was, that there was no access to Rlifsorc, excepting by 
countries in the possession of his enemies, or of states jealous of his power, 
who were not likely to have permitted any bodies of armed men to pass through 
their territories, for the purpose of reinforcing his armies. If, therefore, he 
received, at the period alluded to, any recruits at all from this quarter, it could 
only be such straggling individuals as might, from their insignificance, be enabled 
to proceed unnoticed. 

The Kutbulmulk, '' to whom the fbregoing letter is addressed, is the same per- 
son elsewhere called Kutbiiddeen Khan, which last is a name by no njeans uncom- 
mon among Musulmans. Kutbulmiilk, on the other hand, is a title ; and one, 
indeed, of considerable eminence, the affix of nlmiilk to a title denoting the highest 
that is, in general, bestowed. I say, in general, because it was rarely that any 
title of a superior degree was conf6Yred by the court of Dehli. Sometimes we 
meet with ulmumdUk added to, or substituted for ulmdlk, of which it is the 
plural ; and this would appear to have been a step higher than what was denoted 
by the same term in the singular number. 

The usual gradation of titles is in the following ascending scale. 1, Belidddr ;^'^ 
2, Jung ;^^^ 3, Uddowlah ;'^^ and 4, Ulmdlk ;'^^ which the reader may, if he pleases, 
fancy to resemble, 1, Baronet; 2, Baron; 3, Viscount; 4, Earl. The addition 
of Khan was also considered as an honorary distinction, and is still occasionally 
bestowed, as such, by the imperial and some of the pseudo courts. It is, how- 

2 Z ever, 

(2) I believe that tliis KQtbQlinCilk was tlie father of IIQsain All Kliui), who was killed on 
the 6th April 1799, in an attack made by the English on the post of Sultanpd. 

(3) Etymoiogists pretend tliat this word is compounded of \^ " price, value," and jj 

" a pearl ;" i. e. «' precious as a pearl." It figuratively signifies " a champton, warrior, or 
" brave man." 

(4) Jung. Tliis title, to be rendered significant, must be preceded by some other word, 
expressing some (juality or characteristic of a warrior: as Slwkut Jung, "formidable in 
" battle;" JJiluwuv Jtoig, " valiant in battle, or in war, &c. 

(5) Uddowlah. This word may be rendered "of the state ;" as 

(6) Ulmulk may be " of the kingdom," and ulmumdlik " of tlic empire." Thus Nizam- 
iiddou'la/t signifies " regulator of the state," or " one who contributes to the order or rcgula- 
" tion of the btate ;" as A/us/iecr uhnulk docs " counsellor, or minister, of the kingdom." 


ever, in such very general use, as a component part of proper names, among the 
Mahommedans, and particularly those of the Patan or Afghan tribes, that it is not 
always easy to distinguish, when it occurs, in what sense it is meant to be applied, 
that is, whether as a title or a proper name. 

The first title generally conferred is that of Behddur, then Jung, afterwards Ud- 
dowlah, and lastly Ulmiilk. On some occasions, however, all four are bestowed 
at once. At least such has been the practice since the decline of the Moghul 
empire : but there is reason to believe that, in its more flourishing days, these 
distinctions were less lavishly distributed than has been latterly the case. They 
have, at all times, been conferred by patent, and were never considered hereditaiy. 

Such are the titles ordinarily granted by the imperial court; but the Souhahs of 
the Decan, as if ambitious of surrounding themselves with superior splendor, have 
added to them the more eminent distinction of nl Omra ; or rather extended the 
application of this title, which, I believe, was usally restricted by the emperors to 
the single individual occasionally elevated to the rank of Emirdl Omra, or " lord 
" of lords." At the court of Hyderabad, however, we meet with AazmniU Omra, 
" grandest of lords;" Shmnsdl Omra, "the sun of lords;" TdjM Omra, "the 
" crown of lords," &c. 

I have no where been able to discover any clear or distinct proof, that Tippoo 
Sultan ever conferred titles of any sort upon his subjects ; and yet there are some 
passages in the correspondence, which would seem, in some degree, to authorize 
such a belief. In a letter, for instance, to Rajah Ram Chundur, " he directs him 
" always to affix his tiile seal'^ to his Urzies." We meet also with one dispatch 
addressed to a Mulaim Jung ; and another to a Shaikh Abd«?/ 3fdlk, Kilaaddr of 
Jlouscottah. With respect, however, to the former of these titles, there is reason 
to suspect that it was no other than a ludicrous one, or kind of nick-name, since it 
signifies " gentle, or soft, in battle," and appears to have belonged to the leader of 
the Sultan's musical band. Besides these titled persons, it is certain that there was 
an officer of considerable distinction in the Sultan's service, called Bubr Jung, or 
" the tiger of war:" and Mahommcd Riza, another commander of rank, who 


(7) Original ^^ISai- 


was killed at the battle of Sedaseer, was also known, to Europeans at least, by the 
title of the Binky Nabob. It is proper to observe, however, that though Bubr 
Jung is, on one or two occasions, spoken of by the Sultan under that title, Ma- 
hommed Riza is no where mentioned, in the official documents, by the appellation 
of the Binky Nabob. 

It is possible, that the difTercnt persons here mentioned, including Kiitbiil Miilk, 
may have been in possession of the titles by which they were distinguished, at the 
time of their becoming subjects of the Sultan, or of his father : and, indeed, ou 
no other supposition can the matter be satisfactorily explained ; since, if the Sultan 
had ever bestowed titles, it is natural to conclude, that he would have decorated his 
principal servants with them : whereas the fact is, that not one of these, nor even 
a single individual of his own family, would ever appear to have received any dis- 
tinctions of the kind in question. 

It remains to be considered, what could be the reason of the Sultans abstaining, 
during a reign of sixteen years, from assuming a privilege, so freely exercised by 
the Souhah of the Decan and other upstart rulers, and generally deemed an essen- 
tial appendage of sovereignty. It could not be, that he entertained any doubts of 
his right to bestow titles of honour ; since there are abundant proofs that he was 
never under the influence of any scruple respecting the authority of the imperial 
court, none of whose nominal vassals showed so little deference to it as he did. 
His conduct, therefore, in the instance under examination, is, perhaps, to be re- 
ferred solely to that jealousy or mistrust, which formed a prominent feature of his 
character. He was, probably, afraid of making his servants too great; and might 
think the splendor of a titled retinue, more calculated to eclipse, than to exalt his 
own personal importance. Titles of honour might breed in those, on whom they 
were conferred, ambitious wishes and views, which would not otherwise be excited : 
they would also give the possessors of them too much consequence with the people, 
and thus might prove a source of various evils, more or less dangerous to his autho- 
rity. 1 he history of the rise of his own father's power would tend to confirm the 
prudence of this reasoning : which in a mind, naturally prone to suspicion, as that 
of the Sultan was, may easily be conceived to have led to the conclusion, that 
" his security would be best promoted by the political insignificance of his agents." 

2 Z 2 



To Mahmood Ali Khan ; dated 20th Dar.iey. (23d Jubj.^ 

We wrote some time since, and we now write again, to desire that the 
sliip [you are now fitting out] may be coppei'ed, as coppering [the 
bottom of] vessels renders them strong and durable. You must ascer- 
tain from the shipwrights whether coppering the (') conduces to 

the strength [of the ship] ; and if that should be the case, let it be done : 

but if [the ship] should be stronger by not having the coppered, 

then [that part] must not be coppered. In fine, that method, of the 
two, must be adopted, by which the ship will be rendered strongest, and 
made to last a thousand or two thousand years. 


I believe the ship, here mentioned, was one fitting out at Calicut for a voyage 
to Pegu. 

I am not clear that I have rightly understood every word of the foregoing 
extract, the sense of which is rendered the more obscure by the blank which I 
have been obliged to leave. The general import of it is, however, sufficiently 

Though there are some remarkable instances upon record of the great durability 
of teek-buili ships, of which kind those constructed in Tippoo's dock yards, no 
doubt, were ; yet the Sultan is not to be understood as literally meaning, in this 
place, that he expected the ship in question to last one or two thousand years. It 
is a figurative mode of expression, denoting that the vessel was to be constructed in 
the strongest manner possible, and resembles the metaphor employed in Letter 
XCVIII, to Rajah Kara Chundur. 

( I ) The original is .^ which I do not understand. It comes nearest to the Hiiidivy word 
Putxodr, a rudder. " 



7o Bi rhanuddeen; dated 23d DArAey. (2Qth July.') 

You must, after some days, when the road shall have become safe [or 
the communication is opened], dispatch the Risdla of Shaikh Boodhun, 
which is one that may be depended on,^') to Dhdrivdr, and send for the 
Risdla of Shaikh Humeed [to supply its place]. The Kilaaddr of 
Dhdrwdr is, at the same time, to be directed to dispatch to you, under 
charge of the said Risdla, Yenkut Rungia,(^> of whom you must take 
good care. You must also be mindful to "encamp with your army in a 
good situation, where little rain falls [or lays]. The special retinue will 
speedily arrive in that quarter from Kurk-ndth. 

To KutbOl Mui.k Kutbuddeen Ali Khan Behadur ; dated 25th 

BArJeyS'*^ (28th July.) 

There is a little business [going on] in our high SircarS^*^ Dispatch 
to the Presence, for a short time,<^) a seal-engraver. 


Although there is an air of mystery in this short note, it might possibly only 
mean, that the Sultan had occasion to employ a seal-engraver, and therefore 


(1) Original t::,^jUicl 

(2) Besides Yenkut Rungia, twelve otlicr persons appear to have been ordered to be sent 
in cnstody ; but tlicrc is some obscurity in the original, which I am unable to dispel. 

(1*) A letter of the 24th Ddrdey (not inserted) is dated from Diirrojcc, which I take to be 
he Daroje of Colonel Wilks's map, placed about twelve miles west of Kurgoade, or Kurgoor. 

(2*) Original ui^lj\^ ^Xi\ tJ^J^j->j^ 

(3) Original Jjwllj " for the present," or «' at present;" also "actually, in fact." Tiie 
sense, however, seems to rctiuirc the construction which I have given. 


desired one to be sent him from Adoni, where, perhaps, this branch of business 
might be better understood than at Seringapatam. Thus, about thirty years ago, 
every one on the northern side of India, who was desirous of having his name or 
titles engraved in a superior manner, employed, for this purpose, an eminent seal- 
engraver of Fyzabad, in the province of Oude, named Mahommed Saleh, whose 
exquisite execution of the most beautiful Nustalihli character on the hardest 
stones, was certainly unrivalled, excepting by his own son, who succeeded Jiim in 
his occupation. The charge for engraving depended on the stone employed. If 
that was a cornelian, the price was a rupee a letter; but if an emerald, or other 
stone equally hard, it amounted, I think, to six rupees a letter. 


To Meer Moaayenuddeen ; dated 26th DJraey. (29th July,^ 

To-morrow you will halt at this place,^') and distribute the pay 
[of your people], &c. The day after to-morron' you will march, and 
encamp at some place affording [plenty of] water and grass; and, on 
the following day, you must proceed, with the forces under your com- 
mand, to Hms PaithS^) 


To RuNMUST Khan;('*) dated I6th Rumuzan, A. 11. 1200. 

(13//i July 1786.) 

We have, at this time, assigned the Foujddri/^^*'> of yldoni to the 
charge of Kutbuddeen Khan. The aforesaid Khan, in conformity with 


(1) That is Daroje, where the Sultan still was on tlie 29th Ddrdey. 

(2) Name uncertain. 

(1*) The Palati ch'ici oi Kuriicol. 

{2*) KCitbCiddeen's new government is elsewhere called a Jdgeer. " 


the orders of the Presence, will keep one or two respectable persons 
established at Kumr-nugr,'^^^ for the purpose of collecting together [or 
recruiting] horsemen, &c. Let that kind friend [therefore] enjoin his 
principal officers^*) to be assisting to the persons deputed by the afore- 
said Khun, in order that no one may obstruct this business. What 
more ? 


To KuTBUDDEEN Khanj dated 29th Daraey. (\st August?) 

What you have written, on the subject of the Klmtbah'^^^ being read 
in our special name,^^^ is understood. The case is this.^^^ The first thing 
in the Khutbah is the praise of God ; the next, the praise of the Prophet 
(on whom be the blessing and peace of God) ; and after this [should 
follow] the name of such prince^''*^ of the faith, as, being a [true] pro- 
tector of the Mahommedan religion, keeps in view, on all occasions [i. e. 
in every respect], the honour and interest^*) of Isldm, and exerts himself 
for its increase and diffusion.(^> To introduce the names of such, and to 
offer up prayers for them in the Khdtbak, is among the [most] indispen- 

(3) Kurnool is so called by the Musulmans of the Decan. 

(4) Original ^oljWj^ " transactors of business," " managers of affairs." 

(1) The Khulbah is a form of prayer used io Mahommedan mosques, wherein the reigning 
sovereign is prayed for. 

(2) Original ^^ a,\) 

(3*) Original ili^^jjI UL->i^ 

(4*) Original j j ^^ILL *li literally, " the name of the <$"« //an of the faith," &c.; where, 
by applying the word Sultan for prince or sovereign, he doubtlessly meant to point indirectly 
to himself. Tipjioo was fond of this sort of conceit. 

(5) Original >»L)1 yi^^U; 

(6) Original ^^ 


sable duties.<'> As to those ideots, who at this time introduce the name of 
Shah AUum into the Khiithah, they act through ignorance ; since the 
real condition of i\\& above-mentioned ^^^ is this : he is actually enslaved, 
and a mere cypher ; being the servant of Saindeah, at the monthly wages 
of fifteen thousand rtipees. Such being the case, to pronounce the name 
of a dependent of infidels, in reciting the KMfbah, is a manifest sin, 
and repugnant to the laws [usages] of the Muselmany faith. For these 
reasons it is written, that the Khuteeh^^^ of that place [^Adoni] must be 
directed to introduce our name constantly in the Khiithah. 


Whether or not the Sultan had, prior to the date of this letter, caused his own 
name to be substituted in the Khiitbah for that of Shah AUum, I have no means of 
clearly ascertaining : but it may, I think, be inferred, from the general tenor of 
the present document, tliat this was the first occasion on which he thought proper 
to adopt that practice ; since, if it had been already established by him, he would 
hardly have deemed it now necessary to justify and explain it, as he has here 
formally endeavoured to do. 

This letter, if contrasted with Letter CCCXXXIV, written nearly at the same 
time, will exhibit, not only the duplicity, but the inconsistency of the Sultan, in 
striking colors. He here, throwing off all disguise, openly declares bis contempt 
of the reigning Emperor of Hindostan, and, in the most unequivocal manner, 
asserts his independence of the imperial authority. Yet he will be presently seen 
professing an earnest solicitude for the re-establishment of that very authority, and 
an ardent desire to contribute his utmost efforts towards the accomplishment of 
that end. There is no difficulty in comprehending, why the Sultan should, at 


(7) Original (.:-^^jj,y CjUs-lj <tL^jl 

(8) Original il\^ys This is a term by which none but persons of mean or ordinary 
consideration are reterred to, and was probably never before applied to a crowned head. 

(0) The person who reads or pronounces the Khiitbak is called a Khutecb. 


this conjuncture, have wished to cultivate a good understanding with the Ma- 
hommedan powers of the north of India : and had he, steadily and judiciously 
pursued that object, he might have found Iiis account in such a policy. What is 
most extraordinary and unaccountable in his conduct, on this occasion, is, that he 
should, in one and the same moment, labour to make common cause with those 
powers, and utterly set at nought the sovereign whom they recognized, and the 
authority which they at least affected to respect and uphold. Is it possible, that he 
should have presumed upon their probable ignorance of the transactions of TI/yAor*'? 
This is difficult to suppose ; since the tenor of the public prayers delivered in the 
Mosques must necessarily be a matter of notoriet)*, neither requiring nor being 
susceptible of concealment. On the other hand, if his conduct, in this and similar 
cases, should be known at the court of Dehli, how could he expect that any credit 
would be given there to his professions of zeal and attachment ? Hence we may 
venture to conclude, either that he actually did proceed under the notion that 
that court was not likely to be apprized of the arrogance of his pretensions ; or 
that, bestowing no thought on this point, he was prompted to address the 
chieftains in question, rather by the desire of displaying his religious enthusiasm, 
and of impressing those persons with a high idea of his power and resources, than 
by any deliberate view to a political connexion with them, or with any serious 
expectation of inducing them to co-operate with him, either in the war which he 
was at this time waging against the Mahrattahs, or in that wiiicli, there is 
abundant reason to believe, he already meditated against the British nation. 


To BuDRUZ ZuMAN Khan ; Same Date. (1st August.^) 
Our special retinue will soon cross the river at Gunii- Kurkndih, and 
arrive in that quarter. It is now the rainy season. Taking- ail your 
army with you, a])i)ly yourself to the chastisement of the rebels of 
Soopeh, &c. The superintendant of the post at Suddnsheoo-ghurr and 
Soandeh will be shortly removed, and another be sent in his place. 

3 A 



Although it appears, by Letters CCCVII and CCCVIII, that Budruz Zuman 
Khan was directed to join Biuhanuddeen, there is reason to think, that this 
order was subsequently revoked ; since, besides the diflerent destination here 
assigned him, it is pretty certain, that he was not present at the general action 
which took place between the Malirattahs and Tippoo near Shdnooi; the beginning 
of the following December. 


To MoAL Chund and Soojan Rae, (Agents at DehliJ ; dated 
1st Hashimy. (2d August.^ 

Two letters, accompanied by your accounts, and dispatched in charge 
of Hoomajee, Tolaram, and other Hurkdrehs, have passed under our 
view, and the particulars therein set forth are comprehended. 

The special ShiikkehJ^^^ which you obtained and dispatched to us, in 
answer to the Urzddsht and Nuzr,^^^ presented, on our part, to the 
most sacred Presence by Shah Nizamuddeen Saheh,'^^^ has been received, 


(1) Original ^j^ijJi, JVtiJXAf/t is properly applied only to the letter of a person of rank and 
a superior. From the letter here alluded to being called a Shukkch-khdss (a special Shukkeh) 
it may be inferred, that if not written in the Emperor's own hand, it was, at least, signed 
by him, and bore his private seal. A more public one would, probably, have been styled a 

(2) The Utzdusht, or " humble address," is that forming Letter LXXI of the present 
collection, which was accompanied by the exceptionable Nuzr mentioned in the text. 

(3) This person affected to be of the order of religious or devotees, called Fakeers, as is 
implied by the title of Shah prefixed to his name. This holy character, however, did not 
prevent his taking an active part in the management of the court of Dehli, under the direc- 
tion of the Mahrattabs ; who found him as subservient to their views in that quarter as tliey 
could desire. 

T I r P O O SULTAN'. 363 

together with the letters addressed to lis by tlie latter; through 
whom you must represent to the Presence, " that the newly struck 
" gold Mohrs were sent by us, merely for the purpose of ascer- 
*' taining the pleasure of his Majesty concerning them ; which being 
" now known to us, we have, in conformity with the royal com- 
" mands, inserted his Majesty's blessed name in the new coin [in 
" question]." It must, moreover, be stated, " that the manner in 
" which we heretofore chastised the Nazarenes [/. e. the English] 
*' is too well known to require to be recapitulated ; and that now, 
" again, we are earnestly occupied in punishing certain rulers and 
" nobles/^' who have engaged in measures of evil tendency, and been 
" guilty of acts utterly repugnant to [the prosperity of] Isldm." All 
these particulars you must get communicated to the sublime Presence, 
through the medium of the Shilh Saheb ; by whose means you will also 
[endeavour to] procure imperial mandates to be written and dispatched 
to the Nahoh, Xizam ud Dowlah Behadiir, and the other Musulman 
rulers [in this quarter] directing them to unite together in support of the 
^hmcdy faith. * 

Here follow some uninteresting details, respecting the pay of the two agents 
addressed, and of the 'messengers employed in conveying the dispatches between 
Seringopatam and Deltli, of which a sufficient specimen has already been given 
in Letter LXXIII. To defray these, and other charges, a bill for one thousand 
nine hundred rupees was transmitted with the present letter. Of this sum, nine 
hundred rupees were directed to be applied to the purchase of five Khilaats (or 
complimentary dresses) which were ordered to be distributed as follows (each 
dress being accompanied by a letter, in the terms of that addressed to Mahommed 
Baig Khan Humdany, for which see next letter) — 

3 A 2 To 

^4) Original c-'t^ which may be meant for the plural of noble ^ though the regular 
plural is ^Jt (urkuii). Possibly, however, some other word may have been iiitcndeci. 


To Mahomnicil Baig KhanHumdany, Budl Baig Khan, and Shah Nizamuddeen, 
each a Khilaat of the value ol" two hundred 7'itpees, 

To Kasim Khan and Siddeck Baig Khan, each a Khilaat of the vahie of one 
hundred and lifty j-//pecs. 

After these details, the dispatch proceed thus : 

The five Khi/aaft., above-mentioned, must be deUvered secretly, and 
at night, together with this message, viz. '* that Nizam lid Dovvlah, 
'' having united with the Mahrattahs, and engaged in war against us, 
" and this proceedimg being manifestly contrary to [the interests of] 
" Isldm, it is due to the support of [our] religion, that you, who are 
" near the person of his Majesty, the Divine Shadow, (^> and are more- 
" over Musuhnan leaders, should pursue such eflectual measures as may 

" [at once] bring the ^^^ to ruin and disgrace, and impart 

" additional strength to the true yihmedi/ faith." 

The letter concludes with directing the agents to send off a pair of Kdsids''^^' 
once a month ; and with stating, that the present dispatch consists altogether of 
seven letters, namely, the five already specified, an Ui^zddsht'^'^ [to the address of 
the Emperor], and a letter to Munsoor Ali Khan'" 

A note, or memorandum, follows next, of the different Ulkdbs, or addresses, 
used in the five letters to the persons enumerated above ; as also of the particular 
sort of paper on which each was to be written, and the kind of bag in which they were 
severally to be enclosed. On this occasion, the precedence appears to be assigned 
to Mahommed Baig Humdany, to whom the Sullan writes in terms of entire 
equality. The others, though honorably addressed, arc not equally distinguished. 


(5) Original ^'tsEr-* Jlj a title appropriate to crowned heads. 

(6) Two words here occur, of which I can make no sense. Whatever they are, they 
of course refer to tiic Mahrattahs, or the enemies of Islam. One of them may be read 
^J^AiyQ (moobiddn) or giiebres. 

(7) Kdsids are couriers. 

(8) Which does not appear. 

(9) I suspect that this should be Munzoor Ali Khan, the chief of the eunuchs, the same 
te whom Letter LXXII is addressed. 

T 1 P P O O SULTAN, 3() 


For the gratification of those curious in such matters^ I subjoin the directions 
relative to the paper and bags. 

To Mahommed Baig Humdany, the paper used was of the kind called Zur- 
afshdny, or " sprinkled with gold :" the Khureetah, or bag, was of Mefifdhi/, a 
sort of silver tissue. 

To Budl Baig Khan and Kasim Khan, silvered paper and Kinnhhdb bag. 

To the rest, Kwnkhdh bags ; but paper not specified. 


It is evident, from the foregeing letter, that the Nuzr formerly sent by the 
Sultan to Shah Allum (see Letter LXXI) had been objected to, because the 
inscription on the coin, of which it was composed, did not contain the Emperor's 
name, which, it seems, was inserted in the gold ?}iohrs, now transmilited. The 
words, in which the Sultan's apology for the disrespect alluded to is conveyed, 
imply that the second Nuzr (or that forwarded with the present dispatch) 
consisted of the new coinage, with the addition of the Emperor's name : but if 
this was actually the case, there is reason to believe that the die was formed 
expressly for this occasion, and that no more gold mohrs were struck from it, than 
were required for presentation to his Imperial Majesty. 

Tlic apology here tendered by the Sultan, for the affiont which he had offered 
to the Emperor, in the instance of the Nuzr formerly sent to his Majesty, 
though too flimsy to impose on the Imperial Court, was probably accepted as a 
sufficient atonement for the offence ; since it was now no time for the reduced 
representative of the royal house of Timur to assume a lofty or inflexible tone in 
the assertion of any of its rights. 

I am unable to say, whether or not the application, here directed to be made to 
the Emperor, for mandatory letters to the Nabob, Nizam lid Dowlah, and the 
other Musulman chiefs of the Decan, enjoining them to co-operate with the 
Sultan against the Mahrattahs, was actually submitted to his Majesty ; but, con- 
sidering the situation of Shah Allum at this time (as described, only the day 
before, by Tippoo Sultan himself, in his letter to Kutbuddeen Khan), it is not 



likely that any attention was paid to it. Indeed, the absurdity of such a proposal 
to a prince, so completely in the power of Saindeah as the Emperor now was, and 
who was placed so much out of the reach of any assistance from the proposer, could 
only be equalled, by the infatuation of employing two Hindoo agents in a ncgo- 
ciation, the object of which was to exalt the Mahommedan at the expence of the 
Brahmenical religion. It was as if a Catholic state or sovereign were to depute a 
Protestant ambassador to the Pope, for the purpose of engaging his Holiness to 
exhort all the princes of the Romish persuasion to unite together, for the purpose 
of making a crusade against some neighbouring power of the reformed religion. 
So egregious a blunder could be committed only by such an eccentric character 
as Tippoo Sultan. 

The great distance, joined to the difficulties of communication (arising from that 
and other causes) between Seringapatam and Dehli, sufficiently accounts, perhaps, 
for the circumstance of the Sidtaiis directing the presents, which lie thought 
proper to make to the nobles of the Imperial Court, to be purchased at the metro- 
polis, instead of sending them immediately from himself; which would, no doubt, 
have been the greater compliment. From the more than usual respect with which 
the Sultan mentions the Emperor in this dispatch to his agents, it appears probable, 
that he intended such parts of it as related to his Majesty, to be communicated, if 
not directly to himself, at least to his ministers. 

Mahommed Baig Humdany had been one of the principal commanders 
under the celebrated Nujuf Khan ; after whose death he obtained, amidst the 
distractions which followed that event, still greater consideration and authority. 
He opposed, for some time, a firm resistance to the encroachments of Saindeah in 
the Dehli quarter ; but at length fell, in one of the battles which took place 
between the Moghul and Mahrattah powers. Budl Baig Khiin, Kasim Khan, 
and Siddeek Baig Khan, were likewise leaders who had risen to distinction, while 
Nujuf Khan exercised the chief military authority under the court of Dehli. 


To Mahommed Baig Khan Humdany ; same Dale. (2d Augmt.^ 

Notwithstanding that, owing to various causes, it has so hap- 
pened, that no epistolary correspondence has hitherto taken place he- 
tween us, yet having, at this time, heard from the lips^) of Bal Muku 
Doss, of your highness's*^^) laudable qualities, and [particularly] of your 
courteousness, eminent courage, and political knowledge ; my friendly 
inind^-^^ has derived therefrom the highest satisfaction and most abundant 
delight. Hence, agreeably to [the saying], " that all true believers are 
" brethren," the fervor of religious affection^ has moved me [to the 
present attempt] to form an intimate and amicable connexion [with 

The manner in Avhich your friend [or I] punished the Nazarenes is so 
well known as not to require any [further] statement. No doubt you 
must have learned all the details [thereof] from common report.^'^) I am 
now employed in chastising certain Musulman rulers ; who, engaging in 
measures contrary to the rules of Isldin [or the institutes of the faith], 
are become the allies and supporters of the reprobate^*) infidels. In 
consequence hereof, I have lately caused to be drawn up and dispatched 
to all quarters, an abstract of God's ordinances, and of the commands 


(1) Original ^\ij literally, " by the tongue." 

(2) Original J^ (saviij) : but tlioiigli this word signifies " liigh, exalted, sublime," it is 
))roper to observe, that the term is applied too generally to correspond strictly with our plirase 
of '« your highness." It comes nearer, perhaps, to the expressions, " your worship, your 
•' iionour." 

(3) Original ^ ^_^jJ?U. 

(4) Original ^jjj Ax'\ JJLy^. 

(5) Original --jUjl literally, " from without or abroad." 

(6) Original /•U^l Jo " whose end is bad or calamitous." 


of his Prophet [on this article] ; of which a copy is enclosed for your 
perusal. It is requisite, for the support of [our] rclig-ion, that all 
Musulnians should unite together ; and, considering the annihilation of 
infidels as a sacred duty, labour, to the utmost of their power, to accom- 
plish that object : to the end that the Ahmedy faith may, day by day, 
acquire fresh lustre ; that the weakness of the empire of Hindosfan may 
be changed for efficient dominion and power ; that the abominations of 
the wicked may find neither habitation nor retreat"^') within the kingdoms 
of his ]\Iajesty (the Shadow of the Divinity), who is the chief of the 
vicegerents of JMahommed ; and [finally] that the rulers of Isldm may 
not be put to the blush"^^^ before the holy Prophet, on whom be the peace 
and blessing of God ! 

In token of my cordial regard [for you], I have written to Moal 
Chund and Soojan Rae, desiring them to deliver you a [complimentary] 
dress, which you must do me the pleasure to accept. You must, likewise, 
constantly make me happy, by the receipt of your deUghtful epistles. 


To Zynul Aabideen, Bukhsiiy of EhshJm at Furjivkh-yab Hisar 
fCiiiTTLEDOORG) ; dated 4th Hashimy. (5th August.^ 

We have received your letter, representing, " that if of the two 
*' Duftws,^^') attached to the Ehshdni Ktichuny, one be transferred to 
" the Dewdn Kuchurry, the consequence must be, that while the ac- 
" counts of the latter department cannot be completely and properly 

" kept 

(7) Original jcjLi \^,J^ ^j^ 3 *J^ 

(8) Original oJyLJjL^*^ 

(1) Duftiir here means a register, or book-keeper. In its more general acceptation, 
however, it signifies the office where accounts, &c. are prepared or registered. In this case 
the word aJU. (khdnehj is usually added to it. A Diijiury is aij office-keeper, whose busi- 
ness it is to take care of the books, stationary, 5cc. belonging to it. 


" kept [with such incompetent assistance], neither can the business of 
" the former be rightly managed [by tlic remaining one]." It is known. 
Whatever is written in your Hilkni'iidmeh [or instructions], do you act 
conformably thereto. Too much self-conceit is needless.<-> 


To the Rajah of the French ; dated 5th Hashimy. (6th August.) 

Noble-minded and elevated in rank/'> of powerful and exalted de- 
gree/^) chief (^) of the sovereigns of the realms of Europe, and eminent 
among rulers, the peace of Almighty God be with you ! 

After presenting the customary compliments of regard and affection, 
and [after tendering] the due observances of friendship and union, it is 
made known to your odorifei'ous [or noble] mind.W 

Some time since two letters, with Khilaats [or dresses], were forwarded 
[to you], by [the hands of] Monsieur Souriac,^^) which, no doubt, have 
been received. After that, Ghulam Ali Khan, Liitf Ali Khan, and 
other Sirdars [or commanders] of the Sircar,^^^ were dispatched in the 

ship ,(^) with letters and rarities, by the way of JBussorah, to 

3 B that 

(2) Original t^ ^. J ^yg s^li*^ '"-'Vj 
(I) Original c:-~:y* J'yij iLi^l^.^ 

{2*) Original (jjji^ ^^^jLvc j u:JLj 

(3) Original j^Lj " leader, foremost, uppermost, pre-eminent." 

(4) Original luttJsU- 

(5) In some places written Souliac: l)iit wlicthcr cither is the proper name of the person 
intended (who had been Governor of PoiKlichcnj/J I have not, at present, the means of ascer- 

(o) I. c. my subjcets. 

(7) The name of the sliip is omitted in the manuscript. 


that [personage] of noble rank, [at whose court] they will [in clue time] 
safely arrive. 

At this time I have learned, from the communication of Monsieur 
Cossigny,(^> the Governor of PoncUcherry, that that kind friend has writ- 
ten to him, directing him to settle the accounts of the advances of money 
made by the Sircar [i. e. me], for defraying the expences of the troops 
belonging to you, which were under the command of Messieurs Du Chemin 
and SoufTrein, and of Monsieur Bussy ; and [having done so] to repay 
the amount to the Sircar [or to me]. This circumstance has occasioned 
me the utmost surpriseS^^ It was purely from motives of regard, and a 
desire to improve the fiiendship subsisting of old between us, that I sent 
to the Mauritius for the troops of that friend, and expended crores [of 
money], and sacrificed lacks of my people, in the course of five years 
that I was engaged in chastising the English ; whom, at last, I was on 
the point of expelling from this country [or India~\. During this period, 
the English repeatedly made overtures of peace to me ; to which, how- 
ever, I would not agree, returning [always] for answer, that I would 
make no peace, excepting in concert with the French, and never sepa- 
rately. Notwithstanding this,^'**) Monsieur Bussy, the commander of the 
forces of that [personage of] noble rank, did, without my knowledge, 
conclude a peace [with the enemy]. The fact is known to every French- 
man in this country [i. e. India^. Thus I incurred all these expences, 
and made all these exertions, for the purpose of increasing our mutual 
friendship and renown ;<"^ and if such be still the desire of that friend, 


(8) I think, but cannot be certain, that this is the name intended by the original. 

(9) Original jb jj »— ^^"^ ,^5^ ^J-J^ ^^}j^ 

(10) Original W jIj"^ properly, "in the mean while," or *' during this j" but tlie con- 
text appears to require the construction which I have adopted. 

(U) Original i^jj^ (>\j "name-bringing." 


his enemy shall [again], if it please God the most high, be signally 
chastised. ** 

A double-barrelled gun, made in the arsenaK'^^ of the Sircar, together 
with an embroidered dress, is sent for that [personage of] noble rank, 
and will arrive^'^^ [in due season]. 

I^^*'> frequently indulge an inclination for the arts,(''') and am fond of 
collecting artists together [or about me] : if [therefore] that friend, out 
of his ancient regard, would dispatch [to me] some persons skilled in 
every art, I should esteem it as [a proof of] the most perfect friendship. 

Ghulam Ali Khan, and the other Sirdars, will arrive [at your court] 
in due season ;('^) and it is in my mind to dispatch another confidential per- 
son, on one of that friend's ships. If, therefore, you >vill write orders 
on this subject [or to this effect], to your [different] governors,^^^) another 
confidential person shall be deputed on one of that friend's ships. 


Exclusively of the gross impropriety of designating the King of France by the 
title of Rdjah (on which I have already had occasion to animadvert) it may be 

3 B 2 observed 

(12) Original tl,'WU-.l^ " workshops or manufactories." 

(13) Original ju-j; j^lji. This form of expression is not uncommon in the Persian, and 
frequently occurs in these letters. It implies, that the thing or person sent will arrive in due 
course or time. 

(14) Original 4__^U^.l literally, " this side, part, or quarter." A phrase used by per- 
sons of rank, when speaking in the first person, instead of the pronoun personal. 

(15) Original u>»>l i~r^\i ulr^ c:-*«i^ l/^^I/J ^^JJ^^ *-r^^'' rlr* '^'''^ *'"'* ™<^*"'^ ^T 
the Sultan are of tiic handicraft kind ; and those skilled in them, artizans. For the higher, 
er more liberal arts, Tippoo probably had little taste. 

(16) Original jww " by degrees, progressively." 

(17) Original ^Jj\jAk> /'/aaW/r^uVi^; a word which is obviously unsuitable to the occasion 
if meant to apply to M. Cossigny, with whose station it by no means corresponded. Pos« 
sibly, however, the persons designed might be the governors or intcndants of such places in 
France as the proposed mission would have to pass through, in its way to Parit, However 
this may be, a fitter term than Taalukddr might have been employed. 


observed of the present letter, that it is extremely deficient in the forms of respect 
and complimentary phraseology, invariably observed in the correspondence between 
Eastern princes. Of the justice of this remark, the Oriental reader will be suf- 
ficiently satisfied by its general style and contexture, as preserved in the transla- 
tion, which I have made as literal as I could. The expression of J^j^^J '" that 
" friend," is, in particular, extremely exceptionable in an address to a crowned 
head, as being too familiar and common. Neither is the " Ulhdb" or address, 
free from objection, since the phrases of <::~'-^j* ui-v<\^ " of noble rank," ^y^ i.::JLj 
" of powerful degree," &c. are very usually applied, not only to dependent or 
subordinate chieftains and rulers, but even to distinguished servants of a certain 
class. Thus Tippoo himself occasionally addresses one of his Sirdars by the style of 
u:.--j^ u:^v4»L=^ " of pompous or magnificent degree;" another, by that of i^jve t::JL> 
•' of powerful degree," &c. 

• These deficiencies cannot, I think, be reasonably attributed to ignorance ; since 
it would be difficult to believe, that there was not a Munshy, or secretary, or 
other literary person, at the court of the Sultan, of sufficient learning to frame a 
letter, in a proper style, to a monarch of the rank and consideration of Louis 
XVIth. It is much more probable, that the Sultan himself dictated, or drafted, 
this epistle ; and that, in doing so, he permitted the same spirit of animosity and 
aversion towards all the professors of Christianity, which led him to bestow the 
degrading title of Rajah on his royal correspondent, to regulate its general con- 
struction. It is also possible, that he might, on the present occasion, have been 
actuated, in some degree, by the notion, that his own importance was raised, in 
proportion as that of the French monarch was lowered : a notion which, in fact, 
has given rise to the well-known practice at Eastern courts, of taking every oppor- 
tunity of assuming what may be called a technical superiority, in their epistolary 
intercourse with each other. But it is not in the style of their letters, alone, that 
they exercise this sort of address, and labor to obtain this paltry species of advan- 
tage, though the nice and numerous distinctions of language, depending on the 
gradations of rank, are more jxirticularly favorable to the attempt. It is pursued, 
with equal industry and perseverance, in the presentation of complimentary gifts, 
and in the performance of visits of ceremony. 


It may appear strange, that the Sultan should, for the gratificationof his spleen 
or his pride, have run the hazard of giving offence, by this proceeding, to a prince 
with whom, if it was not his real interest, it was, at least, his apparent wish, to 
establish an intimate jjolitical connection. But Tippoo was not accustomed to 
look deeply into any subject ; he was content to view things superficially : and 
hence it is probable, that it never occurred to him, that there was any danger of the 
disparaging style of the letter being detected in France ; and that, even if any 
exception had been made to it, he would not have found ic difficult to satisfy his 
royal correspondent, that no slight, or disrespect, to him, had been intended. In 
the meanwhile, his importance would be magnified in the eyes of those, among 
his own subjects, who should be admitted to a knowledge of the letter in question. 

Judging by the context of the fourth paragraph, and especially by the words, 
" this circumstance has occasioned me the utmost surprize," it might almost be 
inferred, that the proposal of the French King, to reimburse Tippoo for the 
advances which the latter had made, for the use of the French forces, during the 
second war in the Carnatic, proved offensive to the Sultan, and that the payment, 
thus honourably tendered, was actually declined. What the Jact was, I do not 
possess the means of ascertaining, for none of the documents found at Seringa- 
patam (at least to my knowledge) throw any light upon the subject. I incline to 
believe, however, that the offer of the French government to liquidate its debt was 
not accepted, and that the Sultan was led to the adoption of this liberal proceed- 
ing, by the hope that it might conduce, with other motives, to make the French 
monarch consent the more readily to the renewal of hostilities against the English 
in India ; an object which, as is abundantly shown by the foregoing letter, the 
writer had very much at heart at this time. His wishes on the subject were, no 
doubt, more fully stated through Ghulam Ali Khan and the other embassadors, 
dispatched to France by the way of Constantinople, as well as by those whom he 
sent thither by sea, subsequently to the date of the present letter ; towards the 
close of which he intimates his having the latter deputation in contemplation. 
Fortunately, perhaps, for the British interests in India, these invitations to a new 
effort for their destruction arrived in France, when that nation was no longer able, 
however willing it might have been, to enter into the Sultans views. 



It must be acknowledged, that the Sultan complains, in this letter, of his 
desertion by the French, in the year 1783, in terms sufficiently moderate. He, 
however, indulges his natural resentment, on the occasion, more freely in his 
Memoirs; where, in his account of the siege of 3Iangalore, he thusexpresses 
himself on the subject: 

" Carrying on a mine by a double shaft to the foot of the wall, I only waited 
" the proper moment for springing it. I had also erected a battery opposite to 
" the gate, and on the edge of the ditch, in so elevated a situation, that not being 
" able to stand the fire of musquetry and cannon, which was kept up from it, not 
" a single Nazarene dared to appear on the walls or bastions of the fort. Thus 
*' circumstanced, the Nazarenes demanded a capitulation, and were disputing 
" respecting the article of delivering up their arms, when letters reached me from 
" Cuddalore, written by the worthless commander^'" of the French, and by Meer 
** Moaayenuddeen, whom I had left at the head of a division of my army to assist 
*' the aforesaid worthless commander. These dispatches purported, ' that in a single 
'* ' [or in the only] action'"' which had taken place between the French and English 
" * before the fort of Cuddalore, the former, to the amount of five thousand men, 
*' ' had been defeated, with the loss of fifty guns ; in consequence of which they 
" ' had been compelled to flee, and shut themselves up within the fort : that the 
** ' army of the Sircar, though placed at the disposal of the French for their 
" ' assistance, had not been required to join them upon this occasion, but were 
*' ' left standing^-"'' four or five coss in the rear of the English : that the second 
" ' day following this defeat, the English had sent into the fort of Cuddalore a 
" ' letter of peace"" from the French Rdjah: that Bussy, the worthless comman- 
** ' der of the French, who was very old (being eighty or ninety years of age), 

" * and 

(18) Original ,1j_:l) "no-commander." 

(19) Original Jyi jJlj uXjj- j/J^ <ulj jjjU <^ 

(20) Original jjjjj^ jjL«j1jjjJj\ ^1^ j where t£;l^ is a Hindivy word signifying 
" the rear." 

(21) Original J-^ki Probably orders for the cessation of hostilities, and a copy of the 
treaty of peace between the two nations ia Europe. 


" ' and being in his dotage, had lost his wits (at least, two-thirds of them),'"' 
*' ' immediately at sight of his Rajafis letter of peace complied with its contents : 
" * and that, finally, the two accursed ones had discontinued hostilities, and 
*' ' concluded an accommodation.' 

" These advices were accompanied by an order from the worthless French com- 
*' mander to Cossigny,'*" who was, at this time, at the head of three hundred 
" French Fringics, serving immediately with myself, directing him and his party 
" to leave me, and repair to [^Cuddahre], At the same time, several Nazarenes, 
" who had served during twenty years with the Usud-Ilhye army, quitting me 
" without any notice, at the instigation [or hint] of the accursed and worthless 
" commander, set out with the rest. It was to no purpose that I remonstrated on 
" the occasion with Cossigny, and the faithless set so long in the employ of the 
" Sircar. Nay, they were ripe for sedition [or treachery].'"*^ No doubt, there 
" would have been but little difficulty in putting Cossigny and his companions to 
*' death ; but, inasmuch as they had eaten [my] salt, I did not think proper to 
" act by them'"'' in that manner. 

" Two days after this, the aforesaid Nazarenes, procuring passports from the 
" English, and supplying themselves with some few necessaries, set out from 
" Kdridl [^Mangalore] for Make, a sea-port belonging to the French, which they 
*' reached in five or six days. They left behind them in their camp about a 
" hundred sick, whom I furnished with provisions, and embarked on a ship, which 
" conveyed them to the place of those accursed ones (I. e. 3Iahe)" 

The Sultan then proceeds to state, that disregarding the ungrateful and per- 
fidious conduct of the French, he determined to add to the obligations they 
already owed him, by consenting, at the instance of their worthless commander, 


(22) The perplexity of the original, in tiiis phcc, is sucli, as to make it very difficult, if 
not impossible, to give a close translation of it. The passage runs thus jb,_ili *li ^^ 

(23) So I read the name given in the manuscript. 

(24) Original jjjj;, i^ *1^ doc--^ iS\j 

(25) This passage is likewise obscure in the original. I suspect the text to be corrupted. 



Bussy, to' make peace with the English : and that, in consequence hereof, he 
discontinued the war in the Carnatic, and rehnquished his design upon Mangalore, 
at the moment that he was about to reduce the place ; contrary to the advice of his 
Sirdars, who strongly urged him [to prosecute the siege and] to put the garrison 
to the sword. 

The circumstance of the Sultan's sending a double-barrelled gun in a present to 
Louis XVI is worthy of notice ; because it strongly marks his desire to impress 
the French monarch with a high opinion of the military establishments and 
resources of his country. 

This letter, it will be observed, places, beyond all doubt, the fact of the 
ostensible mission of Ghvilam Ali Khan to Comtaiitinople having been actually 
destined for the court of France : and it may hence be safely inferred, that the 
preceding deputation of Othman Khan to the Sublime Porte was, in like manner, 
originally intended to proceed to Paris, whatever was the reason of that object's 
being afterwards relinquished. The same Othman Khan made one of the sub- 
sequent embassy announced in the present letter, and finally sent to France, in 1787 


To Monsieur CossiGNY, Gop-ehnor of Poa'dicherry ; dated 
14M HashimyS'^ (151/1 August:) 

We have received the letter you sent us by Pierre Monneron, requesting 

that we would cause an account to be drawn up, and delivered to him, of 

the advances made by us, whether of money or general supplies,^^) to 

Monsieur du Cheniin, Monsieur Suffrein, and Monsieur Bussy, in order 

that you might, in pursuance of your RdjaJis commands, discharge the 



(1) If this letter is not misdated, it is here inserted out of its place: but, however tliis 
may be, I have thought it right that it should immediately follow the one addressed to the 
King of France, on account of their mutual connection. 

(2) Original ^.i^ 


We have long^^^ entertained the most cordial regard for the Rdjah of 
the French, whose honor we have ahvays considered as our own. Ac- 
cordingly, during a period of five years, we expended crores of ritpees,^'^^ 
and lost /of^5 (^^ of men ; proposing, by these sacrifices and this labor, 
nothing else but the increase of our mutual friendship and renown. God 
pleasing, we will, hereafter [or still], make the most strenuous efforts 
for the same purposes. 

The five hundred musquets. which you sent us by the way of N'uzr/^ 
are arrived ; and, in consideration of our friendship for the RdJah of the 
French, and of your good will ('> towards us, they are accepted. 

Some time since we dispatched Ghidam Ali Khan, Lutf All Khan, 
and others of our principal officers, (charged with several rarities, and 
an elephant with a silver canopy) to the French Jtdjah. They will pro- 
ceed, by the route of Juddah,^^^ to Constantinople, and from the latter 
place to France. AVe are about to send another deputation, consisting 
of certain persons of rank, and also charged with presents. These 
embassadors will, in the first instance, proceed to Pondicherry, from 
whence it is our request that you will send them by sea to France, 
accompanied by PieiTC Monneron. 

3 C Agreeably 

(3) Original A>)\ *.;jjjl " from okl times," or '' of yore." 

(4) A crorc is a liundrcd lacks, or ten millioiip. 

(5) A /<7cA- is a hundred thousand. 

(G) If Monsieur Cossigiiy applied the term ?i«2r to his present, he forgot what lie owejl' 
to the dignity of liis station : but it is very possible that the French governor ina\' not have 
so called it, though the Sultan has done so. If the expression cscai)cd notice, a point would 
be "•aincd : if conij)laMied of, it would not be difficult to offer some plausible excuse for it. 

(7) Original L-^ly-r^ " ^veil-wishing." This <..xpression is, however, usually employed 
to denote the scutnnciit of goodwill entertained by an inferior towards a superior, and is 
equivalent to attachment, devotion, &c. 

(8) This is, I suspect, an error of the manuscript, since the emba.ssy proceeded by y]/Mjf<7( 
and Bussorah, and not by Jiuldah, 




Agreeably to the representation of the above named [/. e. Monsieur 
Monneron] we have written and enclose an order to the Taaliikddr oi 
Calicut, commanding that no molestation be given to the villages de- 
pending on 3Iahc. We have likewise instructed the Taalukddr of 
Sel'un to attend strictly to such passports, written in the French and 
jlrwi languages, and having your signature to them, as you may grant. 
These passports, besides the names of the merchants receiving them, 
must specify the number of the bullocks [laden]. Let your passports 
be regularly made out in the foregoing manner. 

Certain secret particulars, of a nature conducive to the interests of 
the French Rdjah, have been stated to Pierre Monneron, who will 
communicate them to you. A dress and a horse ^^^ have been sent to you, 
in token of our friendship. 


Of Pierre Monneron, I am unable to give any other account, than that he was 
a French merchant, employed either by the Governor of the Isle of France, or 
by the Governor of Pondicherry, in the transactions which took place, about this 
time, between Tippoo and the French nation. He appears, on the present 
occasion, to have had a personal interview with the Sultan. 

Notwithstanding the proposed embassy by sea is thus early announced, it did 
not actually proceed from Pondicherry, according to Major Stewart, till the 
month of July in the following year (1787) J that is to say, about eleven months 
after the date of the present letter. 

(9) Before the word ci-veU- " dress," in tlie original, a blank occurs, preceded by the 
word clio fi/uk) or one, which shews that the present consisted of something else besides 
the horse and dress. 



To the Daroghas of the Jixsy (probably Shumsuddeen Khan and 
Ghueaji Hyder) ; dated from Hemsagur,^^^ 6th Has hi my, 
Qth August.') 

Directing tbem to dispatch ten copies of the Milfurrihillk4loob. 
Five of them containing the work at large/-> and to have silver locks 
\ov hasps] : the other five to be abridgements/^) without silver locks [or 

hasps] .<•'> 


The book here mentioned is, according to Major Stewart (Catalogue of Tippoo 
Sultan's library) a collection of fables, in imitation of Pilpai/s. It may be 
inferretl, from the Sultans sending for so many copies of this book, tbat they were 
designed as presents. If I understand the original rightly, there must be two 
editions of tbe work in question : one containing the fables at large, or complete ; 
the other an abridgement. 

3 C2 

(1)1 have here piven the reading which seems most countenanced by the manuscript, as 
Ujc true name of tbia place is railuT doubtful. Our maps of this part of Mysore are nearly 
a blank ; wliicli, joined to tlie meagre information on tiie subject allunled, wlictiier by tlic 
correspondence, or tlie Sultans own Memoirs, makes it imJDossibIc to trace with accuracy the 
comse of his present march. Tliis, theri-forr, 1 have not attempted to do, 

(2) Original ,^^.^Lo "atlcngili, at large, in full." 

(3) Original ^U,*"^ " in abstract, an abridgement." 

(4) Original ^jJJ Jii where J« probably means a liasp rather than a lock, in its usual 



To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated lOth Hashimy. (Uth August.^ 
Our special retinue is arrived atO Kurkndth, and we shall pre- 
sently(2) cross the Tunghuddra. Send some men to procure intelli- 
gence(^> of the enemy's army ; and communicate, occasionally, to the 
Presence, such accounts as you may receive. 


To Shah Abdullah Saheb ; same Date. (\\th August.') 

Versed in theology and in the sciences, the peace of Almighty God 

be with you ! 

Our special retinue happening, at this time, to come into the vicinity 
of Kurkndth, we have dispatched Abubekr Khan, with a Doott/,'^^*^ for 
[the conveyance of] that [person] conversant in the sciences, who must 
afford us the pleasure of an interview. 


My information does not enable me to state, whether or not there is any 
Durgdh, or shrine, of particular sanctity, within the neighbourhood of Kurkndth : 
but it is not im})robable that there is, and that Shah Abdullah Saheb was the 
presiding priest of it. But whatever his office might be, it may be inferred, from 
the circumstance of the Sultans sending a Dooly, instead of a Palanheti, for 
him, that he did not hold the first rank among the order of the rehgious. 

(1) Original i^::^ iJjL \,j\ ii^ ij^>:SJ .) «' lias shed splendor on ^J«-/-Hrt//*." 

(2) Original c_->iiU;;»o " hereafter, following." 

(3) Original ^(j «« (Ki\'ate or secret information." Literally, "the interior, or inside:" 
hence, figurativery, " acconnts of what passes witliin" any place, person, &c. 

(1 *) A (looly is a conveyance carried in the same manner as a palankeen, but of a meaner 
and didcrent construction. 



7b Ehsa NULL AH Khan J dated from Kurknath, \2th Hashimy. 

(\Wi August.') 

Reduce the monthly wages [or pay] of Shaikh All ; take back the 
bounty(') of a hundred pagodas [advanced to him] ; and giving the same 
to [or distributing it among] tliose who shall raise men, fill up [by this 
means] the vacancies in your corps. 


To BuDRuz ZuMAN Khan ; sume Date. (\3th August.') 

You write, " that Moosa Khan, Risdladdr of Jyshe, and Abdul 
" Ruheem, Kilaaddr of Sodndeh, who were dispatched, for the purpose 
" of chastising the insingents*^'*^ of Soopah, had seized upon a place in 
" the possession of the latter, who had [thereupon] taken to flight." 

It is known. Ten years ago, from ten to fifteen thousand men were 
hung upon the trees of that district ; since which time the aforesaid trees 
have been waiting for [or been in expectation of] more men. You must 
[therefore] hang upon trees all such of the inhabitants of that district, 
as have taken a lead in [or been at the bottom of] these rebellious 


The dreadful executions, here spoken of with so much levity by tbe Sultan, 
must refer to the time of his father, in the year 1776: but if the latter was 


(I) Original iO^L^ "assistance, aid." Sliaikli Ali had probably failed in his engage- 
ments to raise recruits. 

(1*) Original ^JtjjjL^ I tnko tliis to be an iircgular plural of ^^ "a wicked or mis- 
" chicvous person." 


actually guilty of the cruelty indirectly imputed to him by his son, it is more than 
any of his biographers (at least to my knowledge) have recorded of him. It must, 
however, be allowed, that it would not be easy to assign any satisfactory reason for 
Tippoo's purposely exaggerating the fact in question. 


To the SiiANoon PValeh (i. e. Abdul Hukeem Khan) ; dated I4th 

Hash I MY. (\Mh August.^ 

Your letter, conveying the account of your welfare, and containing 
certain particulars, together with two other papers ([which accompanied 
it], has adorned the lace of arrival, and afforded me delight. 

Forasmuch as the requisites^') [or reciprocal duties] of union and 
concord are firmly established between us, how is it possible that our 
mutual regard should give way to estrangement and misunderstanding ? 
That friend must, in all respects, keep his mind at perfect ease : nor imagine 
that, in any shape whatsover, the least diminution can take place in our 
friendship. With the blessing of God, your friend will presently arrive 
in that quarter, and apply himself to the chastisement of the enemy.^^2 


This is, perhaps, the most civil of all the letters addressed to the Patan chieftain 
by the Sultan ; who, however, as there is reason to believe, was at this very time 
firmly resolved upon his destruction. 

(1) Original *jljl 

(2) Original LjLil «' miserable or wretched men." A term commonly applied to enemies. 

T I r p o o SULTAN. 383 


To the BuKHSiiY of the EushAm at Chittledoorg ; dated 13th 
Hashimy. Q4th August.') 

You must send for the families of all the Aum'ds, who are natives^ 
of the Pot/ 671- Ghaut, and, together with the Aumils themselves, keep 
them at Chittledoorg. 


jTo Meer Futah Ali, Taalukdar of Chik Cor little) Balapoor; 

dated I'Jth Has hi my. (I8th August.) 

There are heavy balances [of revenue] due from the country [i. e. 
from your district]. These must be realised ; and, with the produce, 
you must procure provisions for the Ahmedies from some other district/'*> 
In case you should have no assets [for the purpose], apply to Rajah Ram 
Chundur, who will give an assignment to the amount he may judge proper. 


To Meer Jaafur Wuffa Khany ; dated \ Hashimy. 

(\5th August.} 

The account of Gunaish Bhyroo's arrival in helU'**> has been received. 
We [only] require the blessing of God to attend us, in order to the 


(1) Original aJL. " inhabitants," i. e. "who were formerly, ox originally, inhabitants 
•' of tlie Carnatic." This order was probably occasioned b}' some distrust recently conceived 
by the Sultan of this class of his subjects. 

(!•) There was, probably, a scarcity, at this time, of the necessary provisions in ZiV//c 
Balapoor, This letter affords one, among numerous proofs, of the constant attention of the 
Sultan to tlic interests of this favourite corps. 

(I**) Original v 'r- .••4- J.L^ < This is a common mode of expression with Mahommedans 
in announcing the death of an enemy, and particularly of an unbeliever. 


[speedy] removal of whatever superfluous hairs are remaining/^^ Many 
sucli are [always] coming, and many going. The favour of God con- 
stitutes our aid and support. 


I can give no account of the Gunaish Bhyroo, whose death is here so exultingly 
noticed by the Sultan. He may either have been an insurgent Poh/gar or a Mah- 
rattah commander. If the official designation of Meer Jaafur had been given, it 
might have thrown some light on this point. The addition of fVuffa Khdny, which 
follows the proper name of this person, is, if I am not mistaken, an appellation, 
by which a particular tribe, or family, of Moghul descent, was distinguished* 


2o BtJiiHANUDDEEN; dated \Qth HJsHiMY. (\9th August.^ 

You must not be in a hurry to give battle ; but if the enemy should 
advance upon your army, you must chastise them effectually.^ Our 
special retinue will shortly cross the Tungbuddra, and arrive at that 
place [i. €. will join you]. Abdiil Ahmed Khan,(-*) together with his 
family, must he taken into custody, and dispatched to Nugr. 

(2) I am ratlicr doubtful, whether 1 have succeeded in giving the exact sense of tijc origi- 
nal in tliis jjlace. Tiie passage runs tlius: ijlj <J^ la ^^ ^^iXxs- JjL^ JU- J^li ^Jl J^^ij 

i.;>-:\ U ^)lt< jOJk^4^i^ w^ J^jfjr* t^'-'^J "^.iW* o"^^ i^«w//)« strictly 

jueans the hair, or 'xool, of animals ; also nap or down. Tiic word is clearly applied in 

(1) Original ^\j " truly, really, signally, soundly." 

{2*) I suspect liiat tliis is tlic same person elsewhere called Abdul Sumv.d Khan, and tiiat 
one of t!ie sons of Ab'lul Hakeem Khun is mednt. 



7o Syed Ghuffar ; same Date. (19th August.') 

The chastisement of the enemy's cavalry is approved. We, too, shall 
shortly cross the Tunghuddra, and arrive [or join you]. What is the 
amount of the enemy's forces ? Mere hearsay is not entitled to credit.^'^ 
You must view them with your own eyes, and report what you see, 
without addition or diminution. We some time ago wrote to Burhanild- 
deen, directing the punishment of the Jowkdar [or captain] of the Jyshe. 


The task here assigned to Syed Ghuffar would appear to have been no easy one. 
Indeed it is inconceivable, how he could execute it with the accuracy required. 
The difficuly would, no doubt, have been less, if he had had to estimate, by 
inspection, the amount of an European army, the regular array of which is 
favorable to such computations. But, even supposing an army, constituted like 
that of the Mahrattahs, to be viewed, under every possible advantage, by a distant 
observer, such as Syed Ghuffar must necessarily have been, it would hardly be in 
his power to determine its numbers with any degree of exactness'. A judgment 
formed, in the manner prescribed by the Sultan, would seem to be, at least, as liable 
to error, as one founded on the " hearsay intelligence " alluded to by him ; and by 
which he probably meant the reports of neighbouring villagers, of casual travellers, 
and of the itinerant Fakeers or Jogien, who arc usually permitted to pass unmo- 
lested from one army to another. "' 

Here follows in the manuscript a letter addressed to the Ddroghas of the Tosheh- 
khdneh, containing directions for the composition of a particular dentifrice, with 

3 D which 

(1) Original j,1jcJ_^Lj:I ^^a-^o 

{'2) Ii is owinij to tlic iinnrmiiy ciijoyc.i by the Fakeers ;m;J Jozies, in tiiis resj)cct, tlut 
spies luost coiiiuioiily assume those cliaiactcrs. 


which the Mahls or Harams at Seringapatam and Bangalore were to be supplied, 
for the use of the ladies occupying them. I am prevented from translating this 
curious document, by my inability to give the names of the ingredients specified, 
in English. Some of the composition is ordered to be sent to the Sultan. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated 23c? Hashimy.^^^ (24th August.') 

By the Divine favour, the passage of the Tungbuddra is effected j and 
in two or three days, please the Almighty, we shall summon you and 
your army to the Presence. Proceeding by the road of Nushapoor,^-^ 
and arriving in the vicinity of your camp, we shall send for you. If, in 
the meanwhile, any other force besides Ilolkar's [as that under Hurry 
Pundit, &C.3 should make its appearance in any considerable numbers, 
with a view to attacking you, you must withdraw three or four coss, and 
take up a position among the woods : but if a superior force should not 
advance against you, and Holkar's only should present itself, you must 
remain where you are ; and procuring constant intelligence of the enemy's 
army, keep on the alert, and write regularly [of what passes] to the 


Another letter appears, dated 29th Hdshimy (30th August) directed to " Bur- 
" hanuddeen, Budr ul Aman Khan,"^ and the Sipahddrs" announcing, in like 


(1) This letter is dated from a j)lacc written ^jj wliic!) may be variously read. It is 
probably situated on the west bank of tlic Tungbuddra, over which riv-er the Sultan would 
seem to have passed about this time : perhaps this very day. 

(2) Name uncertain. 

(3) This is not the only place in which this name (so like tliat of Budruz Zuman) occurs: 
yet I am not without a suspicion that it is an error of the transcriber for BudrClz Zuman. 


manner as the preceding one, the passage of the Tunghuddra ; so that either there 
is some mistake in the dates, or this operation must have occupied the Sultan 
during the period between the 23d and 29th of Hdshimy : in which case the letter of 
the 23d may be supposed to have been written on the passage of the van of the army, 
and that of the 29th when the whole of the army had crossed the river. In the 
latter dispatch the Sultan says, " Wc shall proceed from hence to-morrow or the 
*' next day, and soon arrive with you." And yet he would appear, by another 
letter^ to have been still encamped on the banks of the Tunghuddra as late as the 
7th of tVdsaacy (or 6th of September). Possibly, the line of his march, after 
crossing the river, might have been for some days in the direction of its course. 

Tippoo, in his Memoirs, plumed himself considerably on the military operation 
in question, and, apparently, not without reason ; since besides being undertaken 
at a time when the river was at its greatest height, it was performed, according to 
his account, in the face of the main body of the enemy's army, which, never- 
theless, would not seem to have offered any opposition to this bold movement. 
The following is the manner in which the Sultan states this occurrence : 

" Marching from thence [/. <?. Adoni] I arrived on the bank of the Tunghuddra. 
" It was now the rainy season, and the river was at a great'^' height. I sent for 
" boats from the country of N^ugr, and consulted with the commanders of the 
" Usud-Ilhye army on the subject of crossing [the river] , when all of them stated 
" it to be their opinion, ' that the attempt was on no account advisable, inasmuch 
" ' as Hurry Pundit Phurkia, and the commanders of the army of Nizam Ali 
" * Khun, to the amount of a hundred thousand horse, besides numberless foot 
" ' forces, were posted on the opposite side, for the purpose of preventing our 
" ' passage.' To this they added, ' that the river was at its greatest height; that 
" * the rains were extremely violent; and that, as the army of the Sircar would 
" ' be obliged to cross in small bodies at a time, [it was to be feared that] the 
" ' enemy, apprized of this circumstance, would bring a heavy [/. e. superior] 
" ' force against [the divisions as they crossed].' 

3 D 2 ■ (c Disregarding 

(4) Original ^\m whicli, 1 believe, strictly implies, that state of a river in wliicli its 
banks are overflowed. The expression is figurative, tlic word ^XjG meaning " passing 
*' bounds." 


" Disregarding**' these opinions, and collecting all the boats together, 1 em- 
" barked, early in the morning of the second day [after my arrival on the banks 
" of the Tungbuddra], ^vith two Kushoons, with which I crossed the river, and 
" took post in a favourable situation, where I caused the standards of the army to 
" be erected. By evening, the passage of all the remaming Kushoons, together 
" with their guns and stores, was accomplished. On the following day, the boats 
" being distributed among the cavalry, the rest of the army began to cross, 
" and in three or four days the whole were over. Hereafter, let whosoever 
" shall happen to be similarly circumstanced,"' proceed in the same manner, 
" viz. by first crossing the infantry in force, and afterwards the cavalry and 
" others. 

*' Hurry Pundit Phurkia, and the other commanders [of the enemy], on 

" hearing of the passage of our army, retired with their forces to the distance of 

" four coss, and encamped on the skirts of the [adjacent] hills and woods; from 

" whence, at the end of three or four days, they came and drew up before our 

" army, with their guns and other appurtenances of war, [apparently] with the 

" intention of offering us battle. Whereupon, giving orders to the eight Kushoons 

'•' that were with me to hold themselves in readiness [for action], I advanced, in 

'*■ person, with a Kushoon of Usud-Ilhyes and another of Jyshe, towards the infidel 

" forces : before which movement, however, a picquet, which had been pushed 

" on in front, was obliged, by superior numbers of the enemy, to fall back. Just 

" at this moment 1 arrived, and opened a fire upon the enemy from some guns 

" and rockets, which soon made them flee in disorder."' After an interval of 

" a day, the infidels once more advanced with the intention of attacking us : 

" when the Usud-Ilhye army met them as before,'' and they, according to 

" their 

(5) Original i^j^^ i^^,\jj'i^ ^} " not giving ear to tliese words." 

(6) This advice is to be understood us addressed to the Sidtans own family, for whose 
exclusive benefit these Memoii-s would appear to have been written. 

(') Original jJOyw ^licJl cl>Ij Jiojl^j,. "turned their face to flight, like the constel- 
lation of the bear," /'. e. scattered like the stars composing that constellation. 

(8) Original ,c«;jo " according to custom." 


'* their usual practice, turned their backs, and withdrew in confusion to their 
" camp.^*' 

" On the following day, about five o'clock in the afternoon, making ready three 
" Kushoons, and placing them under the command of Mah Mirza Khiin, I 
" directed a night assault to be made [on the enemy], and proceeded myself 
" with this detachment halfway towards their camp. Here I halted, keepino- 
" with me [only] a few men and a [single] gun, for the purpose of making 
" signals. The Sirca?-'s troops [i. e. the detachment under Mah Mirza ^Khan] 
" advanced ; but on approaching the enemy's army became alarmed, '"' and 
" stopping short, opened a fire from their guns. I concluded, from the circum- 
" stance of my troops keeping up this cannonade, that they did not mean'" to 
" advance farther [to the attack of the enemy], and therefore I fired the gun, as a 
" signal for them to rejoin me, which they accordingly doing, I returned with 
" them to our camp, which we reached the following morning. 

" The next day, in order to strengthen the hearts^'"' of my people, I distributed 
" presents of horses, money, gold and silver wrist-rings, &c. to the value of near a 
" lack of rupees, among the oflicers and men of the three Kushoons, accordino- to 
" their respective merits. 

" The following day the Mahrattah army, with a train of artillery, came and 
" presented itself in order ef battle before the Usud llhije tygers, on whom they 

" commenced 

(9) Original Jj Jyc^ u-uV-O i- c. witlidrcw " in a mass, or pell-mell ;" where, by tlie bye, 
the verb jj^jj^ seems iinprojierly used, since, if I am not mistaken, it should never be 
employeil in any but a good or favourable sense. It is possible, however, that as the Sultan 
is here speaking contemptuously of the Malirattaiis, the word ji^ay be used ironicallv, and 
perhaps as a jingling antitliesis to the common expression of jJo^o J u-w^' 

(10) Original ^Oyii \i>\ ^ <i-LiJjl isij jAi\^Jj^ ^Jji J^j^ -;J 

(11) OrigiiKil jJ^lAi i.::,^ju3il^\ji^*:;^ljuj 

(12) Original ^-'j/ 1^ (♦^yj Jj <»^ \^ II" I understand these three several passages rightly, 
they plainly denote some back^vardne^.s on the part of the SultarCs troops to ut ,.- k the Mah- 
rattah camp : and yet it seems somewhat strani^e, that he should huvc taken such an occasion 
to reward his troops. This aijparcnt inconsistency ni.ikes mc very douhtfal, il not of the 
correctness of the manuscript, at least of the accuracy of ray uiierpretation. 


" commenced a distant fire from two or three guns. The men of our victorious 
" army hereupon placing themselves in a state of preparation, received the enemy, 
" with the same kind of cry [or noise] that is employed to frighten [or drive 
" away] hogs and the like ; upon hearing of which, the enemy returned shame- 
" fully by the same road they had come. After remaining another day in their 
" burial place,"" they marched the ensuing morning, like so many ill-omened 
" owls, and took up a position at the distance of eight or ten coss from their 
" former camp." 

The Sultan next proceeds to relate his further operations against the enemy, in 
the same barbarous and perplexed style, which distinguishes the narrative from 
whence the preceding extract has been made. Nothing, however, of any moment, 
or indeed very intelligible, appears, till the period of his arrival at Shdnoor ; when 
he gives an account of the general engagement which was fought in the neigh- 
bourhood of that city, and of which I will, in its proper place, present the reader 
with a translation. 


To BuDEuz ZuMAN Khan ; dated 29th HAshimy. (30th August.') 

The list of Soandeh and other captives has been received. The afore- 
said captives must be dispatched to JViig?; and [there be] incorporated 
with the Usud Ilhyes ; to such of whom as are without wives, tlie 
females among the prisoners are to be given in marriage. 

Entrenching yourself strongly,^'^ you will remain [at all times] in rea- 
diness to co-operate with Biirhanuddeen in the chastisement of the enemy. 

(13) Original ill^^^Xo by which metaphor the Ji/Z/a/j means to intimate, that the camp 
of the enemy was to be considered, owing to their ill-fortune, as the place of interment. 

(1) Original ij^jji J^^s^""^ \^jij where I conceive the word ''batteries" (adopted from 
the English) to mean " entrenchments." 



To the KiLAADAR of PuTN fi. 6. SeringapatamJ ; same Date. 

(30th Augmt.) 

On the subject of getting four intelligent children (') of the Usud Ilhye 
band [or body] instructed in the encomiastic Itaikhtelis [or odes], other- 
wise called Hhdt. Desiring copies of the collection of the said odes to 
be made from the set transmitted with the present letter, and delivered 
to them. Another copy to be given to Uzeemuddeen, the Tauliikddr 
[or superintendant] of the dancers (^> there \j. e. at Sei'ingapatani], in 
order that the latter may teach the same to the said dancers. 


Of the encomiastic odes here spoken of, I tliink I am in possession of a copy ; 
for which I am indebted, as for many other interesting communications, to the 
kindness of my friend. Lieutenant Colonel Ogg. With the exception of the 
concluding distich of each ode, which is in Persian, the rest of the composition 
is in the Hindivy dialect, which is, indeed, denoted by the term raihhteh. These 
odes are ninety-six in number ; and consist, on the one hand, of the most fulsome 
and hyperbolical praises of the Sidtan, and on the other, of disparaging allusions 
to the English, tlie Mahrattahs, and the Nizam. The style is extremely un- 
polished ; and though I will not pretend to have given them more than a superficial 
and cursory perusal, or to understand perfectly all that I have read, I have no 
hesitation in affirming, that they are utterly destitute of every kind of poetical 

Of these curious compositions, which were set to music, and sung, or recited, 
at appointed seasons and hours of the day, the following extracts may suffice as a 

" When 

(1*) OrigiiKil J:^\j ^\ xJ\ ^}j^ j^ 

(2) Original ^J^^j uaJcr tliis general term was included singers as well as d.inccrs. 


« When the Rdstum-hejiried king rushed forward [or charged] on the Rukhsh'^'' 
■•' of his an"-er, then did the hearts of the hons of Europe [i, e. the EngUsh] qiiakc 

'• with dread. 

" The flash of his sabre struck the army of Bailey like lightning : it caused 
•' Munro to shed tears, resembling the drops distilled from spring clouds J*' 

" On Lano-'s heart was fixed a stain, like that of the tuhp : Coote was made, 
•-• by this calamity, to lament like a hyacinth." '*' 

There follows here an allusion to General Matthews, who is distinctly named, 
the nature of which I do not comprehend. Bussy and Lally are likewise men- 
tioned ; but I am too doubtful, regarding the sense of the passage in which they are 

introduced, to offer a translation of it. 


" When the Mahrattahs behold this army of our King, the dread thereof 
" causes them to flee like deer. 

" The Frlngy [i. e. the European] and Nizam lil Mulk pass night and day 

*' together trembling with fear of our King. 

" The kingdom flourishes, and the army increases daily, through thy muni- 

" ficence and justice. 


" The Hujjdms ■" army flees through dread of thee, as the hunter does when 

" he beholds the lion. 

" The 

(3) Jxukhsh was tlie name of the horse of the Persian hero, or champion, Rustum. 

(4) I am not certain that I have rigluly understood the first hemistich of this verse. The 
\ ., M i. e. April or spring clouds, are fabled by the Persian poets to distil a vapour, which 

is converted into pearls on alighting iu the oyster, so that the expression might be rendered 
" pearly drops or tears." 

(5) I am equally doubtful whether I have here correctly rendered the original, which,' 
indeed, is not perfectly legible in this place. Thus the word, which I read J-x- may be 
meant for something else. The slain of the tulip refers to the black spots on its inside. 

(6) Tiiou^h the Xizdm is distinguished by his title in the preceding verse, that was only the 
because it happened to suit the measure. He is generally, as in tins place, ca.\\e<i Hujjchn 
{ aibcr) and Uujjdin Nulli, being a play on his proper name, Nizam AU. 

T I P P o o s ir I, T A \. 393 

" The Nazarenes, on contemplating from tlie sea shore the sagacity of our king, 
" forget their own schemes and counsels [j, e. despair of their success]. 


" When mankind behold the liberality and munificence of our king they 
" exclaim with one accord, '•' Hatim was an absolute miser ~' compared to him." 

" Socrates, Hipjwcratcs, all the sages of the earth, appear before him like to 
" the most ignorant children. 

" Mars dwindles before the valor of our king to a mere infant : Sam, Nurcemiin, 
" and Rustum,''' are of no account." 


But, perhaps, none of the flights, with which this extraordinary performance 
abounds, are equal in extravagance to the following one, with which I will close 
these extracts. 

" Owing to the justice of this king, the deer of the forest make their pillow of 
" the lion and the tiger, and their mattress of the leopard and the panther." 


2t> BuRHANi ddef.n; dated 4fh U'^asaaey. (^d September.^ 

Your humble address has passed undei- our view, and the account 
[therein given] of the enemy's force, and of the issue of two months' 
pay to the Jyshe troops stationed [in garrison] at NergUnd, from the 
produce of the collections of that place, is imderstood.*^'^ 

You write, also, *' that in addition to the month's pay already issued 
" to the ahove mentioned troops, you have since ^^^ sent orders to the 

3 E '' Kilaaddr 

{!) Ilitini was an Arabian Prince, celebrated in story lor iiis munificent spirit. 
(3) All of them celebrated champions of ancient Persia. 

(1) Orijrinal u:,-.!^^!!? "became visible, clear, manifest, known:" that is, the account 
or statement " became known," or " is understood ;" for tiie verb t::.^ is postponed to tlic 
close of the sentence, agreeably to the established Persian idiom. 

(2) Originiil JU. " now, at this time." 


'' Kilauddr of Nergund to give tlicm another month's pay, and [at the 
" same time] have desired a small advance to be made to the Ehshdm 
" troops : but as tlie latter belong [properly] to Nugr, you suggest to 
" us, that Budruz Zumiin Khan should be directed to transmit the 
" pay of these people to them." 

It is known. A\gr and Nergiind are one and the same/^> Let the 
troops of the Ehshdm be paid out of the collections made from the 
districts depending on Nergund, in the same manner as the Jyshe have 
been paid. 

Our special retinue has passed the TanghuddrUy and will shortly shed 
lustre on that quarter. 


To the same ; dated "Jth TVasaaby. (6fh Septetnler.') 

A PIECE of Huhry has been [or is herewith] sent for that light of 
our eyes. You must get a vest made of it for yourself. 

N.B. A similar letter follows here, addressed to Meer Moaayenuddeen Kliin. 


The Bubry was a kind of printed cotton, of a particular pattern ; consisting of 
a stripe, resembling in form, and sometimes in color, the stripe on the skin of a 
tyger, one of the names of which animal is Bubr. Tippoo Sultan is well known 
to have considered the tyger as emblematical of his own family or government : 
probably on account of its affinity to the lion, by which appellation the Caliph Ali 
has been distinguished. Indeed the tiger and lion are so often called in India 
by the same name, that it would have been quite uncertain which of the two 


(j) Original ij:^ ^s^\^ Ss~ literally, " is one command." It is an idiomatical or 
iiguiative rcs.ion, annvering to our piirasc of '* one and the same thing." 


animals in question was meant by the Sultan, under the appellation of Bubr, if 
the distinctive mark of the stripe had not placed the matter out of doubt. This 
stripe, in short, may be said to have constituted the crest, or armorial bearing, of 
Tippoo ; who caused it to be introduced into almost every article belonging to 
him. Hence it was found stamped on the binding of his books, engraved on his 
jilate and his fire-arms, woven in his standards, &c. It even formed the water- 
mark of the paper manufactured for his use. 

Orders for the fabrication and distribution of Biihry cloths appear in several of 
the letters forming the present collection. I believe it constituted the uniform 
dress of a considerable portion of the Sultans regular troops. 


To Ghous Mahommed Khan trnd Mahomjied Aka, Daroghas of 
the JixsY TosiiEH-KiiAXEiT ; same Date. (6ih September.') 

It lias come to the knowledge of the Presence, that the Ddroghas and 
MiUusuddies, as well as Suddunund, and other servants of the jewel office, 
do not attend [there properly], in consequence whereof the business of 
one day is protracted to ten. Those [persons] must be strictly enjoined [or 
severely admonished] : nay, they must l)e scourged, and made to give 
[due] attendance, so that the jewellery article (') [upon \vhich tliey aie 
employed] may be speedily finished. 


To Monsieur Cossigny ; d«Ued I8th IFasaaey. (Vfh September^ 

We have heard, that a Mahrattah Vakeel has resided, for some time 
past, at that place \i. e. Pondkherrif]. As this circumstance is not 

3 E 2 suitable 

(I) Original *J, plural of J. wMch is applied to jewels and tlic like, in the same man- 
ner as Jj in the enumeration of men, ^\j in tliat of cattle, &c. 


suitable to tlie friendslilp subsisting between the Sircar [i. e. us] and the 
Hdjah of the French, we therefore write to desire, that the aforesaid 
[^T'^akeer] may be dismissed, and not allowed to remain [there anv longer]. 
What more shall be written ? 


The style of this letter must be admitted to be sufficiently arrogant and pe- 
remptory ; and was, certainly, but ill calculated to conciliate the good-will of the 
French governor, however it might serve to impress others with a high notion of 
the power of the writer. Either the Sultan must have trusted greatly to M. 
Cossigny's ignorance of the Persian language, as well as of the respect due to his 
rank and station ; or else so deep and inveterate must his dislike to Europeans or 
Christians of every denomination, whether friends or foes, have been, that he 
could not always abstain from letting it appear in his intercourse with them, even 
when it was palpably (as in the present case) his interest so to do. It may indeed 
be doubted, whether he hated the French less than the English : and however he 
might wish and hope to render the former subservient to*his views against the 
latter, still he would never seem to have forgotten, that they were both Nazarenes, 
and enemies of the true faith ; and, consequently, alike the just objects of his 
abhorrence and contempt, 

I do not possess the means of ascertaining what degree of attention, if any, was 
paid by the French governor to the extraordinary demand contained in the foregoing 


2b MuLAiM Jung ; dated \2th IVasaaby. (\\th September^ 

You have humbly stated, " that you have instructed five youths of the 
" Usud-Ilhye band [or corps] in the royal praises.*^'^ It is known and 


(1) Original i>. 1 , \;n V*. ,_;^v These are njost probably the odes mentioned in Letter CCCLI. 


approved. Herewith is sent a copy of encomiastic odes, which you are 
likewise to teach to tliose five youths. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated will n^ASAAEY. (lOt/i September.^ 

You write, " that you have determined to stop a month's pay, by way 
" of amercement, from those concerned in the late brawK') [or disturb- 
'' ance] of the two Kushoons commanded by the Sipahddr, Syed Hu- 
" meed, and the Sipahddr, Syed Ghuftur." You moreover state, " that 
" the Joivkddr who excited the quarrel, and over whom a guard had 
" been placed, made his escape the second day after, being the day on 
** which you had the engagement with the enemy, (') accompanied by his 
*' guard, Avhom he had contrived to seduce." 

It is known. Where are the women, the relatives, and brethren of 
the persons in question ? Ascertain this point, and report accordingly to 
us. Take a muster also of the troops, muskets, and other stores, and 
specify distinctly, in a memorandum to be transmitted to the Presence, 
the number of muskets, of men, and of cartouch-boxcs. You were, 
some time ago, directed, and we now write again to direct you, to 
transmit the aforesaid memorandum. 


Neither the cause, nor the nature, any more than the extent of the disturbance 
alluded to in this letter, is any where stated : but there is no reason to suppose, 



(1) Original *--r' 

(2) No particulars of tlie engagement iiere alluded to appear. 


that it was any thing more than a private dispute between some individuals of the 
two Kushooiis in question, fomented by one of their officers. A mutiny of the 
troops would not have been expressed by the word kuziah. 

But of whatever kind the disturbance was, the punishment of those concerned 
in it was not light ; and a still more rigorous course was probably adopted in 
regard to the fugitives, whose offence it appears to have been the Sultans intention 
to visit, in some way or other, upon their innocent families. In this instance, 
however, no particular injustice is imputable to him, since similar proceedings are 
but too usual with all the native governments of India. 

It is not quite clear, whether or not the muster, or inspection, directed to be 
taken in the foregoing letter, had any reference to the disturbance mentioned in 
the same letter ; but the following dispatch, to Budriiz Zuman Khan, makes it 
most probable that it was unconnected with that occurrence. 


To BuDRUZ Zuman Khan ; same Date. (\Oth September.') 

We have received your humble address, Avherein you soUcit the favour 
of some muskets, for the use of the Usknr troops") [under your com- 
mand]. That eminent person m\ist remain vigilant and careful.^-) 

We wrote some time ago, and we have now^ written again, to our 
beloved son,<^^) Burhanviddeen, desiring him to transmit to us a return of 
muskets, cartouch-boxes, men, and stores, Scc^^ After receiving the 
aforesaid return, the muskets [you require] shall be granted you, from 


(1) /. e. the regular troo; s. 

(2) Originiil Aiib tLia^l ^ *js? ^^lij c:^xj^ J <i^ jc;b This seems to be meant reprovingly, 
as if he had said •* lock to the security of your po>t, and do not agitate other matters." 

{'■'>) Origiiiiil J^<y>-ji whieh has been already explained. 

(4) This is the oidei- in which each article occurs in the original 


such place [?'. e. store] as shall appear expedient. ^^^ At present there are 
no superfluous [or spare] muskets with the victorious army. 

To Rajah Ram Chundur ; same Date. (lOlh September.^ 


Two Urzddshts [or humble addresses] transmitted by you have passed 
under our view. You write, " that, agreeably to our directions, the 
** rations and monthly pay of the Ahmtd'ies belonging to Little Bala- 
'' poor, Hilscotah, and Khun Khdnhulli/, are issued, at the computation 
** of thirty days [to the month] ; but that having heard that Pitumber, 
" i\\e jiumil o^ Yousufdhdd, had [lately] received orders to issue tlie pay 
" of the ylkmedies [depending on his jurisdiction] at the computation 
" of thirty-six days [to the month], you were, inconsequence, doubt- 
" ful whether to issue the same [for the future] at the rate of thirty ov 
" thirty-six days, and would act therein as we should command." 

It is known. Do you act conformably with the directions which vou 
liave received. What business have you with [the orders given to] 
others ? 


In regulating the monthly pay of servants and others in India, the length of 
tlie month is not necessarily delerniintd, either h}' the lunar or solar reckoning. 
Indeed, it is very rarely that either domestics or military persons, in the country 
service, are paid at so favorable a rate. On the contrary, the month is sometimes 


(5) Orij-inal Jk.ii jji'^^ ui^vti-^ u:-~*1 ^-V'^J Jrl-'W '''^ oVj' '''erally, " fio.ii l!iu [il.ico 
" wlicrc till musketb .lie, or may be, lo be kucm, [riKiici.] shall thuy be graciously bc- 
" Mowed." Tills is a vtiy iisii;il of the Poisiuii, the scope of which I have ex|)rcssej 
as well as I could in the text, but wiihoui being satisfied that 1 have entirely succeeded. 


arbitrarily made to consist of forty days, and very commonly of thirty-five. By 
this means the actual falls far short of the nominal pay ; the difference, when 
forty days are assigned to the month, being no less than three months in the year. 
Thus a Sepoy, apparently rated at twelve rupees a month, would, in fact, receive 
only nine. 

This practice, which does not obtain among the English in India, enables a 
master, when he wishes either to reduce or raise the pay of his dependants, to do 
so, without making any alteration in its established or nominal amount : and 
though there is, in truth, no delusion in the device, there is something in it that 
appears to gratify the vanity, both of the servant and of his employer ; the impor- 
tance of each being supposed to be increased, in a certain degree, by the ostensible 
amount of the regulated salary. 

However officious or supererogatory the representation of Rajah Ram Chundur 
might have been, it hardly merited the shai-p reproof which it received from his 
master ; especially as its tendency was to effect a reduction of the public expence. 
But this is only one, among a variety of similar instances, of the excessive irri- 
tableness and austerity of the Sultan's disposition, which seems to have rendered 
him, at all times, more prone to censure than to commend his servants. 


To Mahommed Ibraheem, Aumil of NJgmvngul ; same Date. 

(\Ofh September.') 

You write, " that Poonia [or Pootia], the Serishteddr of that place 
" \i. €. Ndgmungul^ is an unfaithful person,^') and that the Bijots, owing 
" to him [/. e. to his mal-practices], will [assuredly] turn their faces to 
" flight [or abandon the country]." It is known. Whatsoever you 
have to write [on this subject], let it be written to tlie Dewdn of the 
mansion of sovereignty, Putn. 

(1) Original 4,\j^ CS^ literally, "unlawful or prohibited salt," i.e. not deserving the 
salt one has eaten : making a had, or ungrateful, return for favours or protection granted, 
llencc, figuratively, " faithless, fraudulent, ungrateful," &c. 



It must not be inferred from this letter, that the affair to which it relates was 
intended by the writer to be referred to the decision of the Dewdn. The Sultan 
was far from being in the habit of delegating his authority on such occasions : nor 
does he, in general, appear to have had any objections to being addressed directly 
on matters of business. On the contrary, he seems to have encouraged this 
practice, which was calculated to operate as a check upon his official servants. 
His object in the present instance was, probably, to obtain fuller information, 
preparatory to the enunciation of his pleasure on the subject. 

It is not certain who was meant by the Dewdn of Seringapatam ; but I am 
inclined to think that the designation could apply only to Meer Sadik. 


2b BuRHANUDDEEN ; dated \2lh JFasaaey (\\th Septemhev.') 

Your letter, containing an account of tlie victory obtained by our 
triumphant army, and of the flight of the enemy to the distance of a 
Fursimg,^^^ has passed under our view. You must, hereafter, whenever 
the enemy makes his appearance, and an opportunity oflfers, chastise him 
effectually, in the same manner that you have now defeated him. By 
the favor of God the Aider, the infidels here^^) shall also receive the due 
reward of their misdeeds.^^^ 

3 F 

(1) T\\& Fursung [or Fursukh, as it is also written) is usually considered equal to tbrcc 


(2) That is, those immediately opposed to the Sultan himself. 

(3) Original Jl)J .iJ 



To BuDRUZ ZuMAN Khan ; dated \Zth WAsaaet. (I2th Septemher.^ 

We have received your three letters, together with those addressed to 
you by AU Rajah(') and the Kdzy of Nugr, and also the statement of the 
peculations of the Kilaaddr of BullaraedoorgS^^ You write, '* that the 
*' aforesaid Kilaaddr is a cheat^^^ and an oppressor ;("*> and that, with 
" our permission, W you will appoint and send [thither] Kureem Khan, 
" who, agreeably to our orders, has [lately] joined you from Lud- 
" dasheoo-ghurr." 

It is known. It is well.(^) Displace the aforesaid Kilaaddr ; and, 
according to your proposal,(^> appoint and dispatch the above named 
[Kureem Khan] to [take charge of] the fort [in question.] 

On the nightW of the 13th of the month JFdsaaey, we detached two 
KusJioons [with orders] to make a night-attack upon the enemy. The 
detachment accordingly surprized the enemy,(^> poured such a discharge 
of cannon and musquetry among them, that the reprobate crew,^"'^ 


( 1 ) That is, the Beeht/ of Cannaiwre. 

(2) ProbabI}' the Bullalraedooi-g of Colonel Wilks's map. 

(3) Original jU. " dishonest, fraudulent." 

(4) Original ^jL^ from ic^^\ "vexation, oppression," &c. 

(5) Original C:^ J^f\ literally, "if order be:" i. e. "if it be ordered." 

(6) Original t:;,-«jl^ literally, " it is better," or " it is very wcU." 
(1) Original 4sy-A<=j^ " your own humble representation." 

(8) By the night of the 13th is here meant the time between the preceding midnight and 
the morning of the 13th. Sham, or evening, comprizes the time between sun-settliig and 

(9) Original *y^j«fcU<j->^ " going, or falling upon, the head of the enemy :" by which 
expression a sudden or unexpected attack is meant. 

(10) Original ii\^i3J 


unable to support [it], fell into the utmost disorder, and dispersed("> 
with cropped ears and tails/'^) This is written for your information. 

To the Kazy of Bangalore ; same Date. (\2th September.) 

Write out, and send to the Presence, a copy of the HuJcm-ndmek 
[or instructions] with which you have been graciously furnished, the 
same being wanted, for the purpose of bestowing [i. e. transmitting] it 
to the Kdzy of Zuferdhdd. Observe that the name of the Kuchurri/ of 
Zuferdhdd is to be inserted in the [first] line of the first page [of the 
copy], instead of the name of Bangalore ^ and that the name of the 
Kdzy must be omitted.O For the rest, all that relates to fees, &c., 
and whatever else is written tlierein, must be copied verbatim,^^^ and 
transmitted to us. 

Let the copy of the Hitkm-ndmeh [herein-mentioned] be bound,^^) 
previously to its being dispatched to us. 

N. B. There follows next a letter to Syed Peer, the Kilaaddr of Bangalore, 
informing him of the orders sent to the Kdzy, and desiring him to see that they 
were duly complied with. The document in question was, when ready, to be 
forwarded to the Presence by him (Syed Peer.) 

3 F 2 

(11) Original xsijiijcj J!i 

(12) Original jcci) SAi Jj* j_^j^j Jj; * J whicli I am far from pretending' to understand 
perfectly. The word As. in particular, standing, as it docs, in construction with *j in- 
volving the passage in an obscurity that I am unable to dispel. 

(1) i. e. " a blank must be left for it." 

(2) Original ^^..^.js^. " as it is," or "just as it is." 

(3) Original j&i-LjJjsr* The instructions in question consisted, perhaps, of several leaves 
or pages, as many of those documents did. In this case, it was usual to bind, or, at least, 
to stitch tljcm. 



It might be iufcncd from the foregonig letter, that no copy of the instructions 
to the Kdzy of Bangalore had been preserved, and that hence arose the necessity 
of calHng upon that officer to furnish one : but, considering the great regularity 
with which official documents, in general, appear to have been registered under 
Tippoo Sultan's government, it can hardly be imagined, that an entry of the in- 
structions in question should not have been duly made among the records of the 
proper department. Nor is such a supposition at all requisite, in order to account 
for the present directions ; since there is no difficulty in conceiving, that the regis- 
ter, containing the document wanted, might have been left at Seringapatam, in 
which case, no doubt, a copy would be more easily and speedily obtained from 
Bangalore than from the capital. The thing chiefly remarkable, therefore, in the 
letter before us, is the direction which it contains, for sending the instrument 
specified, in a form which should save the trouble of preparing in camp any other 
copy for the Kdzy of Ziiferdbdd : for such would seem to have been the sole ob- 
ject of the minute instructions given on this head. By this means, nothmg more 
would be necessary, on the receipt of the document in question, than to fill up 
the blanks left in it, and to affix the usual seal and signature to it. Such an expe- 
dient, for the economizing of time and labour, would scarcely occur to any but a 
very eccentric mind. 

It might have been expected, considering the particular design which the Sultan 
would appear to have had in requiring the document in question, and adverting to 
the minuteness of his directions respecting it, that he would not have forgotten to 
order a blank to be left for the date of the instructions, as well as for the name of 
the Kdzy to whom they were to be transmitted. But this omission is only one 
of various instances of similar inadvertency and inconsistency, with which all the 
productions of his pen abound, and which may be safely referred to the indis- 
tinctness of his views, and the crudeness of his conceptions on the generality of 
subjects. To the same causes (originating in an understanding naturally contracted) 
still more, perhaps, than to caprice and levity, are to be ascribed most of the trivial 
and indigested regulations, as well as many of the inconginaous and vacillating 
measures, which marked the course of his bustling but ruinous reign. 



To the KiLAADAR of PuT.X CSeRIXGAPATAM^) ; cluted 15th JFJSAAEY. 

Q.'^th September.^ 

The abstract of this letter, as given in the manuscript, ajjpears to have been 
inaccurately copied, for which reason I have not attempted a regular translation of 
it. The subject of it, however, is too remarkable to be entirely passed over. It 
relates to the establishment of a kind of school in certain of the R'mdlas composing 
the garrison of Seringapatam : and from the context I infer, that the Risdlas in 
question were some of the Usud Ilhye or Ahmedy corps. The number of pupils 
in each Risdla was fixed at twenty, who were ordered to be selected from the most 
promising youths belonging to it. Besides being taught to read the Koran, they 
were to be instructed in the Persian language and in accounts. 

There is reason to conclude, from a curious memorandum among the Sultans 
papers, in which the qualifications of several of his principal servants are specified, 
that those of the military class were, for the most part, utterly illiterate. It was 
probably, therefore, with a view to the correction of this evil, and to the forma- 
tion of a more intelligent and respectable description of officers, that he instituted 
the schools here spoken of. I am unable to state, what effects resulted from this 
regulation, or whether, indeed, it continued in force long enough to lead to any. 
It was, no doubt, well calculated, if steadily pursued and duly executed, to pro- 
duce a considerable improvement in the character of the superior ranks of the 
army ; and particularly, if it was extended, or intended to be extended, to all the 
garrisons, among which the Ahmedies and Usud Ilhyes were distributed. But 
whether or not this was the case I have no means of judging. 

The letter, which we are now considering, contains also a paragraph to the fol- 
lowing effect : 

** You did right, in couunitting rive youths to the charge of Uzeeiii- 

" uddeeen,('> for the purpose of their l)eing taught the encomiastic odes ; 

" hut 

(!) Sec Letter CCCLI, wlicrc it appears that this UzccniQddecn was siipcriiitcndarit of 
the dancers and sinircrs. 


*' but there is no need for adding four more to the number.(*2 Th^ former 
** are sufficient." 


To NuBBY Shah, at Bangalore ; same Date. (14M September.') 

You write, *' that agreeably to [our] orders, the Pagoda which was 
" in front of the blessed Durgdh [or shrine] has been demolished, but 
" that the Aumil will not resign [to you] the ground [on which it stood]." 

It is known. The Anmil will make over the aforesaid ground [to you], 
when you must annex the same to the premises of the Durgdh. 

You have requested of us *' to issue our orders to the jiumil of Selim 

« (') to put you in possession of [or continue to you] the 

[usual] fees,(^*> &c." It is known. Whatsoever was thought proper to 
be directed on the subject of fees, &c. has been directed. It is not our 
custom to repeat our orders.^'^ 


Whatever might have been the bigotry of the Sultan, it would appear, from 
the general style and tenor of the foregoing letter, that his respect for the priest- 
hood was not of a nature to prevent their experiencing, occasionally, together with 
the other orders of his subjects, that acerbity of manner, which so much distin- 

(2) It is probable that Uzcemftddeen had applied for the additional youths, here men- 
tioned, through the Kilaaddr, Syed Mahommed. 

(1) Name uncertain. 

(i!*) Original ^jr^ ^ (>y^j i^r^^^^ ^_}>- \^\^. The application may have been for the Jw/ora- 
tion of some particular fees or endowments which had been abolished. 

(3) Oriijinal x^y^ iJ^J^ ^-r^.jjjj^ ^ '- ■^•.'•^ jy^^ ^/'^ ** '' '^ not customary [with us] to 
write ov«r and over [on the same subject]." 


guished his character. Nubby Shah is one of those, to whom the circular pro- 
clamation, or manifesto, against the infidels (inserted at page 293) was forwarded ; 
and was, probably, the governing priest of the principal Durgdh at Bangalore. 

Although the present collection furnishes several instances, in which the Sultan 
is seen to repeat orders already issued, yet it is certain, that he was not in the 
habit of doing so ; and that is probably all that he meant, by saying that " it was 
" not his custom." His commands were, in general, too peremptory, and the 
consequences of disobeying them too well understood, to make it often necessary 
to reiterate them. 


To MusHEER UL MuLK J dated \9th fVAsAAEY. {\Qth September^ 

[After compliments] A long period has elapsed, during 

which I have not had the happiness of hearing the glad tidings of the 
health and welfare of the Nabob, Nizam ud Dowlah, and of that exalted 
[person]. May the cause which has prevented it be no other than good. 

It is a [just] ground of wonder and amazement,(') that at this time, the 
above described^^^ Nabob should unite himself to the rulers at Poonahy 
and without any cause proceed to the infraction of the treaties and friend- 
ship subsisting between us, and determine upon committing hostilities 
against n)e. Some time ago I dispatched Mahommed Iftikhar Khan, 
after personally explaining to him various particulars, calculated to pro- 
mote and preserve the mutual friendship and interests of both our states, 


(1) Original j«^ . i^,-,.*?^ These words, though usually considered as synonymous, have 
a sliadc of dilTcrciice in their meaning ; the latter including, in some degree, the idea of 
alarm, uneasiness, or consternation, as well as tl)at of surprize. 

(2) Original 4_j^^ t_>\ J where though (_J^k is a polite expression, it is hardly 
suited to llie relative situations of the Nizam and the Sultan : tlic former of whom claimed 
to be addressed as superior by the latter ; who, in general, I believe, ac(]uiesccd in the pre- 
tension. fjXf.o (praised) would have been a more respectful phrase. 


as well as that of Poonah. If the aforesaid Khan had faithfully detailed 
these particulars, there can be no doubt that the above described Nahoh, 
who is a great lord(') [or nobleman] and a profound statesman/^) would 
have acquiesced therein ;(^) and liaAC applied himself to reconcile the dif- 
ferences which have arisen at this time between me and the people of 
Poonuhy^^^ to strengthening- the foundations of union between the three 
states, and to promoting their joint prosperity and splendor. 

The case, with regard to Adoni, is briefly this. How much soever I 
made pacific propositions founded in reason and sincerity, the ministers 
on that side [or the court of Hydrahud'] constantly returned harsh an- 
swers, calculated [only] to embroil^''> [matters further]. The business 
would require a long explanation, and is beyond the limits of a letter. 
All the particulars will be made known to you verbally, by the MUtusuddy, 
Luchman Rao, who is a man of understanding, and a person possessing 
my confidence. You will be pleased to make him acquainted with the 
views and wishes of the above described Nabob, and send him [back] 

speedily hither. 

A Mt'htdhij dress is herewith sent, in token of our abundant regard. 
For the rest, may joy and happiness be yours I 


Musheerul Mulk was, at this period, and continued to be till his death, in the 
year 1805, the principal minister at the court of Hydrabad; having been con- 
firmed in that office by the present Nizdm, Secunder Jah, on the accession of the 


(3) Original j-^ j^^^ 

(4) Original j^Si l-^U ^jjlib literally " knowing in difficult counsels." 

(5) Original «j^jjl^_ji> 

(6) Original AJy Jj>\ 

(7) Original S)dc^juf« ^jti>J,;),^^j'^.^fr- 

T I P P O O SULTAN. 409 

latter to the Musmid, in 1804. During the whole of his long administration, 
which thougli in the main prosperous, was, nevertheless, considerably checquered 
by untoward events, he steadily and successfully cultivated a good understanding 
with the British Government in Lidia ; between whom and his own court he had 
finally the credit and satisfaction of establishing the strict alliance now happily 
subsisting between them, and which is the more likely to prove permanent, 
inasmuch as it is erected upon the basis of reciprocal advantage and security. 

It is not pretended, that the views of Mushcer ul Mitlk, in this instance, were 
influenced by any feelings arising out of private partiality for the English ; though 
there wants not ground for believing, that this minister not only duly appreciated 
the character of our nation, but also entertained sentiments of personal regard for 
many individuals of it. But, on the occasion at present under consideration, he 
was guided solely by the suggestions of liis pohtical sagacity, which taught him 
that, placed as the state of Hyderabad was, between two powerful and encroaching 
neighbours,'*' both of them watchful for the opjjortunity of acquiring a predomi- 
nancy in its councils, or, in other words, of rendering it entirely subser\'icnt to 
their interests, there was no security, either for the integrity of its dominions, or 
the independence of its sovereignty, but in the protection of the British govern- 
ment. This, then, was the object of his constant solicitude : an object of which 
he never appears to have lost sight, though repeatedly disappointed in his endea- 
vours to attain it ; and to which, it is probable, that the events of the war in which 
his master was engaged, at the date of the foregoing letter, more than ever disposed 

Of that letter it may be remarked, that it seems to indicate a desire in the 
writer to open a negociation for a separate peace with the court of Hyderabad ; for 
which purpose it is also not improbable, that Luchman Rao was charged with some 
specific propositions. If such, however, was the object of the Sultan, in the mis- 
sion of that agent, it certainly failed ; since the Nizdm, though, perhaps, now 
become rather lukewarm in the common cause, did not absolutely abandon it, or 
make peace with the Sultan, but in conjunction with the Mahrattahs. 

3 G The 

(S) Namely, ilic Maluattalis anil Tippoo Sultiui. 


The Mahommed Iftikhar Khan, mentioned in the foregoing letter, was the 
Vaheel, or minister, of the court of Hyderabad, residing with Tippoo, at the 
period of the negociations at Mangabre in 17'84, The Sultan, in his Memoirs, 
calls him Muftukhir Khan ; and on occasion of his dismission (which took place 
at the same tinie that the majority of the English prisoners were released, in 
consequence of the treaty of IMangalore) speaks of him in the following terms : 

" At this period Muftukhir Khan, the Vakeel of Hujjam Nully, solicited an 
'•' audience of leave. Sending, in consequence, for the aforesaid, I presented him 
" with a Khilaat and five thousand rupees in money, and gave him his dismission. 
" On this occasion I demanded of him what Hujjam Nully Khan''' was at that 
" time employed about? To this Muftukhir Khan replied, that as it was then 
" the season of the No-roze,'''°^ his master was most probably seated at that 
" moment [in Durbar], Hereupon I rejoined : ' does your master, on occasion 
" ' of the No-roze, sit, all standing, or is there any elevated structure upon which 
" ' he is seated during nine days ? State every particular at large.' '"' The afore- 
" said not comprehending what I said, repeated his former answer. In this man- 
" ner we two or three times bandied the subject about : when, at length, the 
" Vakeel perceiving my drift, and being covered with shame and confusion, said, 
" that he wished for an answer to the propositions which he had delivered to me 
" from his master, on his first arrival in my Presence at Mangalore. To this I 
" replied, by desiring him to state again what his master had proposed. Here- 
*' upon he said, that his master was ready, on learning my wishes, to give me thfe 
" most satisfactory proofs of his pacific [or amicable] disposition, and to bind 
" himself to the performance of his engagements by oaths : in return for which 
" he entertained the hope, that I would join with him in chastising the Mahrat- 
" tabs. As soon as I heard this, I said, ' I give you full power to decide for me 

" ' on 
(9) This appellation lias been explained before. 

(10) The festival celebrated at most Maliommcdan courts at the commencement of the 
vernal equinox. It was instituted by the ancient Persians. 

(11) Original ^- ■ ^---^ \%j ij ^Ji j i^ XiA) jJj lJ};^ \'. J ■>••.■;■'-■«■< j^j y ^-*^ i^^ * -Vi nj/^i^ /kUj 
I have rendered this passage as closely as I could ; but it was not more unintelligible to MCif- 
tukliir Khan than it is to me. I suspect, however, that there is some indecent allusion in it. 


" ' on this occasioiij and to say how I am to trust to the pacific professions of your 
" ' master, who has in so many instances violated his solemn engagements with 
" ' others.' To this Muftukhir Khan, who was a man of strict veracity and pure- 
" breasted,^'-' replied, ' that [there was no doubt] his master was an established 
" ' liar,''^* and evil-minded [person]^ who, though he should give one or two of 
" ' his sons as hostages [for his good faith], would not be restrained [by that 
*' ' consideration] from acting ill. Never should you pay the least regard to, or 
" ' put the smallest confidence in, any of his words or actions.' Upon this I 
" demanded, ' how, when such was the estimation in which his master was held 
" ' by all the world, I could place any faith in him ?' Finally, having had this 
" conversation with Muftukhir Khan, I dismissed him." 

However, diflficult it may be to believe that Iftikhar Khan should have so far 
betrayed the trust reposed in him, as to have expressed himself, regarding his 
master, in the gross terms ascribed to him by the Sultan, it must, on the other 
hand, be owned, that it would not be easy to assign any satisfactory reason for the 
lattcr's absolute fabrication of so extraordinary a story, which somewhat resembles 
the account he has been seen to give on another occasion, of the declarations of 
the Mahrattah l^akeel with respect to the rulers of the state. However this may 
be, it does not appear probable, from what is here related, that Iftikhar Khan 
should have been charged with any communications to the court of Ilijderahad, of 
a tendency much calculated to conciliate its good will, or " to promote and 
" preserve the mutual friendship and interests of the two states." 


To Syed Mohyuddeen, Avmil of JIuscoTAH ; dated 2\d JVasaaew 

QZOlh September.') 

Your letter, representing " that the Bisdladdrs of the Alimedij 
" [corps stationed iti your jurisdiction] refuse to receive any other sort 

3 G 2 '♦ of 

(12) Original ij.^ ^L 

(13) Original ^£^ 4_j j'i and ^^.asr^ '^'''' "V 


" of Ddl than [that called] Toor" has passed under [our] view. You 
must serve out to the Risdladdrs of the Ahmedy such Ddl as may be 
procurable, whether it be Toor, Moong, or 3IdshS^'> 


To Shumsuddeen Khan a7id Ghulam Hyder, Daroghas of the 
TosHEH-KHANEH at Seringapatam ; dated 22d IVasaaey. (2\st 

Directing them to advance to three certain Usud-Ilhyes the sum of 
three hundred rupees [i. e. one hundred to each], on occasion of their 
approaching marriage ; and, moreover, instructing them to give strict 
injunctions to the Ddrogha of the Mint to furnish every thing necessary 
for the celebration of their nuptials. 


This letter furnishes an additional proof of the livel}' interest taken by the 
Sultan, in whatever related to this favorite corps, the establishment of which he 
appears to have always considered with peculiar self-complacenc}', as bearing 
indubitable testimony to his zeal for the propagation of the Mahommedan religion. 
The same observation is applicable to the Ahmedles, for whom he manifested, on 
various occasions, au equal partiality. Even Letter CCCLXN'II, affords an 
instance of this favorable disposition towards them : for it is highly probable, that 
if any other description of his troops had presumed to express the same dissatis- 
faction with the rations served out to them, which was declared by the Risdladdrs 
of this body, they would have received a similar answer to that given to Shah 
Noor Ullah, when the latter ventured to represent the badness of the rice delivered 
for the use of his retinue (see Letter CLXXVII). Here, on the contrary, the 


(1) These are the names of diflerent kinds of dry pease. 


Sultan, so far from reproving the complainants, seems to have been sufficiently 
willing to indulge their preference for Ddl of Toor, provided that article happened 
to be in the market or in the public store. 


To Syed Ahmed Saheb ; ('^ dated 22d TFasaaey. (2\st September.^ 

Desiring him to offer itp his prayers for the prosperity of the faith> 
and for the destruction of its enemies. 


To Run MUST Khan Behadur, Chief of Kvrnool ; same Date. 

(2\st Septeinher^ 

In conformity with your wishes, orders have been sent to the Fuujddr 
of Adoni^^*^ desiring him to give particular instructions to the persons 
employed by him in collecting horsemen [for our service, within your 
territories], to proceed in the business with all possible secrecy. Be you, 
Sir, hkewise aiding and assisting on this occasion.*-^ 


It appears by this letter, that though the chief of Kuvnool had found himself 
under the necessity of i)ermitting the Sidtuns officers to recruit within his terri- 
tories, he was not without ajjprchensions of incurring thereby the displeasure of 
the court of Ilyderuhad, whose vassal he was. While, however, Tippoo seem- 

(1) This was ;i Diirurii/i, or devotee, with the place of wliose residence Iain uiiac- 

(1*) Mcaniii;^', of course, Kiltb id Midk. 

(2) Original ^,.'jt<jA4.« rendered literally in the text. 


ingly concurs in the reasonableness of the Patan's desire to guard against any 
suspicion of acting coUusively in this aifair, he," in the same instant, calls upon 
that chieftain to promote its success, by his personal authority and influence ; 
which, with whatever secrecy it might be employed, could not fail to expose him, 
still more, to the imputation which he was so anxious to escape. Whether this was 
merely one of those inconsistencies, or contradictions, which so often marked the 
conduct of the Sultan, and so frequently occur in his writings ; or whether it 
proceeded from a latent design of embroiling Runmust Khan with the Nizdm, 
and, by that means, compelling the former to throw himself upon his (the 
Sultan's) protection, is a point, which it is now, perhaps, impossible to determine. 


To Meer Ghulam Husain, DJrogha Cor Superintemhnt) of the 
Fleet ',^'> dated 25tk TVasaaey. (24th September.} 

Your letter, reporting, among other things, " that four months had 
" elapsed without Mahommed All Khan's making his appearance at 
" Onore,^^^ whither, however, he had sent his brother," has been 
received. What business is it of that asylum of nobleness, (^^ whether 
the aforesaid Khdn comes or stays ? Do you apply yourself diligently to 
the discharge of the trust reposed in you, and see that the ships are 
equipped with the utmost dispatch. You must, moreover, take care 
that they are coppered, agreeably to our former orders. 

(1) Original oU,! o^ Armada ; a word adopted, probably, from the Portuguese. 

(2) There is reason to tliink, that thisIMahommed Ali Klian iiad been ordered to prepare to 
proceed to Pegu, and that the vessels proposed to be employed on this expedition (which 
was subsequently relinquished) were at Onorc. 

(3) Original iU u:^lsi ,.rwhich is a conunou Ulkdb, or form of address, from a superior 
to a person of good birth. 



I am ignorant of the amount, as well as of the nature, of the Sulfan's naval 
force, at this period. If we were to judge by the designation (Armada) which he 
has thought proper to apply to it, we might be led to conclude, that it was of 
considerable strength. But no inference can be safely drawn from so slight a 
circumstance ; while, on the other hand, there is more than one reason for believ- 
ing, that his marine must have been very insignificant at the time referred to. In 
the first place, it is pretty certain that Hyder Ali had bestowed little or no atten- 
tion on this object ; and it is equally clear, that his successor had not hitherto had 
either time or means to do much in pursuit of it* Besides, nothing was either 
known or seen of his Armada, during the war which ended in the partition treaty 
of 1792 ; and though, after that event, he applied himself seriously (as will 
appear by Appendix K.) to the formation of a respectable navy, he had, happily, 
not been enabled to efi'ectuate his purpose, before his restless and impatient spirit 
plunged him into another premature war; in the short course of which, as little 
was heard of his navy as during that which preceded it. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN 07k/ BuDRuz ZuMAN Khan (of the Same tenor); 

same Date. (24fh September.^ 

In a letter which we dispatched to you by Eecroo Pindarch,(') and 
the Hurkdrch, Munchajee, you were furnished vvitli a route. You must, 
accordingly, proceed, cither by the route indicated in that letter, or by 
some other road, leading through a [close or] woody country ; and 
taking up a position within six or seven coss of Deogurry,^^ where our 


fl) Pindiirch is a term chiefly in use with the Mahrattalis, and is of tlic same import as 
Kuzzdk and Lootj/. 

(2) This place is situated about twelve miles S.S.E. of S/idnoor, and very near the JVirda, 
which is, perhaps, the river ailiidetl to in tlie next letter. 


victorious arifly is [at present] encaniiicd, report your arrival to the 

Ghazy Khan(^) is a person of extensive knowledge and experience, and 
[particularly] well acquainted with the roads [of this country]. He has, 
on this account, been sent with his Hisd/a to join you; upon his doing 
which, you are to regulate your march by his advice and opinion. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; (hied 26th TJ^Jsaaey. (251 h September.^ 

Four Kuslioons have likewise been dispatched [to you] with Ghazy 
Khan. You must leave all the women and other ruhbinh,'^^^ together 
with the supei-fluous baggage belonging to your army, at Umvutti/,^-^ 
and crossing the river with the above-mentioned [Ghazy Khan], repair 
directly to the Presence, instead of halting [as directed by our letter of 
yesterday], at the distance of six or seven eoss from the victorious army. 
You will bring on with you, however, your light baggage, as well as all 
your warlike apparatus,(^*> with the exception of one of your three great 
guns. This, with whatever spare wheels you may liave,^^) you must leave 
with your heavy baggage : with which, such of your bullocks as are 
in bad condition must, likewise, remain. The two Z,umchws''^^ are 
to accompany you. 

(3) Gliazy Khan was the principal Pinddreh commander in Tippoo Sultan's employ. 

(1) Original tl/liU-^ ,_^ »f^ j C'li! 

(2) Name uncertain. 

(3*) Original iXw»- t_?L-l i. e. guns, tumbrils, ordnance stores, and the like. 

(4) I think, but am not certain, that tiiis is the meaning of the passage, which is not ^ 
perfectly legible. 

(5) I take the Lumchur to have been a long gun, calculated for distant cannonading. 

Tirroo suLTAK. 417 


On the 25th of IFd^aaey (or 24th of September), the Sultan had determined 
to send Ghazy Khan, with no more than his own Risdla of Kuzzdks, or Loofies, 
to join Burhanuddeen's division : but, either in consequence of some inteUigence of 
the enemy's motions, received subsequently to the dispatch of Letter CCCLXXII, 
or with a view to render the junction of his brother-in-law with his own army 
more secure and easy, he next day changes his plan, and resolves on reinforcing 
the latter, to the extent which has been seen. It does not appear, either from the 
correspondence or from the Sultans own Memoirs, where Burhanuddeen was at 
this time, or when his junction with the " victorious" army was effected. 

To Rajah Ram Cuundur ; dated 2Jth TVJsaaey. (26ih September.) 

Your letter, acknowledging the receipt of our orders for puttino- 
Meer AH, the second Bukhshj of the Ehskdm, into possession of a spa- 
cious dwelling-house [at Bangalore'], has passed under [our] view. You 
state " that the aforesaid BukJishj has pointed out the house of the 
** Khidmutgdr Behddilr, as being, on account of its size, well suited to 
•* the accommodation of his numerous family, and that he has accordingly 
" applied for the same." 

You must inform us, [previously to our giving our orders on this sul)jcct\ 
in which ward, and what street, the house in qixestion stands ; as well as 
how many fountains, and how many apartments it contains. 

N.B. A letter, requiring the same information with regard to this house, was 
written to Peer Khan, the Kilaaddr of Bangalore. It may hence be inferred, 
that the Sultan, however willing he might be to accommodate the Bukhshy with 
a suitable residence, suspected the one pointed out by the latter himself to be too 

3 II good 


good for him. It also appears, that the Sulian did not think proper to rely on the 
sino^le report of Ram Chundur, even in so trivial a matter. 


To Syed Mahommed, Kilaadar of Seringapatam ; dated 28ik 
TVAsAAEY. (2'Jtk September^ 

Buhauddeen and Kustoory Runga, who were sent [some time since] 
to Bengal, for the purpose of procuring silk-worms, are now on their re- 
turn [to Seringapatam'], by the way of Sedhout. On their arrival, you 
must ascertain from them the proper situation in which to keep the afore- 
said worms, and provide accordingly. You must, moreover, supply for 
their food [leaves ofj the wood or wild mulberry-trees, which were for- 
merly ordered to be planted [for this purpose]. The number of silk- 
worms brought from Bengal must likewise be distinctly reported to us. 
We desire, also, to know, in M'hat kind of place it is recommended to keep 
them, and what means are to be pursued for multiplying them. 

There is a vacant spot of ground behind the old palace, lately used as 
a Tosheh-khdnek, or store-house, which was purchased some time ago 
with a view to building upon it. Prepare a place somewhere near that 
situation, for the [temporary] reception of the worms.^'^ 


When the peculiar circumstances, under which the foregoing letter was written,, 

are adverted to, it will, no doubt, be allowed to furnish a striking proof, both of 


(1) I have here introduced the word temporary, though not authorized by the original; 
because we must either conclude this to have been the Sultayi's meaning, or suppose him 
guilty of the absurdity of first desiring to be informed wliat was the proper situation for the 
silk-wormi;, and, in the next moment, determining upon it, without wailing for the commu- 
nication he had required. 


the coolness and activity of the Sttlfari.'i mind. He was, at the date of it, not 
only deliberating on the measures to be pursued with respect to Shdnoor ; in plan- 
ning the future operations of the war in which he was engaged ; and in providing 
for the safety of Burhanuddeen's army ; but he was, in fact, on the eve of a 
general engagement with the Mahrattahs. Yet all these important and urgent 
considerations united, were not capable of diverting his attention from any of the 
minor objects of his interest. Thus, in the bustle of a camp, and in the face of 
an enemy, he could find leisure, and was sufficiently composed, to meditate on the 
rearing of silk-worms. This, indeed, was a very favorite, though, I believe, an 
unsuccessful pursuit with the Sultan ; who actually established, or proposed to 
establish, no less than twenty-one principal stations within his dominions, where 
the breeding of the silk-worm was directed to be attended to with the utmost care 
and diligence. These stations are specified in one of the sections of the instruct 
tions issued to the Meer Asof, or revenue department, in the year 1794. 


To BuRHANUDDEEN ; Same Date. (^'Jth September^ 

We hear that, besides Holkar, another body of the enemy's force is 
in motion towards you : you must, therefore, be extremely vigilant. We 
have dispatched Gliazy Khan with four Kmhoons to re-inforce you. 
Uniting this detachment to your army, you will come on [towards us] 
with the utmost circumspection. 


2o Meer Ali, Second Bvkhshy of EhsuJm at Baxxsalore ; dated 

2d ZuBURJUDY. (\st October.^ 

Your two letters, accompanied by a sample of the provisions laid in 

at Sdwundif-doorg [Sevendoorg], and by an inventory of the same, have 

3 H 2 been 


been leceived. The answer, however, to all the long and tedious stories^ 
contained in those dispatches, is to be found in the written instructions 
to your Kuchurry [department]. Peruse, and act in conformity with 

You write, " that the Piddehs who arrived there [at Sevendoorg'], 
*' wounded, from Sadd7ni/ , are without arras." It is known. Direct the 
KUaaddr to buy arms for them, and let the price of the same be deducted, 
by instalments, from their pay. This, too, is contained in your instruc- 

After inspecting Sevendoorg, you must hasten back to Sangalore, and 
there apply yourself, conjointly with the First Bukhshy [of Elishdtn\j 
Turbiyut Ali Khan, to the examination and settlement of the accounts 
of the several forts, &c. How can these accounts be adjusted, while you 
go about singly to the forts. 


To Syed Mahommed, Kilaadar of Serjngapatam; dated 6th 
ZvBURJUDY. (5ih October.^ 

By the favor of the Divine Aider, what you related respecting Roopa 
is about to take place. Almighty God has always governed, and mil con- 
tinue to govern, the seven climates('*> of the earth, by the hands of his 
own [true] worshippers. The Nuzr of five rupees, which you sent on 
occasion of the aforementioned omen, has been received. 

(I) Original Jj^j JjLUk^ 

(1*) Original ,yi\ ^j; -°^ the geographers of the East dividing the glohe into seven 
climates, tliistcrmis, of course, employed to denote the earth at large. 



Tij)poo Sultan is well known to have been extremely superstitious, and to have 
placed great fuitli in dreams and omens ; and Syed Mahommed was, probably, no 
less prone to believe in them than his master. The omen here alluded to was, of 
course, an auspicious one ; and, accordingly, the prognostic, whatever it was, 
would be supposed to have been in part fulfilled, by the victory which had been 
obtained over the Mahrattahs, only a few days before the date of the present 
letter,'*- and of which we shall soon have occasion to take more particular notice. 


To Mahommed Ushruf, Detfan of Fyze-Hisar CGootv) ; saine 

Date. (5M Octohey.) 

What you mention, respecting your having advanced fifty thousand 
rupees to Kutbuddcen Khan, the Jagireddr of Adoni, as vv^ell as what 
you state with regard to your having seventy tliousand rupees more ready, 
in your Tosheh-khdneh [or treasury], and to the dispatch of your people 
[into the country], for the purpose of collecting the revenues, has afforded 
us satisfaction, and meets our approbation. 

You write, " that, owing to the want of rain, it is to be apprehended 
" that there may be some delay in realizing the revenue." It is known. 
You must ^VTite to the Awnils of the several Tuahtks, and direct them to 
distribute grain, &c. in charity. Alnn'ghty God will, in his great good- 
ness and mercy, bestow the rain of his bounteousness [upon us]. 

(2) Namely, tlic 7tii of Zilhljjch, or 1st October. 




7o Monsieur Cossigny; dated Wth Zuburjudy. (lOt/i October.) 

At this time, the rulers of Poonah, notwithstanding the innumera- 
ble fiivors [for which they are indebted to us], uniting with the forces of 
Nizam Ali Khan, came and confronted our victorious army. With the 
aid and power of God, we were enabled, in a single assault, to establish 
our camp on the ground which they had occupied, and to give them a 
signal defeat. Upon this they took to flight, and we are now engaged in 
a close pursuit of them. 


It is probable, that the action, here alluded to, was brought on by an attempt, 
on the part of the Mahrattahs, to prevent the junction of Burhanuddeen with the 
army of the Sultan. However this may have been, it seems pretty clear, from 
the words, " came and confronted our army," which occur in the foregoing brief 
notice of this engagement, that the Mahrattahs had advanced to meet the Sultan^ 
in the position which the latter had taken up near Shdnoor. 

In a letter addressed to the Governor of Madras, under the same date as the 
preceding one to M. Cossigny, and written on the same occasion, the Sultan 
affirms, " that his quarrel with the Mahrattahs and the N'lzdm had arisen without 
*' any cause :" that is to say, without any provocation on his part. He likewise 
(speaking of the battle which had recently taken place) observes, " that, actuated 
*' by the hope of being enabled to accommodate matters with the enemy, he 
" would fain have restrained his troops from attacking them ; but that, when two 
" armies are brought to confront each other, this is a thing absolutely impracti- 
" cable." The former of these assertions is not, perhaps, entirely destitute of 
foundation : but it will be difficult to give credit to the latter, on any other suppo- 
sition, than that of his being anxious to conclude a speedy peace with the Mah- 
rattahs, in order that he might be the sooner in a condition to make war upon the 
pnglish. This suggestion, indeed, derives considerable support from the follow- 



iug passage of a letter written by the Sultan, soon after settling his differences 
with the enemy. 

" In the end, by the divine power and strength, and through the aid ot the 
" firm faith of Mahommed, joined to the auspicious intercessions of the sages [of 
" our holy religion], the enemy, after sustaining repeated defeats, and being 
" driven to the banks of the Kishna, implored peace of us, in the most earnest and 
" humble manner. Upon this, having in view the ease and security of mankind, 
" I granted them such terms as were agreeable to me : and now my fixed determi- 
" nation is, to proceed to the chastisement and extermination of those, who pro- 
" hibit the calling to prayer [from the Minarets^ , and who are the most inveterate 
" of Injidels. It is on the utter extirpation of these that my mind is now intent. 
" Such being the case, do you, reverend Sir, employ yourself in prayer for the 
" success of the champions of the faith, and the destruction of the wicked un- 
" behevers ; to the end that the Mahommedan religion may flourish." 

The following letter, though dated nearly a month later than the foregoing one 
to M. Cossigny, is inserted here (and consequently out of its proper place), be- 
cause it contains a more particular account of the engagement in question, and of 
its immediate consequences, than that given in the dispatch to the French governor. 
It was addressed, mutatis mutandis, to Mahommed Baig Khan Ilumdany, and 
several others, to whom he thought it fit to announce his recent successes ; among 
which number was the Emperor Shah Allum. It bears date the 9th Hydery, or 
(Tth of November 1786, and is to the following eflfect. 


To Mahommed Baig Khan Humdany and others; dated 9th 

IIi'DERY. (6th Noveynher^ 
Not long since, the ministers^') of the state of Poonah, forgetting tlieii 
innumerable obligations to ine,'^) and joining with Nizajji Ali Klian, ad- 

(1) Original ^J}>i/)^J^ literally " transactors of business, 

(2) Original jlji^rij J *' your friend," or, " this friend." 


vanced with a hundred thousand horse, and [a numerous train of] ar- 
tillery, into the country belonging to me, spreading destruction wherever 
they came. Upon this I marched to repel the aggression ; proceeding, in 
the first instance, against Adoni, a strong place in the possession of Ni- 
zam Ali Khan, to which I laid siege. About the same time, Nizum All 
Khun, apprehensive for the security of his nephew, and of the females of 
his late brother's [Bustilut Jung's] family, Avho were then shut up in the 
fort [oi Adonf], dispatched his whole army, under the command of his 
fyouno-est] brother, Moghul Ali Khiuijfor the purpose of removing them 
from thence. This army proceeded accordingly by a route leading along 
the skirts of the mountains, which served to cover their march. In this 
manner they reached Adoni [in safety], and taking from thence Mohabut 
Jung(3) and the women, hastened with them, night and day,^^> and [as be- 
fore] under the protection of the mountains, to Hyderabad. I pursued 
the fuo-itives to the banks of the Tunghnddra ; much of their baggage 
and cattle falling, by the way, into the hands of my people. The fort 
of Adoni was likewise captured on this occasion. 

I next marched to chastise the ministers of Pooiiah, who, to- 
gether with the forces of Nizam Ali Khan,(*> had established them- 

(3) Molifibut Jung, called also Daia Jah, was the son of Busalut Jung, ^doni and 
Rachoor constituted liis appenage, which on his death passed to Mohahiit Jung. Upon the 
death of the latter, iiowever, the Nizam did not think proper to confirm his son, GhQiam 
Husain Khiin, in the whole of his inheritance, but confined him to the possession of Jiac/iooi: 
This led to the open rebellion of Ghiiliim Husain Khan, in \196, against the government of 
Hyderabad. If this work should be hereafter continued beyond the present volume, it will 
appear how much this rebellion was secretly fostered by Tippoo, notwithstanding his being 
then at peace with the NizSm. GhOlam IIGsain was, however, after standing a siege in 
Rachoor, compelled, in the end, by an English detachment, under the command of the lute 
Lieutenant Colonel Dahymple, of the Madras Establishment, to surrender that place, and 
to throw himself upon the clemency of his great uncle. 

(4) Orin-inal »_^\-i which strictly means " all the night." 

(5) The Sultan has here fallen into one of those self-contradictions, so usual with him. He 
had just before said, that the whole zxmy of the Nizam had proceeded to the rcXicH oi /Idoni, 



selvesC') at [or near] Shdnoor. On this occasion I crossetl the Tunghhu- 
dra with my whole army and artillery in boats, and proceeding with 
rapidity against the enemy, suddenly appeared before them. On the 7th 
Zilhijjeh [1st October 17^6] an engagement ensued. Before, however, 
my troops could come to close action with them,^''^ the fire from our guns 
sent such numbers of the infidels to the abode of perdition [or hell], that 
leaving their camp standing, and abandoning great part of their baggage, 
they took the road of flight. Shd)ioor became, in consequence, an [easy] 
conquest. Please God, the Aider, I shall again apply myself, after the 
celebration of the Mohiirrum, to the chastisement of the enemy. AH 
these particulars have been communicated to give delight to your odorife- 
rous [noble] mind. 

The following passage from the Sulfaris Memoirs will be Found to contain some 
further particulars, respecting his operations against the Mahrattalis at the present 
period. It is in immediate continuation of the extract formerly given under Letter 

" Having, in this manner, put the enemy to flight, I moved, at three o'clock 
" in the afternoon [of the same day], and encamped three coss in advance of my 
" former ground. On the following day I proceeded three coss farther ; and, pur. 
*' suing my march, on the third took up a position on this side, and within one 
" coss, of Shdnoor. 

3 I "By 

after effecting wliich tbey had returned to Ilj^dcrabaJ. Here the Nizam s forces are indefi- 
nitely stated to have been at Shdnoor, to which point tlicy could hardly have advanced from 
Hyderabad in that interval. In Ijotli cases, his evident object was to niagnify the number of 
Ills enemies. 

(6) Original ,V"rM .' J' >^ '■^^-^ " " ''° '^'^ fixed their miserable equipage," " taken up 
*' their wretclied quarters." 

(7) Original 0^ *X-^ ^U- ^ ^.JU^ jl^ jjiA literally, ** the business had not yet arrived at 
" sword aud bayonet." 


• " By this movement, the death-devoted Mahrattalis, who, favored by the Ski- 
" noor-man/"^ had estabhshed themselves behind a stream which passes close to 
" Shdnoor, were placed in the situation of an ill-fated bird, caught in a snare, 
*' whose own feet may be said to conduct it to its doom ; <'' the fact being, that 
" Shdnoor [where they had voluntarily cooped themselves up] did actually prove 
" such a snare to them. 

" It being an established rule under my government, for every Kushoon''°^ to 
" cover its camp with batteries,*'" I, in pursuance of this system, caused en- 
" trenchments to be thrown up around and in front of my position near Shdnoor. 
" Having done this, I proceeded to attack the enemy,'"' with which view, after 
" allotting two Kiishoons of regular, and ten thousand Ehshdm infantry, for the 
" protection of my lines and camp, I formed the remainder of my army (consist- 
" ing, besides six Kushoons of regular infantry, of [a considerable force in] regular 
" and irregular cavalry, Ehshdm troops,'"^ &c.) into four divisions, one of which 
" I placed under the command of Mah Mirza Khan/'*' whom I directed to charge 
'' across the river. Another division, conducted by Burhanuddeen, was to fall 
*' upon the enemy's left flank ; while Meer Moaayenuddecn, at the head of the 
" third, was to attack their right. A fourth division'"' was led by myself. 

" Every 

(8) Meaning AbdCil Hukeem Khan. 

(9) I have been obliged to depart, in some measure, from the letter, though, I trust, not 
from the spirit, of my original, accortiiug to which the bird's own feet arc made to conduct 
it to the kitclicn *<«=^ where its destiny is obvious. In like manner, Shdnoor is represented 
to liave proved a kitchen, or, in other words, a slaughter-house, to which their own steps 
had led the Malirattahs. 

(10) That is, as I suppose, xchen Marchhig on actual service, or in time of war. 

(U) This is tlie word employed in the original, by which probably is meant field-redoubts 
or entrenchments. 

(12) This account is at variance with that given by the Sultan in his letter to the Governor 
*f Madras, and referred to under Letter CCCLXXX, 

(13) No number is here specified. 

(14) 1 suppose this to be the same person to whom Letter CXIX is addressed. I am 
ignorant of his fate, as well as that of MoaayenGddeen ; but conclude, that neither of them 
was living at tlie period when Scringapatam was captured, their names not appearing among 
those of the commanders who survived that evcpt. 

(! o) Forming, probably, the principal attack. '' 


" Every thing being thus ])reparcd, and the third niii^ht after my arrival at 
" Shdtioor being dark and rainy, and therefore f\ivorabIe to my purpose, I put my 
" troops in motion for the assault of the enemy's position. The distance between 
" the two armies not exceeding a [or two miles], the advanced picquets of 
" each were posted close to one another. Upon my reaching those of the enemy, 
" the latter, to the amount of about two hundred horse, came forward, and 
" demanding who we were, and what we wanted, forbad our advancing. I was 
" myself, at this time, in front of the column thus challenged. To tliese ques- 
" tions no one presuming to reply without my authority, those scorpions advanced 
" still nearer''"' to us, and repeated their enquiries. Upon this I directed a com- 
" pany of my advanced guard to reply to them ivith Jire ; ''" when a volley was 
" instantly discharged amongst the scorpions by the foremost company of the 
" victorious army, which sent numbers of the said scorpions to hell. Of the 
" remainder, some escaped to their own camp, while others of the infidels were 
" made prisoners. 

" I followed the fugitives till I approached very near their camp, when I made the 
" [appointed] signal by gun'"' for the other three divisions of the army to advance 
•* with speed [to their respective attacks]. To this signal, however, no answer 
" being given, I concluded they must have encountered some [unforeseen obstacle, 
** such as a] river or mirey road, which had occasioned their present failure. I 
" continued, nevertheless, )iiy w ay to the enemy's camp ; on reaching which I 
"• repeated the signal to the three other divisions, which was now answered by one 
*' of the commanders, but still no notice was taken of it by the other two. Under 
" these circumstances, I became apprehensive lest the opportunity [of attacking 
" the enemy] should slip through my hands : ''** exclaiming, therefore, Allah-ydr ' 

3 I 2 [or, 

(16) Original ^x<\j;jji\ JcjJi where tlicrc is that kind of play upon the words t//l)-«i</''< 
(scorpions) and Ukrahtur (iieaier) of which the Sultan was very fond. 

(n) Original ^^Ijl 

(18) There is some ditiicully in undcrstandinp; liow a signal h)' gun, mado during the con- 
fusion of a night attack, could be distinguislied from any otiicr liring of cannon. 

(19) This is nearly literal, the original being jj,-^ il:..^Jj1 u:^j <»^ 


" [or, God is our friend !] I rushed forward into the camp of the infidels, and 
" opened upon them a [brisk] fire from my artillery.'*"' Soon after I had thus 
" penetrated into the enemy's camp, the commanders of two of the other divisions 
" likewise arrived there, at the points respectively assigned to them. 

" It was just day-break when I entered the camp of the infidels, at which time I 
" had only about three hundred Jyshe and a single gun with me. I was soon after, 
" however, joined by others. The flight of the unbelievers resembled that of 
" kites and crows ; and, after some time, they stood viewing from the summits 
" of the distant eminences, the plunder of their deserted camp. 

" An hour and a half after the victorious army had taken possession of the 
" enemy's camp, the fourth division, under the the command of Mah Mirza Khan, 
" which, proceeding from the vicinity of Shdnoor, had fallen upon and routed tlie 
" army of Holkar, likewise joined me. 

" About nine o'clock in the forenoon, the whole of the unbelievers, re-assem- 
" bling like so many gnats and flies, advanced towards us, and drew up, as if with 
" an intention of oflering us battle ; commencing, at the same time, a distant 
" cannonade from six pieces of artillery. On my part, I forbad ni\' people to 
" throw away their ammunition in this manner, directing that the short light guns 
" attached to the dift'erent divisions should alone fire upon such of the enemy as 
" approached extremely near : and, even in this case, they were ordered to dis- 
*' charge only a single shot at a time, and that very deliberately. My object, in 
" this manoeuvre, was, to make the infidels believe that I had none but short field 
" pieces with me. This notion would encourage them [I thought] to draw nearer 
" to us, when, suddenly opening a heavy fire upon them from our long guns, we 
" should be sure to put them completely to the route. It happened exactly as I 
" foresaw. The infidels came close up to our line, in the manner of crows; when 
" all four divisions of the army opening their long guns together, gave them, 
" agreeably to my instructions, such a general discharge, as instantly made them 

*' disperse 

(20) This must have been when he had collected the whole of his division together, as 
when he first entered the enemy's camp he had only one gun with liim. 


" disperse on all sides, and flv in dospair/-'^ like a flock of the same crows, in the 
" midst of which a stone has been thrown. 

" In this action " tlie enemy lost about two thousand horse and three elephants, 
" killed by cannon shot: great numbers of their people, horse and foot, likewise 
*■ speeded on this occasion to hell. '" The remainder of tlicir army, turning their 
" faces to flight, retreated to the distance of four or five cnss, where they again 
*' encamped. I also, with my wliole army, returned to my [entrenched] camp, 
" where I continued two days, till I could ascertain where the infidels were. At 
" length I received intelligence, that they had moved to a new position, near 
'•' S/idiioor, where they were encamped, with the river on their left flank. Upon 
" this I also shifted my camp, and took up a fresh j)osition directly in their front. 

" Here, the festival of Zilhijjeh being at hand, I lialted two or three days, for 
" the purpose of celebrating it ; and having accordingly done so, I prepared the 
" following day for action. For- this purpose, drawing up my army with the 
" whole of the Behropeahs *' in front of the difTerent Kushoons, and throwing my 
" right flank upon Slidnoor, I advanced against the enen)y. The moment the 
" infidels perceived this movement, they withdrew what troops they had placed in 
" Shdnoor, and then, taking the SMnoor-mdin along with them, fled, without 
" fighting, to the distance of six CO**, when they again halted. In the meanwhile, 

" I encamped 

(21) Oiigin:il X' j.i ^Jci']^ ij} ^bjj ui-^wJ L::-vij i-S^- l!Jo-j ilj ^ Ji.« wliich would not 
bear u lueiai translation : tor ihougli " biting the back of the hand" is a common action 
with tiie natives of India, to denote despair or tiisappointaieiit, the expression would not so 
well apply to a flock of crows. 

(22) Though the SulUtii has not given the da'c of this action, the context sufficiently 
cstablisiics tiiat it v as tiie one referred to in Letter CCCLXXXI, as iiaving taken place on 
i\\c lih Ztlhijjth, A.M. I.'OO, or 1st October 1786. 

(23) Original ^JjUl Ji-j\ literally, " the meanest of the mean," or " the lowest of the 
" low." Ill this last sense it is sometimes employed to denote hell, or " the lowest i)it of 
" hell," according to Mr. Gilchrist, the first Hindoostany jjhilologer of this or any other 
period, and one to whom the students of that language arc under similar obligations, to those 
which the Persian scholar owes to the oriental labors of Sir William Jones and of Sir John 

(24) I am not clear with respect to the meaning of this word (supposing it to be correctly 
written), but think it likely that it may be another term for Bandars, or rockct-nicu. 


" I encamped near the grouucl which tlic enemy liad occupied, still covering my 
'•' right flank with Shdnoor. 

" It was on this occasion that the destitute chief of that place, who had allowed 
" himself to be seduced [from his allegiance to me] by the insidious representa- 
" tions of the Mahrattahs, experienced the nature of the protection he had to 
" expect from these perfidious friends, to whose camp he had lately removed, to- 
" wether with his family and effects. Of the latter of these he was now openly 
" plundered of the chief part, by the people of the Mahrattah army, who even 
" carried off some of the women belonging to him. The next day, this senseless 
" creature,'"^ together with what remained of his property and women, and with 
" no other clothes than those which they wore at the time, was sent off, under a 
" o-uard of five thousand horse, to Mirich. The Mahrattahs themselves made, at 
" the same time, two or three successive marches [in a retrograde direction]. '•"' 

" After this, breaking up my camji at SMnoor, and leaving a small garrison in 
" that city, I proceeded to the [adjacent] town of Bunkapoor, near which I lay 
*' encamped during the first fourteen days of Muhurrum, performing at this place 
" the mournful ceremonies of the season. Here also the commanders of the 
" Hydery army presented me with three Nuzrs : one on occasion of the birth 
" of the prince -"' Nizam uddcen ; another, for my late victory ; and the third, on 
" account of the Eed (or festival). 

" It was at this time that I came to the determination of communicating with 
" the infidels, on certain points which had suggested themselves to my mind. In 
" pursuance of this design, I sent a person of respectability,''*' accompanied by one 
" of the chief of my spies, to Tukojee Holkar, who had the reputation of being 

« the 

{■25} Original JiuJ^jjJi*-* 

(26) The exact line of their retreat is not indicated. As, however, they subsequently ap- 
peared in the quarter of Kopul, wlicre another engagement took place between the two armies, 
it is probable that they retired in that direction. 

{21) Original >jlj ili That is, " king's son." This, I believe, is the first instance of the 
Sulkai's so plainly laying claim to the royal title. 

(2S) Original i^o\ ^>ij« 

T 1 P P O O S U L T A N. 43 1 

" the most valiant among the infidels; and to whom I directed the following 
" message to be delivered. 

" ' Nizam Ali Khan, to whom, if he had been here, I should have addressed 
" ' myself, is not present. It is for this reason I send to you to say, ' wherefore 
'* ' ' should we any longer suffer hundreds of thousands of men to be killed and 
" ' ' wounded in battle ? What is most desirable is, that you and I should draw 

" ' ' up our respective armies in two lines " " 


The sequel of this curious and interesting passage is unfortunately wanting, 
having, as already alluded to in the Preface, been torn out at this place. My re- 
collection of what followed the words with which the preceding extracts ends, 
enables me, however, to state generally, that the message in question convej-ed sucIj 
another challenge to Tukojee Holkar, as that which was sent by the Sidfan (accord- 
ing to his o\vn account) to General Macleod, during the siege of Mangalore, in 
1783, and of which a translation has been given by Colonel Wilks, in the Intro- 
duction to his valuable History of Mysore. The two armies were to be drawn up 
opposite to each other, for the purpose of witnessing the combat ; in which, how- 
ever, they were, on no account, to interfere. The questions in dispute between the 
contending states were to be decided according to the result of the battle; that is 
to say, the vanquished party was to accede to such pretensions, or demands, as had 
been previously set up by the adversary. Holkar, as might be expected, treated 
the proposal with derision ; observing, on the occasion (among other things), " that 
" it was not the custom of his nation to refer their claims to the issue of a single 
" engagement, but, on the contrary, to attack and retreat, retire and advance, as 
" the nature of circumstances required." Such is the substance of what I remem- 
ber of this singular occurrence, as related by the Sultan himself: the deficiency in 
my account of which will, it may be hoped, be supplied in due season by Colonel 
Wilks, from the Sdltdn ilt Tuivdreekh, referred to by him in his Prtface, and 
which is very likely to have recorded the transaction in question, as well as the 
similar bravado already noticed. At all events, there can be little doubt, that there 
are other copies of the Sultatis Memoirs in existence, besides the mutilated one in 



my possession. In the case here supposed, it may still be reasonably presumed, 
that this curious document will, at some future period, be offered to the public, in 
a more perfect and connected form, than that in which I have judged it convenient 
to exhibit it in the present work. 

I have not, at this moment, the means of ascertaining what credit is due to the 
Sultans account of the treatment experienced by Abdul Hukeem Khan at the 
hands of his Mahrattah allies. The probability of the fact is, no doubt, sup- 
ported, in some degree, by the general character of that people for rapaciousness 
and bad faith. It is, at the same time, very possible, that the prejudices of the 
writer may have betrayed him into some exaggeration on the occasion. 

The Sultan would not seem, even by his own narrative, to have followed up the 
advantage which he states himself to have obtained over the Mahrattahs at Shdnoor, 
either with the celerity or the vigour which might have been expected. Besides 
the delay occasioned by the celebration of the festival of ZUhijJeh, he remained 
stationary during a great part of the ensuing month, for the purpose of fultilling 
the customary rules of the 3Idhurrum. Though not acknowledged, it is, never- 
theless, not unlikely, that some other considerations, as well as those of super- 
stition, may have led to this extraordinary inactivity ; which, if it had not a 
tendency to damp the zeal of his own army, at least afforded time to that of the 
enemy, to recover from the effects of their recent discomfiture. 


To Meeb, Ali, Second Bukhsuy of Ehsiiam at JBaxgalore ; dated 
ISfh ZuBURJunY. (17 th Octohcr.^ 

Your going about to the forts by yourself, and your investigating the 
accounts of the same, without being accompanied by the first JBuk/ishj/, 
is not proper. Repair to Bangalore, and after finally settling the accounts 
of that fort, proceed with the first Bukhshi/, and in conjunction with 
liim, examine minutely into those of the other places [within your juris- 

N. B. Several 



N. B. Several letters appear at this period, acknowledging the Sultan's receipt 
of Nuzrs transmitted to him, in compliment to his recent victory over the 
Mahrattahs. In one of these, addressed to Rajah Ram Chundur, the Dentin of 
Bangalore, he approves of that officer s having distributed sweet-meats on that 
occasion, and desires him to do the same thing in future. 


To BuDRLZ ZuMAN Khan ; dated 23d Zubuujudy. (22d Ocioher.') 

Do you remain on tlie borders of Soandeh, Kittoor, Dharivdr, 8fc. 
and there apply yourself to the effectual chastisement of the turbulent 
wretches who infest those parts, 

N. B. There follows here an order to Budruz Zuman Khan, directing him to 
examine and make a report on a certain spot, situated in a part of the country 
comprehended in his government (but the name of which I am unable to make 
out), where the Sultan seems to have been desirous of erecting a fort. Besides 
possessing great natural strength, the position was further recommended by its 
proximity to the frontier of the Kukun. Indeed it is intimated to be the proper 
route for an army proposing to penetrate into that country. Budruz Zuman Khan 
is accordingly instructed to procure and transmit to his master, the fullest informa- 
tion in his power on the subject. 

This letter then proceeds as follows : 

Demolish the fort of Kittoor. Seize upon the disturbers of the 
country, and incorporate them with the Ahmedies [/. e. make Musul- 
mans of them]. Write letters of peace [or amity], in the first instance, 

to the Polygar of ,('^ and afterwards, sending a person of 

3 K respectability 

(1) Name not legible. 


respectability to him, bring him over to the interests of the Sircar. 
Having done this, you must ascertain [through him] what strong forts 
there are in the Kokun, and what villages occur in the road leading 
thither. You are to be very particular in your enquiries [on this sub- 
ject] ; and you are to keep the matter quite secret. You arc, moreover, 
to make your communications to us, regarding it, in the Persian lan- 


Whether Budruz Zuman Khan joined the Sultan's army at the same time with 
Bluhanuddeen, and was now sent back to his government; or whether he had, all 
along, continued there, I am unable to determine. The circumstance, however, 
of his not being named by the Sultan, in the latter's account of the battle of 
Shdnoor, strongly indicates, that he did not participate in the honors of that day, 
since, if he had been present, it is most probable that he would have had a conspi- 
cuous station assigned to him on the occasion. I am equally ignorant, where 
Kumruddcen Khin was at this period : but as it may be presumed, that, if he had 
been employed on a separate command, some letters to his address would have 
appeared in the collection, it is most likely, that he had remained in attendance 
upon the Sultan since the time of his return from the siege of Nergilnd. There 
is, indeed, reason to believe, that although he was occasionally placed at the head 
of an army, he was never much trusted by the Sultan, who appears to have 
entertained no very favorable opinion of his talents. This is particularly evinced 
in some minutes of a consultation, dated in 179-*} i" which the Meers incapacity 
is pretty plainly insinuated by the majority of the subscribing counsellors. 

(2) It appears, by this and other passages of tlic correspondence, that even tliosc 
persons, who were capable of writing Persian, did not always address the Sultan in that 



7b MoN'SiEun CossiGNY ; dated 24fh Zvdurjvdy. (23d October.^ 

The persons to be dispatched to Europe have been fixed on by t/ie 
Preseiice, and will accordingly soon proceed from hence, and arrive \jxi 
Pondicherry]. When they arrive [there], you must send them to 
Europe, along with M. Perron,<'^ who [we understand] is about to 
repair thither. 


To Syed Ahmed Saheb, Boodhun Shah, Nubby Shah, Kuleem- 
VJLLAH Shah, and others (Peer-zadehs or Devotees) ; dated from 
SuAXOOR, 24(h ZuBURJUDY. (23d October.^ 

£^// o/" the same tenor.~\ 

By the blessing of God and the aid of the Prophet, the forces of the 
accursed having experienced a signal defeat and chastisement, have turned 
their faces to flight, leaving the troops of Islam victorious over the ene- 
mies of the faith. Thus has the arnjy of the accursed infidels been 
trodden under foot by the hoofs of the horses of Islam, and rendered vile 
and miserable ; while the religion of Mahommed has been thereby made 
to flourish. 

You, Sir, are one of the elders [of the faith], and will therefore 
apply, with all your heart, to the best means of advancing the religion of 
Mahommed, and of administering to the support of Islam. 

3 K 2 

(1) Tliough this name is very disiinctly written, I am inclined to think tliat it was meant 
for Monneron. 


N. B. Here follows an inventory of the presents, respectively, sent to the persons 
addressed; by which it would appear, that the highest in the Sultan's estimation 
wei-e Boodhun Shah and Nubby Shah. 



Khan, Rajah Ram Chundur, Nursia, and others; dated from 
Shaxoor, 26th ZuBURJUDY. (25th October.^ 


A Paper, containing the Khiithah [or form of prayer to be read in 
the mosques], is enclosed. Give strict orders to the Khdtihs [or reciters 
of the KhutbaH\ belonging to your Kuchurry, to recite the Khiitbdh 
regularly, after the praises of God and the Prophet, according to the 
accompanying form. 


The form of prayer here referred to does not appear ; but it is most probable, 
that it appointed the Sultan's own name to be substituted in place of Shah Allum's. 
If such was the case, it may be presumed, that, although tliis measure seems to 
have been determined on by Tippoo, so far back as July 1786,'" he had not 
hitherto carried it into effect ; at least not throughout the whole of his dominions. 
Being now elated with his recent successes against the Mahrattahs, he might, 
perhaps, think the occasion peculiarly favorable to the complete and final execution 
of his purpose. 

(1) See Letter CCCXXXI. 



To the SHANOOR-Man (J. e. Abdul Hukeem Khan) ; same Date. 

(25th October.^ 

Your intention of coming [hither] has been verbally communicated to 
us by Kurecm Khan, and the account has afforded us pleasure : notwith- 
standing, the ungracious proceeding^) of which you have [recently] been 
guilty is such, as I could never have imagined to be possible. It is well. 
My friendly disposition towards you still continues : repair hither, there- 
fore, with a confident mind. The house and place are both yours.(-> 
The remaining particulars will be imparted to you by the bearer of this 


Whatever message Abdul Hukeem Khan may have sent to the Sultan, it is diffi- 
cult to believe, after what had passed, that he should have entertained a serious 
intention of putting himself again in the power of the latter. He may, indeed, 
have been disappointed in his expectations from the Mahrattahs ; but he probably 
knew the Sultan too well, to hope for any better treatment, in the event of his 
return to Shdnoor. Be this as it might, it is certain that he did not return thither 
till the conclusion of the war. 

(1) Original j^.I<li^l 

(2) This is tlie usual answer giving to a person proposing to visit another. It may here, 
however, be uii(Jcistood, and was, perhaps, meant in a literal sense. 




To R.C JAH Ram Chukdur ; dated 1st Hydeiiy. (29tk October. ")[ 

Directing him to issue strict orders to the different Aumits within his 
jurisdiction, to enroll [or impress] all such Piadehs^^^ and Coolies as 
might be found concealed in the dress [or under the disguise] of peasants. 


This letter would seem to show, that it was not unusual with Tippoo Sultan's 
government to press into the public service, not only labourers and carriers of 
burdens (a custom, by the bye, very generally obtaining throughout India}, but also 
fighting men, for the purpose of recruiting the army. It might likewise be inferred 
from this document, that neither of the oppressive practices in question was liable to 
affect the real peasant. I am, nevertheless, doubtful, how far either of these 
conclusions would be correct ; and am, indeed, rather led to think, from various 
passages in the correspondence, that there was no period of the Sultans reign, in 
which the peasantry, or Ryots (as they are called in the original), were bond Jide 
exempt from compulsory service, as laborers or artizans. It is, on the other haivd, 
not impossible, that the present order for impressing soldiers might be no more 
than a temporary expedient, suggested by the exigencies of the war : and, at any 
rate, it would appear to have extended only to such persons as had formerly borne 
arms, but were become, from whatever motives, averse to the resumption of them. 


To the JBvKiisuY of Ehsham at Gooty ; same Date. (29th October^ 

Directing him to chastise the turbulent [or seditious] wherever they 
raised the head of revolt ; and after making them prisoners, to place 


(1) This leUer is preceded in the original by two others, dated 29th Zuburjudy (or 2Sth 
Octtbei) addressed to two Pcer-xddchs, or devotees, and requiring, in tlie usual term?, their 
prayers lor the destruction of " the rejecteU infidels" and the prosperity of Islam. 

(2) That is, Peons, or foot soldiers, of the irregular classes. 


those under age [or of tender years] in the Ahmechj band, and to han^ 
the remainder. 


To Rajah Ram Cjiundur; dated 4th Hydery. (\st November^ 

What you have represented, regaiding the flight of the Ryots belong- 
ing to the district of Great Balapoor, on account of tlie increase of six 
or seven thousand pagodas produced in the revenue, in consequence of 
our having fixed the exchange of the royal pagoda^^^ at twelve Cantarai 
fanams, together with the excuse which you have offered for the Ri/ots 
on the occasion,*^^^ is understood. Where is the hardship or difficulty in a 
JRi/ot [or renter, having] to pay an additional fanam or two upon his 
rent, which is the most that can fall upon the individual, when the tax 
[complained of] is divided among the whole ? 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan, Deti'As of KuRPAH ; dated ^ III 
Hydery. (Ath November.^ 

Your letter, praying to be allowed the use of ten Bdnddrs [rocket- 
men] for the services of your house and gardens, has passed under our 
view. Bdnddrs are entertained for fighting, not for looking after houses 
and gardens. You must employ the Piddehs stationed with you in the 
services you mention. 

( 1 ) Original >lJ,j\j . j» by whicli was probably meant the S'iiltdny pagoda. 

(2) This passage is rather obscure iu the original. 



To Meer Moaayenuddeen Khan ; same Date. (4th November!) 

Send and station the bullocks belonging to the great guns, and also 
those attached to your own Kiishoon, together with their Ddroglias and 
drivers, into the rear of our special tents [or of the head -quarters], 
where, at the extremity of the army encampment, there is a spot abound- 
ing in grass, which will afford the cattle [good] pasturage. In that 
friend's present situation, there is no grass but what is at a great dis- 
tance. Here it is at hand ; by which means the cattle will [soon] get 
into good condition. When you march again, or if you should want 
them for any particular purpose, you can send and order them to rejoin 

N.B. A similar order appears to have been addressed, at the same time, to 
Burlianuddeen ; but afterwards revoked, in consequence of its being ascertained 
and reported to the Sultan, that the situation occupied by Biirhanuddeen afforded 
sufficient pasturage for the cattle of his division. 


To Mahommed Ushruf ; dated 9tk HyderyS^^ (6th November.) 

Your letter, enclosing a statement of the demands against the super- 
seded Aumil of Siimi'putn,^'^^ has been received, and has made us 
acquainted with the particulars of his embezzlements. Let the claims of 
the Sircar upon the aforesaid Aumil and others be realized, by means of 

(1) Two letters of the same date with this arc omitted, it being sufficient to mention, that 
one of them directs some elephants belonging to Abdftl HQkeem Khan, and which had been 
seized at Shdnoor, to be sent to the Sultan's camp, and the remainder to Seringapatam. The 
other letter announces the abandonment of the intended embassy to Fegu. 

(2) Bulhdrx/. 



To Zynui- Aabideen, Taal6kdar of GvlsuumAbad ; same Date. 

(6th N^ovemhcr.^ 

In compliance with your application for an order to the Aumil of 
Khan-Khanhullt/, to furnish you with two more iron boilers/'^ which you 
represent to be necessary, on account of the increase in the number of 
horses under your charge, we have written, and now enclose, the requi- 
site letter to the aforesaid Aumil, to whom you will forward it. The 
boilers in question must, however, be imid for, at the time of their being 
delivered to your people. 


There appears to have been a great iroti-foundery and manufactory established 
Khan-Khanhully ,^^^ the business of which was, I believe, conducted on account, 
and for the exclusive benefit of, the Sultaris government. There is, no doubt, 
some difficulty in understanding why an article, purchased, in fact, of the Sultan, 
and ybr his service, should be actually paid for in money, when a simple order to 
the directors of the works to furnish such articles, would apparently have answered 
the purpose as well. A similar practice, however, seems to have prevailed in other 
departments of the government ; and the object of it might possibly have been to 
preserve the accounts of the proceeds or profits of the monopolies in question, as 
distinctly as possible. 

3 L 

(1) Used in boiling the Gram (a kind of horse bean) with wbicli horses are fed in India. 

(2) Usually written Kan-Kanelly. 



To SooJAN Rae a«c/MoAL Chund, Agents at Dehli ; same Date. 

(6th ^ovember.^ 

After a similar account of the battle of Shdnoor with that given to Mahommed 
Baig Khan Humdany and others, under the same date (see Letter CCCLXXXI), 
the present letter proceeds to give some immaterial orders, respecting the period- 
ical dispatch of Kdsids (or messengers) from Dehli. Then follows an explanation 
of the new notation, according to which the Sultan had recently named the months 
and years of the Malabar cycle, and of which this is the substance. 

The letters to which numerical powers are assigned are stated to be thirty ; 
being the number, including ^J (Idm-aliJ) and s. (humza) which occur in the 
Koran. Of the two last mentioned letters, the former, or "i, represented a half, and 
s (humza) a quarter. The powers of the remaining twenty-eight letters were regu- 
lated according to their order in the alphabet; the first nine, to j (zal) inclusive, 
representing units ; the next nine, to c (ain) inclusive, tens ; the third series to 
i (he) inclusive, hundreds ; the last letter, or ^ (ye), standing for a thousand. 

The foreo-oinf rule is conveyed in the following verses, which are inserted here 
for the gratification of the Persian reader. Whether they may be considered as a 
specimen of the Sultans poetical talent I cannot affirm ; but, however this may 
be, they do no great credit to their author. 

c_>U^ J-L-t uJ^ (t^ 



Jjj Jjl ^^ .-J c^ 

:\ J^\ 


j^wy) J^j^ k-^1 i^. -rii 
Jj gj^j *J tJll Ju: B> <«S 



It would appear by these verses, that this scheme of notation was invented, or, 
at least, first estabHshed, by Tippoo Sultan, who may possibly have given it the 
name of Hisdb e Zur, or the golden computation, in allusion to the circumstance 
of its being composed of the letters used in the Koran ; which is not so exactly 
the case in the Ubjud scheme, as by that both Idm-alif and humza are rejected. 

The remainder of this letter is occupied by an enumeration of the names of the 
months and years, according to the new nomenclature. The former of these, and 
as many of the latter as were deemed necessary, have been already given in ano- 
ther place. 


To Mahommed UsHRUF ; dated Wth Hydery. (8th November.') 

Your hiiinble address lias passed under our view, by which we per- 
ceive that you have dispatched the account [of sales] of the shops^) 
belonging to the Sircar [/. c. to us]. 

You write, that " there is no JMiUusuddi/ appointed for kecj)ing the 
" accounts of the Toslich-khdneh, and that, with our leave, you will 
" enij)loy a Serh/iteddi<-^ for the purpose ; otherwise, you request that 
** some one may be nominated and dispatched from the Presence." It is 
known. If you will refer to your Ililk7n-nd)nch [or instructions] you 
will find it written there, " that a separate Mutusuddy for keeping the 
*' accounts of the losheh-khdtieh is unnecessary, and that this duty is 
" to be performed by one of the numerous Serishteddrs of the Mukdis 
" [or revenue officers]." That you should propose, notwithstanding 
this [regulation], to employ a separate Miliusuddi/, can be attributed to 
no other cause than ignorance and want of understanding. Look into 
your insti-uctions, and act agreeably to them. 

3 L 2 

(1) Sec Letter XCVIII, to Ri'ijah Rim Cliundur, on the subject of tlicsC shops. 
('_') Revenue accountants. 



To Rajah Ram Chunduk ; dated I9th Hydery. (I6th November^ 

Your letter, enclosing one to you from the Aumil of Kunucly, on 
the subject of the disturbances excited by the fugitive Polygar of that 
district, has been received. What are you and Turbiyut Ali Khan 
about, that you do not issue the most rigid orders on this occasion, and 
see this business properly settled ? 


To BooDHUN Shah ; dated from ShJnoor, 22d Hydery. 

(19 fh Noveinher.^ 

The names of the chiefs of the enemy, who are, at this time, suffer- 
ing under the wounds inflicted upon them "by us, are Balajee Phurnu- 
weese^') and Madho Rao^-^ Be your reverence earnestly intent on [pray- 
ing for] the confusion [or disgrace] of the enemy, and the splendor and 
increase of the true religion of Mahommed. 


To Monsieur Moneron, Fringy, at Poxdicherry; same Date. 

The humble address which you sent [to us] has passed under our view ; 
and what you represented therein has been comprehended. Your ac- 
count of passing occurrences, and of your having written, and dispatched 
to Eurojie, all particulars relating to our friendly disposition [towards the 
French nation], as well as your information regarding the ships of war 

coming to these parts, are all made known. 


(1) The celebrated Maliiattah minislcr, Nana Furnaveese, and 

(2) The Paislma. 


You write " whenever the chiefs of the Sircar, selected for the em- 
" bassy to Europe, shjill arrive at Pondicherry, M. Cossigny will dispatch 
" them tliither, with all the respect and honor [due to their rank and 
*' station]." It is known. In conformity with the orders which we 
issued in your presence, and agreeaJjIy to what you have written, Ma- 
houimed Durwaish Khiln, Akbar Ali Khan, Mahommed Othman, and 
other chiefs, charged with letters and presents, have set out [for Pondi- 
chei'ry'], where they will [in due time] safely arrive. We have no doubt 
that you will take care that the above mentioned chiefs are properly sup- 
plied with whatever they may want, payment being made for the same ; 
and that, providing in the best manner for their accommodation, you 
will convey them in perfect ease and comfort, along with yourself, to 

We have learned by letters from Ghulam Ali Khan, Lutf Ali Khan, 
NoorulUih Khan, and other Sirddrs [or chiefs] formerly sent [to Eu- 
rope'], of their safe arrival at the port of Pussorah, and of their departure 
from thence [in prosecution of their journey]. 

You write, " that during the stormy weather which prevails at sea 
" [about this time], and which may be expected to continue for two 
" months longer, ships cannot remain at their [usual] anchorage [on 
** the coast] ; but that M. Cossigny having [some time since], with a 
*' view to this circumstance, given you orders to prepare and bring a 
*' good ship from the Mauritius, you should accordingly arrive from 

" thence at Pondicherry with one by the first of. "^'^ It is 

known : and we assure ourselves, in consequence, that you are by this 
time arrived at Pondicherry with a good ship. 

We observe the desire you have expressed, that we would write to your 
Pdjah in recommendation of M, Cossigny's confirmation in the govern- 

(I) The name of the month is not quite legible, but is, apparent! v> intended for Clwiler 


nient of Pondicherry ; and we have, accordingly, in the letter uhich we 
have sent to your Hd/ah by the Sirddrs of our Sircar, not only made the 
request suggested by you, but have, nioicover, taken that occasion to 
speak [in due commendation] of the courage and knowledge of busincss^^) 
which distinguish the said Monsieur. 

We received the copy which you sent us of M. Cossigny's letters to 
Nizam AH Khan and to the Mahrattahs, and all the particulars thereof 
are become known [to us]. 

You write, *' that five thousand soldiers' musquets will arrive imme- 
" diately, either at Calicut or Mangalore ; and that you will bring five 
'* thousand more along with yourself, when you return [to Pondicherrif] 
" from the Mauritius." It is understood. We have written to the 
TaaMkddrs of Calicut and 3Iangulore, directing them to receive the 
musquets you may send, whenever they arrive, provided you shall have 
fixed a proper [or just] price npon the same. 


To Shumsuddeen, a}id others (Daroghas of the Tosheh-khaxeh at 
Seringapatam) ; dated from Shaxoor, 22d Hydery. (19th A^o- 

Your humble address, accompanied by a statement of the quantities 
of gold and silver remaining in the Tosheh-khdneh and mint, together 
with an account of receipts and balances, has passed under our view. 
We wrote to you, some time since,^') directing you to prepare and keep 
together, in a separate coffer, the sum of five lacks of rupees, which it 


(2) Original ^^L^li _, ti-^L-- 

(1) It has not been thought necessary to insert the letter here referred to, which was w rittcn 
about a fortnight before tlie present one. 

Tirroo SULTAN. 44]^ 

was our intention to appropriate to the construction of a canal [or aque- 
duct] at the holy IVujuf. This money was to consist of such Ilyderies, 
half rupees, and quarter rupees, as were in the treasury or the mint, or 
might come in with the collections from the country. We now repeat 
those orders ; and also direct that, having placed the money in question 
in a distinct coffer, you affix a lahel on the said coffer, containing these 
words. " In this chest are deposited the rupees composing the Nuzr to 
" be appropriated to the construction of an aqueduct [from the Euphrates^ 
" to the sepulchre of the holy Ali." Not a single Ddm [or farthing] of 
this money is to be expended [for any other purpose than the one which 
lias been indicated]. 


Notwithstanding these ostensible, and, perhaps, sincerely-meant preparations for 
executing the pious work alluded to, there is reason to believe, as has been else- 
V here stated, that it was never carried into effect. 


7« Ghulaji Am Khan, Lutf Ali Khan, and Shah Noorullah ; 

same Dale. Qdth November.^ 

Your humble address was received [by us] on the 5th of Ihjdery [2d 
Novendjcr] of the year Dullu. You write, " that, by the blessing of 
" God, you were well, and at Muscat, on the 22d of Jaufunj (A.H. 
" 1200), and that you were to proceed onward to Bussorah on the 25th 
" of the same month." (') You refer us, in the same dispatch, '* for 

" further 

(1) In Letter CCCXCIX, to M. Moncron, of the same date as the present one, the 
Sultan tells the latter, that he had learned from GhCiliun Ali Kliun of their arrival at Bus- 


" furthei' particulars, to a separate letter, addressed to us by Shah Noor- 
" lillah 5 and moi'eover mention, your having, some time before, trans- 
" mitted to the Presence, by a pair of Hurkdrelis, an account of your 
" arrival at il//«cf/#, together with two other packets, containing copious 
" details [of your journey and proceedings]." It is known. The afore- 
said Hurkdrehs have not hitherto arrived. 

We desire you to let us know what persons you have sent by the ship 
[which is on its return hither]. It is astonishing, that notwithstanding 
the written instructions [which you have received on this head], you 
should, instead of writing to us in detail, refer us to a letter from Shah 
Nooriiilah. It appears by this, that you never look at your instructions ; 
agreeably to the saying, " the epistles of lovers [are hung or placed] upon 
" deer's horns."(-> Do not again lose your wits in this manner, but act 
according to your instructions. 

You have written, " that Mubaruk Khan, the Jowkddr, is dead ; and 

" that you will, with our permission, promote Mahommed 

" in his room." It is understood. We have invested you with full 
powers ; you should, therefore, act in all matters according as you may 
think best suited to the circumstances of the moment, and not wait for 
our orders. 

We have, at this time, in consequence of the late period to which your 
arrival in France will be protracted, dispatched Mahommed Durwaish, 
Akbar Ali Khan, Othman Khan, and other Sinldrs, to the lidjah of the 
French, for whom they are charged with letters and presents. They are 
to proceed in a French ship from Pondichernj. This is written for your 



sorah. These accounts seem to be at variance, since the letters, referred to in the dis|)alch 
to M. Moneron, were muit probably those acknowledged above. The contradiction is not 
material, and is, most probably, an error of the transcriber. 

(2) Original o>\ ^li j ^UiU cjIj I am obliged to acknowledge my ignorance of the 
meaning of this allusion. Burdt also signifies a draft, or order, for money. 


"We have learned from report, that one of the elephants which you 
took \\ith you died on your way to Muscat. It is astonishing that you 
should not have mentioned this circumstafjce. 

N.B. There was added to the foregoing letter a similar account of the battle of 
Shdnoor with that given in Letter CCCLXXXI and others. 


It is remarkable^ that although the Sultan had, at this time, dispatched another 
embassy, by sea, to France, he does not, on the present occasion, intimate any 
intention of recalling Ghidam Ali and his associates. On the contrary, he speaks 
of their arrival in France as an event still in his contemplation, though apparently 
distant. The reason, perhaps, of his not yet revoking the mission of the latter, 
was, that the new embassy, though appointed and now actually on its road to 
Pondkherry, was likely to be detained a considerable time at that place, and might, 
by a variety of accidents, be eventually altogether defeated. In fact, it did not 
take its departure from the French presidency till the middle of the year 178^. 


To Urshud Baig Khan, Aumil of Calicut ; dated 25lh Hybery. 

(22d Novemher.') 
Enclosed is a letter which we have received from Gopa, the Aumil 
of Koorumndd, relating to the depredations of the robbers and highway- 
men [who infest that district]. Peruse the same, and settle the business. 
Such of the authors of^'^ [or principle actors in] these flagitious pro- 
ceedings as have been already killed, are killed. But why should the 
remainder of them, on being made prisoners, be put to death ? Their 
proper punishment is this. Let the dogs, both hluck and white, be regu- 
larly dispatched to SeringapatamP^^ 

3 M 

(1) Original ^iCi-J CJ,!^ j oLj ibU 

(2) Original \ji\^ ^ jji^ JS^ ^ 



As we may be pretty certain, that it was not the object of the present order to 
extend any lenity to the offenders in question, it would not be easy to guess what 
sort of punishment was intended for them upon their arrival at Seringapatam. It 
is equally difficult to explain, what the Sultan meant by black and ivhite dogs ; 
since the solution of the matter which occurs to me (namely, that of the European 
settlers on the coast of Malabar being alluded to by the latter term) would not seem 
to be admissible in the present instance. Is it possible that, by the wldte dogs, he 
could intend the native Christians of Malabar ? This supposition is, it must be 
owned, opposed by a strong fact ; which is, that the Christians in question are as 
black as any other people in India : so that, if they were in the contemplation of 
the Sultan, he must have employed the words " white dogs " in the way of meto- 
nymy, or as another designation for Nazarenes or Christians. 


To Mahomme© Eesau, Aumil of UfzvlJbJd Nvgr ; dated 2'Jth 

Hydery. (24/h November.') 

The account of the cardamum reaping is fully understood. When we 
[some time since] gave [i. e. made over to] you a [numerous] body of 
the sect of Shaiklis, and others, our intention, in that measure, was 
purely this : that lands should be assigned to the people in question for 
cultivation, and that the business of the cardamum reaping should be 
entrusted to them [exclusively.] 

It would seem, by the account you give of the excesses committed by 
the robbers in your district, that the latter were become very desirous 
of being incorporated with the Usicd Ilhye band. It shall be as they 



It ai)pears by another letter in the collection, which I have not thought it 
necessary to insert, that the class of people usually employed in reaping or gather 
ing the cardamums, had been recently detected in embezzlements of the produce 
to a considerable amount. This circumstance had probably led the Sultan to 
transplant a colony of Shaikhs, and other Mussulmans, into the district in ques- 
tion, with a view to their superseding the ancient laborers in thi# particular branch 
of agriculture, which constituted one of the principal monopolies of the govern- 
ment. What efTect was produced by this expedient I do not know : but there is 
no reason to believe, that the Mahommcdan i-eaper proved at all more faithful to 
bis trust than the Hindoo, whom he displaced. On the contrary, it has been 
affirmed by a very respectable authority, that " although all the jisqfs and 
" Amulddrs under the Sultan's government were Moormen, who were seldom 
** chosen for any other reason than their being Mahommedans, and although the 
** whole of them had an oath of fidelity administered to them, the embezzlement 
" of public revenue, by the several classes of servants, is supposed to have 
" amounted annually to fifteen or twenty lacks of Cantarai pagodas .^ '^^ Colonel 
Beatson has also informed us, that " notwithstanding the severity and minuteness 
" of the Sultan's regulations, no prince was ever so grossly imposed upon." "' 


To the Deifans of ZufeuabJd (GurramcooxdahJ ; dated 1st 
TifLOOEY. (28ih November.^ 

Informing them, that the management [or chastisement] of the 
Poll/gars, and other turbulent and contumacious tribes, belonged to 

3 M 2 the 

(\) Sec letter from Captain (now Lieutenant Colonel) William M'Leod to tlic Commis- 
sioners for tiie AlVairs ol' Mysore, in Colonel J5catson's View of the Origin anil Conduct of 
the last War with Tippoo Sultan, page clxx of the Appendix. 

(2) Vide Colonel Beatson's View, page 150. 


the province of the Duklisht/ of Ehshdm, and not to theh's ; that the 
above mentioned JBiikhshy was accordingly engaged in that business ; and 
that the charge of the defence of the forts and of the district [in 
general], likewise appertained [exclusively] to the same officer. 


To MAHOMaiED DuRVVAiSH, and the other Vakeels proceeding to 
France ; dated 2d Tulooey. (29th November.^ 

We have lately dispatched to you, in the joint charge of Yunkut 
Rumna, an Hurkdreh of the brotherhood"^^') of Pota, and of Kumal 
Mahommed, of the brotherhood of Shaikh Mudur, a casket, having 
our special seal affixed to it, in which is enclosed a diamond ring. You 
must open this casket, and taking from thence the ring which it contains, 
deposit the same in the box of jewels intended for the Rdj'ah of the 
French, which you took with you from hence, and which has also our 
special seal affixed to it. You are, at the same time, to take out from 
the said box the ruby ring which you m ill lind in it, and placing it in 
the casket now sent to you, to which your seals must be affixed, return 
the said ruby ring to us by the two aforesaid persons. 

Having deposited the diamond ring, now sent, in the box with which 
you were originally charged, you are to affix your seals to it, and take 
great care of the same. 

As there was from the beginning a diamond ring in the box [which 
you took with you], there will now, including that which has been just 
sent to you, be two, which is the number of diamond rings specified in 
your Hilkm-ndmeh [or instructions], as you will perceive on a reference 
to the latter. 

(1) Original ^^Jj rendered literally in tlic text. It is equivalent to clan. 



To Ghulam Ghuzunfur ; dated Ath J'vlooey. (\st Decemherl) 


What you write, respecting- the promise of Wunkcisli Doob, the 
banker, to fulfil his engagements in the course of fifteen days, is under- 
stood. The aforesaid has, for six years past, constantly given the same 
assurance at the end of every fifteen days. He is a great liar, and you 
must not mind his promises ; but, at the expiration of the time appointed 
for his settling, compel him to do so, by proceeding very vigorously 
against him. 

It has come to our knowledge, through the channel of the Canarese 
newspapers, that Mohyuddeen Ali Khun, notwithstanding his great 
age,^') and his experience, during his recent visit to us, of our dispo- 
sition in this respect,(^) has forgotten himself so far as to resume his 
former passion for the exhibition of dancing, which he knows to be 
highly repugnant to our pleasure. 27iw is a sign [or proo/"] of supei'Jluous 
wealth. But wherefore have you remained silent on this occasion ; and 
why have you not forbidden his pursuit of this amusement ? 


To BuDRUz ZuJiAN Khan ; same Date. (\st December.^ 

We some time since wrote to you with our own hand, and we now 
again write, to desire that, after properly arranging the business of your 


(1) Oriijinal J^aJl) j u-i-y b literally " toothlcssness." 

(2) Original l::..^! iiij JJ^J JU- iS jy^ija^ j\j ^ l^^J.J ^^JuJ i-J^j \i i. e. " notnitlistaiiding 
*' his having himself very lately witiiossoil (or beheld) the tips and downs of the Prescnec ;" 
meaning, the particular manners of the court, and esperiiilly the sort of conduct most ton- 
sonant with the sentiments and wishes of the Hultan. 


army, you will leave the same in charge of your son, and repair to our 
Presence, through the interior of the country, and by a close or woody 
route, in company with Khizr Khan,('^ whom we have sent with two 
hundred horse to join you. You must proceed with expedition, but [at 
the same time] with care and vigilance. Our special retinue is about to 
remove from hence to the pass of Kurk-ndtli. 


To TuRBiYUT Ali Khan ; dated 5t/i Tvlooey. (2d December.') 


Your representation, with regard to our not honoring your letters with 
[regular or early] answers, is understood. That great person ('*> [mean- 
ing Turbiyut Ali Khan] eats two or three times a day, sits at his ease, 
and amuses himself with conversation. We, on the other hand, are 
occupied, from morning to night, with business. Whenever we have 
leisure, we attend to the answering of your dispatches. 


To M.\HOMMED DuRWAiSH and other s ; dated 6th Tulooey. 

(3d December.) 

Directing them to speak to the Rdj'ah of the French, and [through 
his means] to procure [and bring with them from France] a skilful 

physician j 

(1)1 believe tliat this Khizr Khan was a commander of Kuzsdks, or Looties. 

(1*) Original Lj t::^v*lac ^J, which though a common form of address from a sovereign to 
a servant, or other person of superior rank and consideration, seeuis, in this place, to be 
jneant somewhat sarcastically. 


physician ; a pharmacopolist, thoroughly acquainted with, and capable 
of preparing, every kind of medicine known in Europe ; and lastly, an 
able surgeon. 


To the Dettan of Chittledoorg and others; dated from near the 
TuNGBUDDRA, 14M TvLOOEY. (\\th December.^ 

Directing them to send an intelligent agent to the Pay en-Ghaut, 
with instructions to invite into the Sultans dominions [such] well-born, 
and other unprovided persons [as might be found disposed to remove 
thither]. Enclosing, moreover, a passport for the agent proceeding [on 
this service] to the Puyen-Ghaut, and desiring a particular account of 
every individual agreeing to repair to Mysore to be transmitted to the 


2b Monsieur Lally ^'> ; same Date. (\\th Deceinher.') 

You must allow no more than a single sliop to be opened in your camp for 
the vending of spirituous liquors ; and over that you must place a guard, 
For the puqiose of preventing the sale of spirits to any but the Europeans 
belonging to you ; it being a rule in our victorious anny, that no shop 
of this kind shall be permitted to be established in it. 

(1) M. Lally commanded, at this liuie, tlie party of Europeans in the service of the Sultan. 



To Monsieur Cossignv ; the Goverxor of Madras ; Ghulam Ali 
Khan; the Imam of Muscat; and others: dated \%th Tulooey. 
(I5ih Deceinher.^ 


The [main] body of the accursed ones/') joined by the forces of 
Nizam AH Klian, and amounting together to nearly a liundred 
thousand horse and foot, accompanied by [a train of ] artillery, 
having lately approached, with hostile intentions, within ten or 
twelve coss of our victorious army, which lay encamped near Shdnoor : 
we no sooner received intelligence of this movement, than taking all our 
guns and baggage with us, we advanced rapidly against the enemy, whom 
we completely surprized. "^^^ The engagement which took place upon this 
occasion was fought on the 11th of Sufur, A.H. 1201 [or 2d December 
17S6]. The action, however, had not yet arrived at [the clashing of] 
swords and bayonets, when the enemy, no longer able to support the 
fire from our guns, involuntarily (^) took the road of flight ; upon which 
they were closely pursued for two or three coss by our victorious army, 
who slew and took prisoners great numbers of the fugitives, besides ob- 
taining possession of the whole of their baggage. In addition to this, 
three thousand camels, laden with various articles, twenty thousand 
bullocks, five elephants with canopies, tw^enty standards and kettle- 
drums, and seven or eight thousand horses, fell into our hands. 


(1) Original ^j^ 

(2) Original ^s^jj^y. \JJi>\ \z^^j^j_ tjwJ 

(3) Originiil l^\ ^ that is, «« had no other choice;" or.. " were irresistibly compelled 
«« to fly." 


Our victorious army is still in close pursuit of the enemy, and, with the 
blessing- of God, the Aider, having driven them £is far as Poonah and 
Hyderabad, vvliich are the places of their residence, w^e shall communi- 
cate the same to you. That eminent person being among the number of 
our friends, we have thought it proper to give him the present detailed 
account of this battle. 


It may be presumed, that if the Sultan had taken any guns upon this occasion, 
he would not have omitted so material a circumstance in the present Futah-ndmeh, 
or " letter of victory," which, for this reason, may be suspected to have somewhat 
exaggerated his general success ; though, on the whole, it is certainly less inflated 
and pompous, in point of diction, than is usually the case in similar productions. 
It would, at any rate, appear, that the advantages which he obtained over the 
enemy in this last action were of a more decisive character than those which had 
resulted from the battle which preceded it. It is probable, that the Sultan, in 
his Memoirs, entered into a fuller relation of the engagement of the 11th of 
Snfur, than that contained in the foregoing letter ; but, unfortunately, that jiart 
of his narrative was included in the portion of the manuscript destroyed by the 
accident already alluded to. This, however, as well as many other defects of the 
present work, considered in an historical light, will, no doubt, be amply supplied 
hereafter, by the able and elegant historian of Mysore. 

In addition to the foregoing account of the battle of the 1 Ith Sufur, the Sultans 
letter to the Imdm of Muscat contains the following paragra])h : 

" Enclosed is a letter to Ghulam Ali Khan, and the other Sirddrs, [proceedino- 
" to Constantinople], which you will forward to them. 

" Agreeably to your own proposal, you must send a I'akeel [or minister] to 
" our Presence at the beginning of the ensuing season. You must likewise not 
" fail to Gstublish Victories at our different sea-ports ; and as we have come to the 
" resolution, that not a single grain of rice shall be sold hu our country] to any 

^ ^ " Nazareiies 


" Nazarenes coming from Muscat, or to any others but the [bolid Jide] merchants 
" of Muscat, you, therefore, must give orders to the merchants of that place 
'• bound to our ports, to bring with them certificates from our Vaheel there, in 
" order that they may be enabled to purchase and carry away [without obstacle] 
'• whatever commodities they may require. 

" Procure and dispatch to us some saffron seed, and also some mules, with the 
" breed of vvliich you are acquainted \i. e. which you can recommend as being of 
" a good breed]. 

N.B. Wrote to the same effect as the above to Meer Kazim, the commercial 
agent at Muscat, who was also desired to buy and send more pearls to the Sultan, 


To Ghulam Ali Khan ; same Date. (I5th December.^ 

We have learned by letters which we have received from the Imdm 
and from the Khulfdr [or minister] of Muscat, that one of the vessels 
which proceeded Avith you from hence has been burnt. It is very as- 
tonishing that you should not have mentioned any thing of this matter. 
Communicate to us all the particulars of it. We conclude that you have 
proceeded onwards from Sussorah. Let us know. Let us Hkewise 
know, what things you stand in need of, that they may be sent to you. 


To Chishty Yar Kh.\n, Dei^ax, and Zynul Aabideen, Bvkhshy 
of the EiiSHAM of Chjttledoorg ; dated 19th 2(1 looey. (IQth 

Your letter, congratulating us on our [late] victory over the enemies 
of the faith, and accompanied by a Nuzr of twenty rupees, has 



passed under our view. It behoves all Mussulmans liumbly to address 
themselves to the Almighty Presence, and to implore, that the forces of 
the accursed may be always confounded and disgraced, and the army of 
Islam be always victorious and triumphant. 


To MoHYUDDEEN Ali Khan, Deuan, mid Ghulam Ghuzunfur, at 
KuRPAH ; dated 24th TuLooEY. (2]st December.^ 

Your relation of your late encounters with the enemy's horse ^'^ is 
become duly known ; and we are much pleased with the account you have 
given of their chastisement, and of your having taken six prisoners and 
twelve horses from them. This behaviour >vas worthy of your noble 
descent and of your fidelity to us. 

Lei the prisoners be strangled,^-^ and let the twelve horses, after 
being valued according to custom, and paid for to the captors, ^^^ be taken 
into the service of the Sircar. 

N.B. By some letters which follow here, but which are not deemed sufficiently 
interesting to be inserted, it appears, that the Sultan was, at this period, much 
occupied in dedicating shrines, &c. to the principal Mahommedan saints. Whether 
as an expression of his gratitude for the benefits which he might suppose iiimself 
to have recently derived (in the instance of his military successes) from their 
intercession in his behalf, or in order to render them propitious to his ulterior 

3 N 2 views 

(1) Most probably alludes to some irruinion of the Nizam's troops 'Snto the province of 
Kurpah, during which the}' would appear to have plundered the /"a/M, or outer town, of 
Kurpa/i ; but the passage relating to this point being somewhat obscure, I have omitted it in 
the translation. 

(2) Original jL> Job ^1^ |^1^\ 

(3) Original Jj,l on which word see Letter XXXIF. 


views and wishes, is not stated. It is probable, however, that he was actuated on 
the occasion bv both considerations. 


To Shumsuddeen Khan ; dated 29th Tv looey, (26fh December.') 

You represent, " that the people of the jewel office and of tlie 
" goldsmith's workshop have applied to you to be supplied with the gold 
*' and silver necessary for making up the PuduJcs, and other articles of 
*' jewellery, which have been ordered, but that no receipts coming in at 
** this time, either on account of the collections, or from the Surrdfs [or 
" money-changers] superintending the Dukdns [or retail warehouses] 
" of the Sircar, '^^^ you do not possess the means of answering the de- 
** mand : besides which, twelve hundred pagodas weight of gold has 
** been already furnished for this service by the mint, which has not yet 
*' been replaced." 

It is known. In the Tosheh-khdneh [or treasury], and in the depart- 
ment where the elephants' teeth^-^ are kept, there is gold and silver, to 
the amount of several lacks (^^ weight of pagodas, appropriated [some 
time since] to the coinage of gold mohrs, pagodas, &c. Is not, then, 
that gold and silver still in the same place ; or do you imagine it to be 
something else ? This is, truly, a subject for wonder ! You must take 
from this apartment whatever gold and silver may be required for the 
purpose in question ; and after seeing that it is carefully assayed, deliver 
the same to the workmen. 

(1) On the subject of these warehouses, or sliops, see Letter XCVIII. 

(2) Elsewhere called " the ivory apartment." 
(.'5) A lac/c is a hundred thousand of anj' thing. 



Notwithstanding the wonder here expressed by the Sultan, at his treasurer's 
not having taken upon him to break in upon a hoard of bullion, distinctly stated 
to have been appropriated to a specific purpose, it may be fairly doubted, whether 
if that officer had presumed to do so, his conduct would have escaped animadver- 
sion. It is true, that if we were to judge by the occasional intimations of the 
kind here conveyed, and which occur in the course of the correspondence, we 
might infer, that the public functionaries under Tippoo Sultan were invested with 
considerable discretionary powers : but, on the other hand, how many are the 
instances, in which the slightest exercise of such a power has brought upon them 
the severest reproofs of the Snltan, who was for ever directing them " to mind 
" their instructions, and to abstain from pursuing their own conceits." The trust 
reposed in Shumsiiddeen Khan was of a peculiarly delicate nature ; and if he had 
ventured to act in the manner which his master affects to insinuate he should have 
done, and had so acted with impunity, it must be admitted, that such a fact 
would have materially altered our view of the Sultans character, in one important 
particular, at least ; since it would have shown him to have been of a far more 
confiding and unsuspicious disposition than the general tenor of his actions imply. 
The safest guide, however, to our judgment, on the present occasion, is the evi- 
dent backwardness of the treasurer to exceed the letter of his orders. No doubt, 
he had very sufficient reasons for this cautious conduct. 

The Sultan appears to have distributed, about this time, various marks of his 
favour among his princij)al commanders. These tokens of approbation consisted 
chiefly of gold chains, rings, and what are called in the original Puduks or Pu- 
(iugs. To some he gave seal-rings, with the names of the persons thus distin- 
guished engraved upon them. Among these was a cornelian, with the inscription 
'■ Budruz Zuman Khan Bchadur;" being the first instance, if I am not mistaken, 
in wh\ch the Ut\c oi Behddtir is aj)])licd by 1 ij)poo to any of his servants. He 
presented, at the same time, to certain Kt<clii(rrlc.s, or divisions of the army, of- 
ficial seals, some made of gold and others of silver, and having inscriptions en- 
graved on them, alluding to their services in the cause of Islam. The Kux/ioons- 




composing these Kuchurries (namely, the second and third Kuchtirrles of regular 
infantry, and the second and third Kuchurries of Bdrgeer cavalry) had probably 
particularly distinguished themselves in the late actions with the Mahrattahs. 


To Monsieur Cossigny ; dated 2d Yoosvfy. (28th Decemher.') 

What you wrote, respecting the departure of M. Monneron, on the 
12th October, from the port o't Pondicherry for the 3Iauritius, is under- 
stood. A month has elapsed since the persons appointed by us to 
proceed to France were dispatched from hence. Accordingly, having 
reached Bangalore, they afterwards pursued their journey from thence, 
and will [in due time] arrive [at Pondicherry]. 

You wiite recommending, " that we should direct the aforesaid persons 
<< [i. e. the Vakeels] to remain at Selim or Eeloor\\\\ tlie arrival of the 
<' above-mentioned Monsieur." It is understood. With the blessing of 
God, the said Monsieur will soon return in safety from the Mauritius. 
We have, in the mean while, agreeably to your humble suggestion,^') 
sent orders to the aforesaid persons to remain [for the present] at 
AnHntgeenj. They will proceed [to Pondicherry'] whenever you shall 
desire them to, do so. 

You write, " that a strict friendship subsists between the Hollanders 
*' and the Rdjah of the French ; and that is is expedient that we, also, 
" should establish a good understanding and correspondence with that 
" people." It is comprehended. Whosoever is united Avith the French, 
is, in fact, united with us. 


( 1 ) Original UJit t^t^ i 


The barometer^') which your humble attachraent^^^ prompted you to 
send us has been received. No doubt, you will, also, after getting it 

prepared [or made up], dispatch to us the of (*> 

which you have promised us. 

You engage [a great share of] our attention : be [therefore] in all 
respects easy in your mind. 

N.B. A letter, of the same date as the above, directs Mahommed Durvvaish, 
and the other Vakeels, to halt at Anuntgeery, till desired by M. Cossigny to 
proceed to Pondicherry. 

The following passage, though inadvertently inserted in the letter to the Vakeels, 
appears to belong properly to that addressed to M. Cossigny. 

The barometer which [you] sent us in charge of [your] Hnrkdreli is 
in all respects very complete, excepting in the article of the quicksilver, 
which, owing to its oldness, does not move up and down. It is, there- 
fore, returned [to you] : and you must send another good one in its 
stead, that has been made in the present year. 


7b Urshud Baig Khan, Foujdar of Calicut; same Date. 

(28M December.^ 

Abandon your vain idea of proceeding [on a pilgrimage] to the Holy 
Temple, and apply yourself, according to custom, to the aftairs of the 
Sircar. This is the most advisable thing you can do. 

(2) This is the word employed in the original, whicli has :i^\j 

(3) Original C^AJtf ^.jLiyus <0 wiicrc '"'-t_.n.r denotes the attachment of an inferior to 
a superior. 

(4) The original is written ^\J jjo uuj^ which I take to be intended for French words. 
Perhaps, the first is meant for carh'y or map. 



This officer appears, from other parts of the correspondence, to have formed 
some improper female connection, which the Sultan had insisted upon his renounc- 
ing. The lover resented this interference, by announcing his resolution to proceed 
on a pilgrimage to Mecca. This sort of declaration is often made under the in- 
fluence of temporary chagrin or disappointment, and sometimes without any 
serious intention of fulfilling it, and with no other view than that of intimidation. 
Whatever the case might be with regard to Urshud Baig Khan, he ultimately 
relinquished his purpose (whether real or pretended), although the object of his 
irregular attachment had, by order of his sovereign, been publicly banished from 
the town of Calicut. The following letter will show in what manner the Sultan 
was accustomed to proceed on occasions of this kind. 


To the Dejvaxs of Calicut ; same Date. (28th December.^ 

Dissuade Urshud Baig Khun from his vain purpose of repairing to 
the House of God [_3Iecca']. Try, at first, as far as you may be able, 
the effect of fair persuasion ; and if this should not succeed, you must, 
of necessity, confine him. You must, hkewise, imprison the courtezan, 
who has been the cause of this aft'air. 

N.B. Upon Urshud Baig's " coming again to his senses," as it is expressed in 
the original, he was restored to his office; and the woman in question was released, 
and " driven " from Calicut. 


To Monsieur Cossigny ; dated 3d Voost/py. (2Dth Decemhcr.^ 

There is a book which comes from Europe, and vvliich treats of the 
barometer,^') wherein it is written, that at certain [stated] times the 


(l) Original Uj Ld literally, "showing [the state of] the air. 


quicksilver rises a certain number of degiees ; and that if, at such times, 
a person afflicted 'ndth any one of certain [stated] disorders shall, during 
a paroxysm of his complaint, place his hand on the barometer, the 
degree to which the quicksilver may, in consequence, ascend, will indi- 
cate the state [or height] of such person's disorder. Get this [book] 
translated into Persian, and send it to the Presence. 


To Shumsuddeen Khan ; dated from near Kopvl, 5th Yoosufy. 

(^Ust Becemher I786.) 

The leather basket, containing [our several] treaties with the Mah- 
rattahs, which you sent by the post, has reached us [safely] from 


The Sultan appears to have sent for the treaties here mentioned, either in con- 
sequence of some overtures of peace made to \\m\ by the Mahrattahs, or prepara- 
tory to the discussions which he might expect to take place soon on that subject. 


To MusHEER ulMulk; dated 4th Bubee vl OuiruL, .^.//. 1201.0) 

The MUtusuddy, Luchman Rao, was sent by me, merely for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining why the Nahoh, Nizam AU Khan Behadur, not- 

3 O withstanding 

(1) Corresponding, as well as I can compute, wiili tlic JUli December 1786. If this cal- 
culation be correct, the present letter is not exactly in its place. 


withstanding the contract of mutual union which took place between 
us, through the medium(-) of Mahomnied Iftikhar Khan/^) had suddenly 
confederated with the people of Poonah, and without any cause [or 
provocation on my part], advanced into my dominions. He was not 
dispatclied with any other view. 

I have, at this time, indirectly learned,<^*> that that friend has placed a 
guard over the above-mentioned MUtusuddy . This circumstance is very 
surprising : and though I find it difficult to believe the account, seeing 
that such conduct is not usual with great persons, yet if it should 
really be the case, [I desire you willj dismiss the said Mutusuddy. 


To Ghulam Hyder, Aumil of Bangalore; dated 9th YoostiFT. 

(4th Januanj 1787) 

The account, stating you had strictly prohibited the distilling and vend- 
ing of spirituous liquors, and had, moreover [in pursuance of the same 
object], made the whole body of vintners enter into written engagements 
[to desist from selling such liquors], is understood. You must make the 
tlistillcrs execute a similar engagement, and then oblige them to take up 
some other occupation. 


To Syed Mahommed, Kilaadar of Seringapatam ; dated from 
Katvrky, near Kopvl, \Qth Yoosufy. (5th January.^ 
A SHIRT, formerly belonging to the Holy Prophet (on whom be the 
peace and blessing of God !) and which was first discovered at Kurpah, 


(2) Original ^bj literally, " by the tongue." 

(3) See Letter CCCLXVI. 

v4) Originul ~)^j\ " from without," f. c. not immediately from Luchman Rao himself. 


from whence, in process of time, it came into our possession, has been 
dispatched to you. Tliis precious rehc must be deUvered in charge to the 
priests, to whose care the [other] holy traces [or remains] of the prophet 
have been already consigned, with instructions to place and keep it along 
with those. 


To Yakoob, and other Armenian Merchants ; dated 16th VoosifFr. 

(11th January.') 

(^Entitled a KofrL-NAMEH, or Engagement.) 

The duties upon [such] goods [as you may import into our dominions] 
are, without exception,('> [hereby] remitted. Bring, therefore, with en- 
tire confidence to our ports, and into our kingdom, either by sea or land 
[as you may think proper], your silk stuffs and [other] merchandize, and 
there [freely] buy and sell. Wheresoever you may [choose to] bring your^ 
goods, there a place shall be assigned for your residence : and if you should, 
at any time, be in want of workmen or laborers, the same shall be fur- 
nished you, on hire, by our Taaldkddrs. 


I am not enabled to account for the sudden and extraordinary encouragement 
here held out to the Armenian merchants ; nor do I know how far it succeeded in 
alluring that industrious race of men to Mysore. The immunities offered to them 
were, no doubt, apparently tempting, since they greatly exceeded whatever had 
been hitherto granted, either to their fellow countrymen, or to any other foreigners. 
Still, however, the promised advantages were but loosely and generally expressed : 
and certainly were not intended to admit the adventurers to a particijjation in those 

3 O 2 * branches 

{\) Original l::..^^.^)^^ " completely, entirely." 


branches of the trade of Mysore (as sandal-wood, pepper, &c.) which were rigo- 
rously monopolized by the Sultan, as constituting the chief commercial resources 
of his kingdom. It does not appear, of what country Yakoob was a subject or 



and HusAiN Ali Khan ; dated the Night^^^ of the VJth Yoosvfy. 
(\2th January.^ 

Directing them to prepare two batteries^-) in [front of] their respective 
divisions, according to a plan transmitted to them, and to place two guns 
and a company of regular infantry in each. 

N.B. A few words follow here, of which I am unable to make any sense. 
Something appears to have been omitted. 


To Shumsuddeen Kuan, &c. Haroghas of the Tosheh-khaneu, or 
Treamry, at Seringapatam ; dated 22d Yoosijfy. (VJth January.^ 

In addition to the camels which were some time ago sent to you, for 
the conveyance liither of certain articles of our special camp equipage, 
we have now dispatched fifty others, for the purpose of bringing treasure. 
You must, accordingly, dispatch the tents on the former, and on the 
latter the treasure. 

(1) There are no less than five different dispatches dated on this night. 

(2) Batter}' is the word used, as formerl}', in the original. 



The treasure here mentioned was, most probably, designed for the Mahrattahs ; 
and appears, by a subsequent letter, to have consisted of 3,88,971 /Jfl^o^a* of sorts, 
and 72,000 Pondkherrij rupees, making together about thirteen lachs of rupees, 
which agrees pretty nearly with the sum stated (as will be presently seen) by the 
Sultan himself, as the amount of what he paid to the Mahrattahs at the conclusion 
of peace. 


To the Dejvans of Zuferabad ; dated 29th Yoosvfy. (24th January.') 

Having made up, according to the established system of our govern- 
ment, the account of pay due to the Jijshe, the Piddehs, Coolies, &c. 
you must issue the same in the manner prescribed in your instructions : 
that is to say, the whole body are to be paid, man hi/ wiaw,('>in your own 
presence. There is no necessity for your consigning the amount of their 
pay to the Kilaaddr j^to be distributed by him]. If you do so, you shall 
be punished in the manner specified in your Hakm-ndmeh. 


To Rajah Ram Chundur ; dated from An.igooxdy, 3d Eezudy. 

(28th Ja?mari/.) 

Authorizing him to take [from the public money] two thousand 
rupees, as a gift from the Sultan, to enable him to celebrate the marriage 
of his nephew, and to send for his connexions and relations from the 

(I) Original u^^oj y:.^J ** from hand to iiand." 



To BuDRUz ZuMAN Khan ; Same Date. (28th Januaiy.') 

Having read, we transmit for your perusal [two] letters, brought to 
us by a pair of camel couriers, from Rao Rasta and Holkar. We have 
hkewise sent to you the two camel couriers [in question]. You must, 
after looking at these letters, proceed thither [i. e. to the Mahrattah 
camp] with the couriers above-mentioned. 

A cornelian seal, with your name engraved upon it, has arrived from 
Putn : but as it was not set for a ring, we have ordered it to be properly 
mounted as such, and when ready it shall be dispatched to you. 


It would appear by the foregoing letter, and is confirmed by the Sultan's Me- 
jnoirs, that Budruz Zuman Khan was chosen to conduct the negociations now 
pending with the Mahrattahs. It may even be inferred, from the terms of this 
dispatch, that if he was not named in the letters of Rasta and Holkar, as the most 
eligible person that could be employed by the Sultan on this occasion, he was, very 
probably, mentioned as the individual who would be most agreeable to the Mah- 
rattah chiefs. Similar suggestions often proceed in India from a hostile power : 
but when this is the case, it generally denotes either an actual, or an assumed 
superiority in the latter. If Tippoo tacitly yielded, in the present instance, to 
such a pretension, it is not unlikely that he was led to do so, as much by his 
impatience to prepare for a fresh contest with the English as by any other conside- 
ration. Except with some motive of this nature, he would hardly have consented 
to a measure so liable to be construed into an act of submission, as the deputation 
of a person of Budruz Zuman's rank to the Mahrattah camp would be."' 

(I ) For some additional observations on the above Letter, the reader i.s referred to tiic Pqst- 
ci ipt subjoined to Letter CCCCXXXV. 



To Meer Ibraheem ; dated 6th Eezudy. (2\st January.') 

You must not, in future, form the design of chastising either the 
Nairs or Moplahs. This business appertains to the Foujddr of that 
quarter. Yours is to apply yourself earnestly to the collection of the 
revenue, and other fiscal matters. 


To Urshud Baig Khan, Fovjoah of Calicut; dated 8th E ezvdy, 

(2d February.) 

You must give the most strict orders to all the merchants, and other 
inhabitants of that place [Calicut~\, neither to buy any goods of the 
English factor who is come thither, nor sell grain, or any other articles 
whatsover, to him. How long [in this case] will the above named 
remain ?^') He will, in the end, despair of making cither sales or pur- 
chases, and depart from thence. 


It will be sufficient to remark on this letter, that the order contained in it 
amounts to a gross infraction of the eighth article of the treaty of Mangalore, 
concluded between the English and Tippoo in March l/S-l. 

(I) That is, "He will soon, in this case, be compelled tn depart." 



To KuREEM Saheb ; same Date. (2d February.^ 

Your humble address, accompanied by a Nuzry on account of our 
cliastisement of, and [late] victory over, the enemy, has passed under 
our view. What you write, respecting your intention of repairing to 
our Presence, and the re-establishment of your health, is understood, 
and has afforded pleasure to our mind. With the blessing of God, our 
special retinue will soon shed lustre on that place [^Seringapatam~\ when 
we shall have a meeting. 


Kureeni Saheb was the second son of Hyder Ali by a concubine, but was 
adopted by Medina Begum ;"' who, I believe, was a lawful wife of Hyder, as well 
as Fukhurun Nisa Beeby, the mother of Tippoo Sultan. Kureem Saheb survived 
his brother, after whose death he came under the protection of the British govern- 
ment, together with the other branches of his father's family, and was still living 
in 1808. He is represented to be of weak intellects ; and would not, at any 
period, appear to have been entrusted with authority by his father, or to have 
been an object of jealousy to his brother. The foregoing letter is not the only one 
to his address which appears in the present collection. There is another of a prior 
date, acknowledging, as this does, the receipt of a Nuzr on occasion of a former 

(1) It was a daughter of Medina Begum, b\' Hyder, who was married to Abdfd Khyre 
Kliiiii, the Nabob of Sliunoor, and not an own or full sister of Kureem Saheb, as elsewhere 
erroneously stated. I have been enabled to correct this mistake, by means of a genealogical 
table of the family of Hyder Ali, obligingly communicated tome by Colonel Marriot, since 
tliis work went to press. 

T I P P O O SULTAN. 4/3 


To Mahommed Durwatsh, &c, dated 20th jEezidyS^\ 

(I4th Fehruury.^ 

You did right in apprizing Monsieur Cossigny, the Governor [of 
Pondichemj], of your arrival at Anuntgeerrj ; and must, hereafter, 
act as tlie aforesaid Governor sliall recommend to you. [When you 
resume your journey] you must proceed to Pondicherry, without stopping 
by the way/^> How are the Enghsh people^^^ tp open and search any 
thing belonging to you K"*^ 


It would appear by this letter, that the Vakeels had, in their dispatches to the 
Sultan, expressed some apprehensions of being stopped and searched by the 
English, in their passage through the territories of the Nabob of Arcot. The 
Sultan affects to treat their fears as chimerical ; but, nevertheless, seems to have 
thought it advisable that they should elude the observation of the English as 
much as possible, and with this view^, directs them to travel by night to Pondi- 
cherry. He had previously, as the context leads me to suspect, caused their 
dispatches to be concealed in some part of their apparel, or bedding. 

3 P By 

(1) No letters of any particular interest occur between the 8ili and 20th of Eezidif (2d 
and 14th of February 1787). It is probable tliat tlic Sultan was much occupied in this inter- 
val with the ncgociations of peace, tiie conclusion of which is announced in tiic next letter. 
On the 14th Etzuli/ (or 8th of Fcbuury) tlic Sullan appears to liavc been encamped at Ku- 

(2) Original Jc»-|^ ^c.s?isi .0 k_^Li> i.e. " you must proceed all night to Po/iJ/t/if/vy." 

(3) Original y,Jj\ *J^ which may moan the persons belonging to the English. 

(4) That is, •' they will not presume to search." This passage is not very clear in the 


By a subsequent letter it appears, that M. Cossigny recommended, that the 
Vakeels should remain at Anuntgeery till the arrival of M. Monneron from the 
Mauritius. On this occasion the Sultan observes, that M. Cossigny " has coun- 
" selled well, and is a good man, to whose opinion it will be proper in them 
" always to conform." He concludes the dispatch, here alluded to, with exhort- 
ing them to approve their zeal and fidelity in the execution of the commission 
entrusted to them, and with promises of high reward and favor on their return 
from their embassy. 


To KuTBUL MuLK Mahommed Kutbuddeen Khan Behadur ;(') 

same Date. (\4:th February.^ 

The enemy, after flying, in consequence of tlie successive chastise- 
ments they have received [from us], as far as the banks of the Kishna, 
found themselves in the end reduced to such a helpless state, as compelled 
them to sue to us for an accommodation in the most humble and earnest 
manner/^^ The result is, that a treaty of peace, entirely conformable to 
the wishes of the Usud Ilhye Sircar, has been concluded between us. 
In consequence [of this treaty], we shall have to relinquish the possession 
of Adoni : but we will bestow some other country upon you in its stead. 

It is therefore written, that you must, with the utmost expedition, 
collect all the money you can from the country. You must, moreover, 
completely encompass two or three totvns, and getting together Jive or 
seven thousand people, report the particulars to vs ; as men are tvanted 


(1) The form of Ulluib, or address, used in this letter to KutbQddecn, is ^Jjvt j Lr-v<l^- 
liJ • < J^»c . tiJLjur-wJr* being exaetly tiie same witli that cniiiloycd in Letter CCCXXXVI. 
to the King of France. 

(2) Original iMS l» j (ri:,^v^V' jJ^^\^.Ju^^ i^ }f- 'ij^'f^ f-\ 


[at this time] for the Usud llhye corps. A further reinforcement is 
about to be dispatched to you. Whatever hostile force may appear in 
that quarter/^) you must chastise it effectually, and level it [with the 
earth]. <^) 


Although the treaty, recently concluded between the Sultan and the Mahrattahs, 
would seem to have provided for the restoration of Adoni and its dependencies to 
the Nizd/n, yet it is, nevertheless, probable, that the latter might not yet have 
formally acceded to it, or even have had time to do so. Here, then, we see 
Tippoo, with his characteristic perfidy, eagerly endeavouring to avail himself of 
the short inten^al which might be expected to elapse before the completion of the 
general peace, in order to impoverish and depopulate, as much as possible, the 
country he was about to relinquish. I am ignorant of the success of the Sultati's 
barbarous policy upon the present occasion. It appears, however, but too probable, 
that the inhabitants of Adoni, and of the surrounding country, would have reason 
to deplore, for a long time, his temporary occupation of it. 

A few other letters follow here to different persons, aiiiiouncing, iil 
terms nearly similar to the preceding part of the dispatch to Kiithuddeen, 
the termination of the war. It is only, however, in a circular letter 
of the same date, to the Peer-zddehs^ Boodhun Shah, Kuleem uUah 
Shah, Syed Ahmed Saheh, and Nuhhy Shah, of which an extract has 
already been given at Letter CCCLXXXI, that he announces his 
determination to turn his arms against the English, or " those who 
" forbid the practice of calling to prayers from the Minarets ." in 
which terms Christians in general are frequently described by othei- 
Musulmans, as well as by Tippoo. 

3 P 2 

(3) The hostile force here alluded to was, of course, one belonging to tlic A'izdin. 

(4) Original ^j\^ji\j sjyti ^\j i^, 


HAVING brought the correspondence of the Sultan to the close of 
tlie war, with the early operations of which it commences, I cannot, 
perhaps, better conclude this work, than with the only remaining frag- 
ment of his Memoirs, which it is to my purpose to lay before the reader. 
Omng to the chasm which has been already accounted for, the present 
extract will not throw so much light on the progress of the war, subse- 
quently to the action of the 2d of December, as could be wished ; but 
what is still more to be regretted is, that after reciting the first article of 
the treaty by which the war was terminated, and preparing the reader 
for a continuation of this interesting document, the original abruptly 
passes to an exaggerated picture of the miserable condition to which the 
Mahrattah army was reduced, at the period of the pacification. 

The operations which followed immediately after the rejection of the 
Sultan's challenge by Tukojee Holkar are wanting, the remnant of the 
manuscript beginning as follows : 

" On the following morning tliey rejoined the victorious army, bringing with 

*' them the whole of their booty.'"' I now halted for four or five days on the 

" ground which had been occupied by the enemy, during which time I sent out 

" some. Kuzzdk [or Looty] horse, to procure intelHgence of the infidels. This party 

" returned with an account that they were posted on the other side of Kopul and 

" Behddilr-bundeh, in the latter of which they had placed a [strong] garrison. 

" On receiving this information, I proceeded by long marches to Behddiir-bundeh, 

" near to which I encamped ; sending forward, at the same time, a division of the 

" army, so close to that side of the place [which communicated with the country] 

" as to prevent its receiving succours from the unbelievers. After this, I made the 

" circuit of Behddilr-bundeh, and [narrowly] viewed the place, which I found 

« to be small, but of most difficult access, there being no [visible] path by which 

" a human 
( 1 ) The Sultan had probably been describing some partial attack upon the enemy. 

T 1 P P O O SULTAN. 477 

" a human creature could ascend to the top of it. I now caused two batteries to 

" be erected, one against each angle of the face next to us, and placed six batter- 

" inggunsin each. I then had ladders prepared for scaling the opposite side of 

" the fort." 

The Saltan here proceeds to detail the means by which, in the course of the 

night, he made a lodgement at the foot of the fort, from whence he was enabled ta 

fix his ladders. Previously, however, to attempting an escalade, he tried the effect 

of his batteries, but apparently with little success, the walls of the place having. 

been hewn out of the rock, and rendered by himself, before its capture by the 

Mahrattahs, extremely strong. This case, the Sultan observes, furnished a 

verification of the proverb, which says, " there is no help for the evil of one's 

*' own creating." In the mean while the Mahrattahs were encamped at tlie distance 

only of three coss, watching for a favorable opportunity of relieving the place. 

" Under these circumstances," continues the Sultan, " not thinking a further 

" delay of two or three days advisable, I determined on an immediate assault ; 

" with which view I prepared three hundred men, composed of regulars, of Ji/i/ie, 

" and of Ehshdm, who being placed over night in the lodgement made at the foot 

*' of the fort, were directed to rush forward at the hour of morning jirayer, when 

" a rocket signal would be made for the purpose. In aid of this enterprize, 

" besides the fire from the batteries, I caused eight pieces of light artillery to be 

" placed in the plain before the fort, upon the walls of which they were ordered 

" to keep up such a close fire, as should prevent the garrison from mnnning them, 

" and thereby facilitate the progress of the storming party. Agreeably to this 

" arrangement, the latter commenced the assault exactly at dawn of day ; but 

" were opposed with great firmness and courage by the infidels, who planting them- 

" selves at the part of the wall which had been breached, and by which the 

** assailants advanced, hurled upon them from thence large stones, besides pouring 

" amongst them, from all sides, a heavy discharge of musketry. On this occasion - 

" a Teepdur [colonel] who had mounted the wall, as well as several others, tasted 

*' the sherbet of martyrdom. All this time the besieged, notwithstanding the 

" heavy 

(2) The reason of 1113' omitting these details is, tiiut there is some part of the account 
given of them wliich I do not clearly understand. , 


" heavy fire which poured upon them hke rain from our guns, continued to defend 
" themselves, vrherever they could find any cover : at length, I myself taking the 
" direction of two guns, fired from them at every man who made the least 
" movement. At this time the governor of the place stood concealed [as he 
" thought] behind one of the bastions, from which situation he viewed what was. 
" going on. Here a shot striking him on the head sent him to hell; '■''' upon 
" which the whole of the garrison immediately demanded a capitulation.'*' They 
" were [in consequence] removed from the fort, which was taken possession of 
"' by the Sircar. The following day I sent the garrison back to their own army. 

" Two days after the capture of this fort, the whole army of the infidels, 
•' preparing for battle, advanced against us. The cavalry picquets having an- 
" nounced the approach of the enemy, the vanguard of my army proceeded to 
" meet them ; but it had only fired a {ew guns at them, when the accursed crew, 
" contenting themselves with what they had done, returned to their camp. Two 
" days after this I marched and took post two coss beyond Kopul, the enemy 
" being, at this time, encamped at the distance of four coss from thence. Here 
*' I formed four parties of cavalry, each consisting of fifty horse and four rocket 
" men, to whom I gave orders to proceed and show themselves severally on the 
'• right and left flanks, and in the rear and front of the enemy's position ; and 
" after throwing some rockets among them, to cry out, 'behold the victorious army 
" * is arrived ! If you value your safety, fly speedily from hence.' This order 
" was accordingly exactly executed : the consequence of which was, that the 
" whole force of the infidels, commanders as well as men, obeying the directions 
" of the horsemen of the victorious army, took instantly to flight, and proceeding 
♦' all night, did not stop till, cursed both by God and man, ^'' they had got to the 

" distance 

(3) Tlie Sultan appears to have been so enamoured of this phrase, that he immediately 
repeats it, saying, " in the same instant that he was sent to (or arrived in) hell, the garrison 
" demanded," &c. 

(4) Original Jc.i»jlji. Jy That the garrison were granted a capitulation may be fairly in- 
fcrn-d, from the circumstance of tlicir being sent the next day to their own army. Tlius it 
appears, that the place was not taken by storm, but surrendered, in conseijuence of the death 
of the governor. 

(5) Original jjjoj^ jL^-^jlU ^^_j*l« 


" distance of ten coss. They left behind them in their camp ^' various stores to 
^' a great amount, and among the rest a quantity of shot and powder. 

" It had been the constant practice of the enemy, during the last four months, 
*' to pack up the baggage, and load their cattle with them, every day, an hour 
" and a half before sun-set. In this situation they would continue mounted on 
" their horses all night : and if, while they slumbered, any one gave an alarm of 
" the approach of the victorious army, they Mould immediately take to flight. 
" This they would frequently repeat ten or fifteen times in the course of a single 
" night. All this vigilance, however, did not prevent their plundering one 
" another, as often as a convenient occasion for the purpose occurred. 

" At length Tukojee Holkar, who held a superior rank among the worthless 
*' chiefs of this people, together with Rasta, who was, in fact, not inferior, in 
" point of birth, to Madho Rao himself, conceiving a just alarm at their [perilous] 
" situation, addressed Urzies "* to our sublime Presence, which they sent us by 
*' two horsemen." 

Tippoo then proceeds to give the substance of the letters in question, making the 
writers, as usual, humble themselves to the dust, and speak of their own sovereign 
(the Paishwa) in terms of disrespect, utterly incredible. They are made to con- 
clude by imploring his compassion for themselves and his unworthy son,'^ and 
intreating him to send a confidential person to them, to receive their represen- 
tations and proposals. 

" Accordingly," continues the Sultan, " in compliance with their desire, I sent 
" Budriiz Zuman Khan, Ali Riza, and other great men,*'' to negotiate with them. 
" On the arrival of the latter in the enemy's camp, the Mahrattah leaders ad- 
" dressed them, saying, ' our master stands in the place of a son to yours, and 
" * we are servants. Pardon us for the evils which we have, by our own fault, 

" • brought 

(6) The camp is here, as on other occasions, called their il^.,yj^ or " hmying-place." 
Probably the alVair here spoken of is the battle of Kopid, alluded to in the Futhid-Muja- 
hideen. (See Appendix I.) 

(7) The letter of an inferior to a superior ; an humble address; a petition or memorial. 

(8) Original Jj—jLi U j J.^H jj^ji alluding to the pretended adoption of the rau/iuaUy 
Tippoo, or rather by Hydcr Ali. 

(9) Original bju.^ 


" ' brouglit upon the country ; and let your sovereign, by way of sweetmeat, 
" ' present our master, according to custom, with a Httle money, and one or two 
" ' villages : this being no more than such a favor as a son is entitled to claim of 
" ' his father.''"* To this they added a declaration, that they were the victims 
" of Nizam Ali Khan's seduction. In fine, they made many humiliating pro- 
" testations of this kind." 

In proof of the constant terror which the Mahrattahs were under, of being sur- 
prized by the Sultans army, Tippoo proceeds to relate, that during the negociations 
for peace, intelligence happening to be conveyed to them by some of their spies, 
that he was preparing to make a night attack upon them, Holkar and the Riistas 
instantly sent for Budruz Zuman Khan and Ali Riza, and telling them of the 
inteihgence which had been received, conjured them to dispatch two camel couriers 
immediately to their master, to intreat that the intended attack might be relin- 
quished, declaring, at the same time, that they were ready to comply with 
whatever demands the latter might make on them. " It was in vain," pursues the 
Sultan, " that the aforesaid persons [his Valieels\ assured the chiefs in question, 
" that there was no truth in the report which had been brought to them, and that 
" it was impossible for such a thing to take place while they continued in the 
*' Mahrattah camp. The aforesaid chiefs, nevertheless, persisted in their in- 
" stances, beseeching my people, for the love of God, to do as they required, and 
" by this means save them from the ruin which must otherwise fall ujjon them. 
*' Thus importuned, the aforesaid persons at length agreed to comply with the 
" wishes of the Mahrattah commanders, saying, that they would return to their 
" tents, and immediately write the necessary letters on the occasion. Upon this 
" the others observed, that much time would be lost in writing letters, and in- 
" treated my people to dispatch at that moment, and in their presence, a verbal 
" message on the subject, as nothing else could set their minds at ease. My 
" confidential servants perceiving that the fears of the Mahrattah chiefs made 
" them distrust the promise which they had given to write, determined, in the 

" end, 

(10) Original ij->ji=' ^r:^ ^ J It is not improbable tliat tliis might be the footing upon 
xvliich the Mahr.Mtalis were willing, at this time, to place tlie pecuniary demand, as well 
as the territorial elaiuiSj whicli they still continued to make upon the Sultan, 


" end, to satisfy them in their own way ; and, for this purpose, sending for a pair 
" of camel couriers, they dehvered to the latter, in the hearing of the chiefs, a 
*' message to us, purporting that the enemy was in the utmost distress, and humbly 
*' begged that we would not assault their camp that night. These couriers being 
*' conducted by a party of the enemy's horse beyond the Mahrattah camp, 
*' pursued their way with great speed to our camp, where they arrived at three 
*' o'clock in the morning, and delivered to us the message with which they had 
" been charged. I sent them back at day-light with a satisfactory answer, and the 
" same morning moved, as I had previously determined, about three coss from 
*' Kimucligheery, to a new position along the banks of the Tuniihuddra, where there 
" was abundance of pasture.*"* 

3 Q The 

(11) The circumstance, which gave vise to thf. false intelligence conveyed to the Mulirat- 
tahs on this occasion, is related by the Sultan in terms to the following eflect. Contrary to 
his established custom, lie had given orders, over night, that no foragers should go out the 
following morning, as it was his intention to march. This order coming to the knowledge of 
the Mahrattah spies, who were harboured secretly in the camp of the Mahrattah Bdrgeers, or 
liircd cavalry, in the service of Tijipoo, they converted it into a notice to prepare for a sud- 
den attack upon the Mahrattah position, and hastened thither, accordingly, with the infor- 
mation. The »y!///(/« had with him, at this time, about seven thousand of these horse, who 
had served himself and his father upwards of fifteen years ; all of whom he disbanded soon 
after the occurrence which has been related. " Since that time," observes the Sultan, 
" the infidels have ceased to receive intelligence respecting my movements." 

It was said above, that the verbal order issued by the Sultan, on the occasion in question, 
was *' contrary to his established custom." This is the Sultanas own admission ; for he ex- 
pressly says, that, excepting in the instance mentioned, it had been his uniform practice to 
communicate the orders of march in xcritnig, and never verbally. These orders, whicli 
were written iti the Persian language, were sealed, and directed to the several commanding 
officers of divisions and corps, to whom they were always delivered at nine o'clock the pre- 
ceding night. This was their tenor : "To-morrow the army marches. Parade at such an 
•' hour ; and falling into your proper station on the line of march, follow our special caval- 
*' cade [or retinue]." The general, it seems, was accustomed to beat at three o'clock in the 
morning, and the assembly at five.* After the inadvertency, of which he confesses himsclt' 
to have been guilty in the above-mentioned instance, the Sultan became more strict and par- 
ticular on this point thiin ever. Among other regulations which he framed on this occasion, 
one was (as stated in his Memoirs) to give scaled roulci, to officers in the command of marching 


• Though I do not know that any terms were applied by the SuUan to these signals, corresponding with our " general," 
and " assembly," yet there is no doubt that the two diMinci notices mciitioni J (and which weie given by the kciilc-dium) 
were intended to ansnci the same purjjoiic. 


The Sulian, after giving the foregoing account of the alarm occasioned to the 
Mahrattahs by his intended movement, and of the reflections and regulations 
which it suggested to him, proceeds in the following manner : 

*' It was not my intention, in the beginning, to have gone to war with the 
** Mahrattahs ; but when they, thinking proper to requite the favors they had 
*' received from us, by a conduct entirely the contrary [to what I had a right to 
" expect], had advanced [into my country], I consequently judged it necessary 
*' to repel their aggression, by just so much chastisement as should suffce to satisfy 
*' thetHy and make them solicit peace. Having brought the business accordingly 
•* to this point, I agreed to an accommodation, and to give them twelve lochs of 
** rtqfees. The treaty being concluded, I wrote [a letter] to Lewai Madhee Rao,^'" 
" which I sent to him, together with a Kulgy and Surpaish of precious stones, 
*' and an elephant. I also sent an elephant, with a dress and jewels, to Tukojee 
" Holkar ; and the same to Rao Rasta and to Hurry Pundit. These presents I 
** forwarded by the hands of confidential Vakeels. 

** The treaty concluded on this occasion by the embassadors of the Sircar, with 

** Nizam All Khan and Madhee Rao, consisted of three articles to the following 

" eflfect. Tbe^first stipulated, that on this side the Nurhudda, Nizam Ali Khan, 

** Pandit Pordhan, Madhee Rao, and the Usud-IUiye Sircar, should all three 

** ronain united together, each ruling over his proper territories : and that if any 

'* fourth person should make an [hostile] attempt upon the country of any one of 

^ the «lli^ all three were, in sodi case, to join in repelUng the same, whatever 

^ disagreement might haj^ien to subsist b^ween them at die time; it being 

** provided, that the disagreement in question shoold be suspended £diiiing the 

** omtinaanoe ol* the estemal danger or aggressionj. 

** Tbe seoood artide was as ft^ws :........* 


f«v^e&. T%Kse rcmties K^ere mmiiiDbsiwIioin tibe omtade, 1,2,3, 4,Suu tbe Srst sftucif^ ui^ t3ae place 
to 'wrlbk^ tt3»e corps m'jss tm povioeed vm ttbe £rst day ; ttlie secoi»i, its <V^nallii<iin on tlic foiUow- 
wtip K^T, ianuS sa •tsm, TUvese mcwices, ^x rantcTs, wore XMat to be opemed tilll due timopsliaiiS moTed 
tiM ttiicQir ;o'incn!iiii)(d, aind, in CaOt, oonuiiDQiKKid tibcmr oSa^^s iiiwir^. As, by iMs cuniu ifaiace, &c&n 
i^tte. lotaiamiaSsiisn' "T^ffiytfT liiiin ff<ii°llir 'was. Ikesstt km igiumuDoc lof tie pokiiit its> wliadh Ibe wras to nuuicii 
tiiil Ak iwfis jtctiuiilllj xDt mmotaicnn, tSoeine wsss idae Ikss (dauber of a preanaubDure dusoiinncirjf <af lus dec- 

fJLS]) T^ SaMaa esvsv wibene cMt die PMulmt, ySstMsesz ^^mmmamF^ mtsaesA s£ JiMhosi). 


Here, as before said, the manuscript abruptly passes to a description 
of the miserable condition to which the Mahrattahs were reduced by the 
war. On this subject the Sultan asserts, that the Mahrattah chiefs 
themselves assured his Vakeels, that independently of those who had 
fallen in battle, they had lost near a hundred thousand men by sickness, 
since the commencement of the campaign. 

Here my copy of the Sultan's Memoirs at present ends : but it origin- 
ally consisted of four or five leaves more, in the course of which the nar- 
rative was continued for a short period beyond the termination of the 
Mahrattah war. I apprehend that the Sulta7i never completed the work ; 
though, if I recollect rightly, some memoranda for the purpose were 
found among his papers. If this should have been actually the case, no 
doubt those documents will, at some future season, be communicated 
to the public. 

3 Q 2 



Afteh the preceding sheets had gone to press, I was favored by Sir 
Charles Warre Malet with some communications, relating principally to 
the peace announced in the foregoing dispatch. These, though received 
too late to be applied, in the proper places, to the elucidation of those 
parts of the Sultan's correspondence which they would have served to 
explain or illustrate, appeared to me of too much value to be altogether 
suppressed. I considered that the diligent reader might still, if he 
pleased, convert them to the use just adverted to; and that they would, 
at least form a record, of which the future historian of the period in 
question might avail himself 1 have, for these reasons, thought it 
proper, with the permission of Sir Charles Malet, to insert them in this 


The docviments, here spoken of, consist of translations of five curious 
letters from Tippoo Sultan to Budruz Zuraan Khan, and of an extract 
from the private journal of the Resident, commencing the 20th Decem- 
ber 1786, about which time the Sultan appears to have made some 
overtures of peace to his adversaries, which were rejected by the latter ; 
but of which no trace is discernible, either in the correspondence or the 
memoii'S. Indeed, it is clearly shown by the journal, that the mission of 
Budruz Zuman Khan to the Mahrattah camp, mentioned in Letter 
CCCCXXX, must have been the second on which that officer was 
employed, although of his former fruitless embassy no notice is any 

where taken 



Of the five letters to Budruz Zuman Khan/') mentioned above, I have 
given only one (which, in tlie order of time, immediately follows Letter 
CCCCXXX) ; the others, though not less interesting, belonging to a 
much later period than that embraced by the present pubhcation. There 
being no reason to doubt the authenticity of the letter in question (which, 
on the contrary, is strongly confirmed by its conformity, in point both of 
matter and manner, with other productions of the Suliaiis pen), I can 
no otherwise account for its not appearing in my collection, than by sup- 
posing that it may have been deemed by the writer of too delicate (or 
rather indelicate) a nature, to be entered in the usual registry of his 
coiTcspondence. It must, at the same time, be allowed, that many 
things are preserved in that record, of which the Sultan had still greater 
cause to be ashamed. 

LETTER daied from Hucly, near Kopul, 4th Eezidy, year Dullo 

(or 29th Janua7y l/S/.J 
** In these days some of our cavalry have taken prisoners Hunmuut Rao, a 
" person of palankeen rank, and three others belonging to the Mahrattahs. 
" Huninunt Rao was sick ; but has bad due attendance, both in medicine and 
" provisions, and was then sent back. He says he has two brothers in Pursaram 
" Bhao's service. Tell Ilolkar and Rao Rasta, that princes and great chiefs act 
" thus ; while thei/, on the contrary, have carried off from Surhutti/ the Kilaaddr 
" and Aum'dddr, who being old are of no use to the Sircar, but being of a noble 
** origin, I would advise them to get some of their offspring.'** Also a Kilaaddr, 
" named Ghulam Mohyuddeen, who is young ; but, being wounded in the foot 
" is become useless. It is the custom with them [*. e. the Mahrattahs] to get the 

" breed 

(1) Although Sir Charles Malet has forgotten by what means these letters came into liis 
possession, it is not improbable that tiie originals were found among the eHccis of liudrQz 
Zumrm Kiiaii, at the time ih:;i that ofliccr, after the surrender of Dhrirwar, in 1791, was so 
shamelully pillaged by the Malnattahs. In this case, it is easy to conceive how either the 
originals ihcniseivcs, or copies of them, might reach the hands of the British resident. 

{'2} That is, from the Mahratiah women. 

4S6 SELECT lsttehs 01^ 

" breed ef h©fiei ) thtrefore it ii right that they have'tcept ihete people also for a 
'* breed. Doubtleii their offspring will be good. One Kishun Rdo, likewise, has 
" been detained by the tbove. He likewise, being old, I do not want. Let the 
" Btahmem employ him in getting children : and as I have a great many other 
" useless people, I will, if they please, send them also, who may be employed in 
*• the same way." (Written by Mirz4 Husan.)'*^ 

Although, if rigidly understood, the preceding letter would warrant a 
belief, that the SuUan really intended that his embassador, employed in 
tiigdciating a peaeei ihouid actually hold the offensive language here 
pregcribed, to the persons with whom he had to treat, yet the supposition 
leemi too extravagant to be admitted : lam, therefore, inclined to think, 
that if the letter before us proceeded from any thing else but a mere 
ebullition of spleen, it was probably meant to display that talent of coarse 
raillery, in the exercise of which he was particularly fond of indulging. 

EXTRACT fi'Qm th^ JousNAii of Sir Charles Warre Malet, 

JBttrt^ Mmdent at Pqonah. 

« 20th Dietffiber lfS6» Mahmitah C5a»«jt>.— On the 17th BudrGz Zum&n 
** Khin arrlN^d at Tuk^e© Helkar's eamp, in this army, as embassador from 
** Tlpp6©j with ft retinue ©f flv© hundred horse and a company of Sepot/s. The 
** 1 8th Hurry Pundit gave him an audienee. An express was immediately sent to 
** Pmmh I and if a favorable answei' arrives to Tippoo's proposals, Biirhfmiiddeen 
** will e©me t© lettle the eenditiens of peaee. 

" 30th Deeeffiber. M&kmtiak Campt five miles east of K^hI. — ^The proposi^ 
** tleni made by Tipj»© Sultan being r^eeted by the Malirattah Government, the 
" 28th initant hii FaAeel had his audienee ef leave. Tlie Faketty however, is 
** stiU here \ but espeeted to depart, unless his master consent to the terms ofiered 
** by the Mahi^ttah gevernment and Nii4m AU KhAn. Tippoo is encamped oa 
*^ the TkH^^vtiMhti six <dr seven leagues ofll 

« 14th 

i^i) ^my ©f i^ 'Skiiiim''% im^ts a» w^U as ©ther ^p«(^, at* subscribed, like the present 
fefte) fe,y tfee Mim'^ w *e«retary» em^by«ij| t© |^ it. 


" 14tli January 1787. Mahraftah Camp. — ^Tippoo having attdcW B^liMdr 
** Bundeh while his Fakeel wa« in the Mahrattah army, llarry PonUlt Furkia, 
« the commander of the Mahrattaiu, was \&ry much displeaied } and m) tbg 7*^* 
" instant, at midnight, dismissed the f'aheel, who was escorted mthio siflU @f th« 
** enemy's camp by a body of horse. On his arrival, the trenehtf w<^e withdrtwi* 
" from BehdMr Bundeh. On the lOtli an expess arrived from Tippoo { httt it i» 
'^ supposed the answer was unfavorable, as on th^ 12th Tippoo rmm^ \m fim 
" on BehdMr Bundeh, which was taken by assault ih& Idtli^ tliougH 0»r n^rmy 
" was within four or five leagues of it- A pestilential di«or4er prevsib in i\m ^rmy- 

** 21st Jannaiy. MaJirattah Camp. — Tlve enemy having a4y«8«^ **'ith i»te»- 
** tioa to attack our camp, we broke »p abowt eii^t m wi»*g o'dwk 9i »ifht> «s^ 
" retreated to KunuchgJieery, diirty co«« from /M^>^ and t©» frofli Mmdgul, yAwrs 
** we now are. Tbae i» no talk of j*eace at j>reseat. The skkness giiW peysijis. 
** The enemy is about eleven cm$ from ««, 

** 4th February. Poonah. — Iamio<;linedtothi»k, that what with <h« jestwsies 
** diat prevail among the >loghtil and Mahrattah £^i^$, the ravaf)gs of ttn^ p^sti - 
<< leac£, and the iocompeteoey of Hony Fondi^s a«»th(^ty ov^ tJj^ ^mi nnm' 
** ben of the va^ army a.«»embk«I tindar hk emamsmd, »o f»ig»t ^^f^rt^Lpn i$ 69 h# 
** expected from it. At the fiume tim<; I d& tiM. limk Tiipp«io mil im »^ i9 imiss 
** ancfa progrei* to 4h<e ijorttmanl^ or mov<e fir from 4l»€ 1imk» of tJ*« Trntghtmidrnf 
** by wfagidi be wrodd give tijke «llli£« so oppsxibiwtiity <<>>f m^mm^m^ hk s^mfiy§f 
** and t«ndker tbem masters of »iU t^ adv,ai3iUb^ ^mtf £r<gx» tfl^^r <gr(@9i mpmwfity 
** inovalfj. 

<* PxmhmJL lOdaFdMvary. MaAra/taJkCkimy.'-^tM.F^bmsacy, ^<Sfi!iifiihe«:MiS^ 
** t|ielater^iadw«of Tippoo*« ptioposaKhe^tiilprofl^^ 
-^ ralttahetioaiia^j«eaoei3t; asidkwiiig(a«(evyinadj;a|9peaa%)(WiaM^ 
'^ ElKsIkar, b» asalnffiador, Bodmuz Zntaoaa lyikttfii^ asrmaii m csmi^ »^m itam ttHtkt: 
« 234 naSitaiBiKi, •iraida AB Biizi, f(MiHM.T!)y^ "of Arml. Om tlbiie ^tiii bs tnnffi, itikuKU^ 
" lAsMtsef* ■ae£aitk«iL, adixuMied tto ao avHfifiiiKie (of Hiuiry PtuoidiX;, miA ^as ftensab' 
"^ swna to tnedUHtada ibiiU libe furtilKir id«itier«umatacca >cif :gocHennaDi«xKt «ati Ate ^a^^oitfied <«» 
«< <IJh£ |iiReB£aait piTic^»»a!k ; and, (OOHKbrary to <ex{Ki£itoitii<m, nt^iNiiRtie 'Wstne ji»)eA'.aSeut 


" 17th February. Mahrattah Camp. — The Mahrattahs having accepted Tip - 
" poo's last offers, his ambassador has left camp, and is returned to his master to 
*' settle the conditions. It is announced, that Tippoo is to pay three crores of 
" rupees for all arrears due, the country he has taken from the Mahrattahs for 
" these ten years past, and for the expences of the campaign. The pestilence, 
*' with which we have been afflicted for three months past, has subsided, and is 
** reported to have now broken out in Tippoo's army. ' 

" 5th March. Poonah. — On the second instant I was, by message from 
" Nana, informed, that he had just received a letter from Hurry Pundit, 
*' mentioning that since Tippoo's Vaheel left the camp, he had received a letter 
*' from him, advising that he should soon return, with the necessary documents 
•' for the conclusion of peace, as they were all dra\vn up and prepared for his 
" master's signature, which he expected would soon be affixed to them. That 
" the principal articles were the surrender of Nergitnd*^ and Kiftoor, the payment 
*' of the arrears of tribute, and the confirmation of Bdddmy and Gnjiindur 
" Ghiir to the Paiskwa, and the restitution of Adoni to Nizam Ali Kh^n. 
" That after being sent to Hurry Pundit, they would be forwarded for the final 
*' consideration and ratification of the Durbdr \_Paishwas] ; but, for his own 
" part, as they were not yet signed by Tippoo, he could place no reliance on the 
*' VaTieeVs communication to Hurry Pundit, and had thus mentioned the present 
*' state of the negociation, only as a mark of his confidence and friendship. 

" Poonah. 7th March. Mahrattah Camp. 26th February. — This day, be- 
" tween the hours of twelve and one, Tippoo's Vakeel returned, with three ele- 
*' phants and several camels, loaded w ith money. It is reported, the army will 
" shortly march to the Kishna to await the second payment. 

" 14th March. Mahrattah Camp. (No date). — Five miles South of Moodgul. 
" The treasure that arrived with the ambassadors is thought to be no more than 
" fifteen lacks. 

" 24th ditto, Poonah. To Governor General. — Nana has not yet thought 
" proper to inform me of the terras of the treaty ; and all that I can collect, with 
" any degree of certainty, is the payment of the tribute for four years, at eighteen 

" lacks 
(4) The Nergiind of the Correspondence. 


" lacks per annum, including Durhdr charges, and the surrender of Nergiind, 
" which was reduced by Tippoo two years ago." (N. B. This peace seems to 
have been mediated by Holkar and Rasta^ and was reported not to be approved 
oF by the Sindian party at the Durbdr.) 

" 10th April. Poonah. To the same. — On the Sth instant I received intel- 
" hgence from Behro Pundit, that half of Tippoo's stipulated payment had 
" arrived in camp, but that the ratified treaties were not yet exchanged. 

" 17th April. Poonah. — On this day Nana assured me, that to the 13th 
" instant the definitive treaty with Tippoo was not exchanged, though Tippoo 
*' had written on the Sth of February to Nizam Ali and to the Governor of 
" Madras, that all was settled to his satisfaction. 

" 21st April. Poonah. To Governor General. — The army [Mahrattah] has 
" certainly commenced its march from the South towards this place. 

" Sth May. Poonah. To Governor General. — On the 30th ultimo the minis- 
" ter formally acquainted me, that after much prevarication on the part of Fut- 
" tah Ali Klian '' (Tippoo), peace was at length made with that prince, and the 
" ratified treaties exchanged, including, in one part, the Paishwa and Nizam Ali 
" Khan, and on the other Futtah Ali Khan. The conditions of which were, that 
*' Futtah Ali Khan was to pay four years' arrears of tribute due to the Paishwa, 
" part of which had been already paid, the balance to be discharged in six 
*' months; that Adoni was to be restored to Mohabut Jung; Nergdnd doid Kittoor 
" to be surrendered to the Paishwa, who is also to retain Bdddnvj. Here the 
" minister paused ; and I was surprised, on enquiry, to find that this communi- 
*' cation was to be understood as comprising the whole of the treaty ; the more 
** so, as the Paishivds surrender of Gujundur Ghiir, some circumstances conccrn- 
•' ing Shdnoor, and the discussions relative to Futtah Ali Khan's titles and address, 
" were matters of public notoriety, and which, I, of course, expected would be 
" noticed in this formal communication. He also declined any formal congratula- 
" tion to the Paishtva, on my part, on the occasion, as too unimportant, not 
" scrupling to exj)rcss his want of confidence in Tippoo for the observance of tlie 
" peace thus concluded. I subsequently, by message, on the 3d, applied for 
" further information, but without effect." 

3 R « Sth May. 

(.5) This was, I believe,- a title conlVvicd upon Tippoo by Sli.'ih Alluni. 


'' 5th May. Poonah. — Received this day from Secretary Hay, copy of a letter 
" from Tippoo to Governor of Madras, dated 8tli February, from which the 
" following is extract. 

" The Poonah army being pursued by mine has crossed the Krishna, and peace 
" has taken place between us in the manner I wished. They have, accordingly, 
*' returned to their own country, and I purpose returning to my capital in about 
" a week, after quieting the disturbances raised by some Polygars in these parts." 

*' N. B. This letter contained applications relative to some refractory boundary 
" chiefs. 

" 3d June. Poonah. To Governor General. -^In reply to my enquiries relative 
" to the late discussions on Tippoo's titles, the minister has informed me, that 
" hitherto the Paishiva used to address him by the name of Futtah Ali Khan, 
" that he had now desired to be stiled Tippoo Sultan Khan Behadur. To the 
" first of which, as it had no relation to royalty, but was actually the name given 
" to him at his birth by his mother, in consequence of a vow to name her child, 
" if a male, after a famous Mahommedan Peer,'"' at Colar, in the Carnatlc,'^'^ whose 
" name was Tippoo Sultan, no objection could be made. That KJian, as it had 
" formerly joined to Futtah Ali, was nothing new, and, in fact, did away any 
" royalty that might otherwise be imputed to the word Sultan ; and that the 
" appellation of Behadur was the only word of additional dignity to be used in the 
" Paishwa's future addresses to this prince, who is not even styled Nabob by this 
« Durbdr." 

(6) The Peer, among tlie Mussulmans of India, is a kind of ghostly father, or spiritual 
guide. The word properly signifies an aged person, an elder. 

(7) That is, the Balaghuut, or higher Carnatic, in which Mysore is comprehended. 




>J -. 



^. ^^.^r-^-V^-^^^-"^ 


/ / / " 

fit ^ ^ 



(Referred to in the Preface.) 

Trakslation of 1^0. 1 of the aiviexed Plate, being the Memorandum 

of Tirpoo Sultan. 

"In the y&iv Sehr, 1220 of the il/ott-foof/y [i.e. the birth] of Mahommed,''' the 

Ff}n"'l/ tl"-! Ctl' of the monlh RnbbAny 

" Enghsh ,^ and the Dewdn of the Ndhub, Nizam Ah Khan, named Ghiilam 
" Syed [and also called] by the title of Sohrab Jung, and Hurry Pundit 
" Phurkia, all these three persons came together [or united] to make war ; and 
" [after] taking Bangalore, Sawantydoorg, and other places, came to the royal 
" residence of Putn, when peace, upon the condition of [my] giving three crores 
" and thirty lacks of Imaumies [/. e. rupees] was settled, of which [sum] two 
" parts [/. e. two-thirds] were taken in money. And, at the time of [making] 
" peace, they did abundance of deceitful and bad things,'" of which there would 
" be no end to the recital/^' In fine, after the peace, [they] took two of my 
" sons, Aabdul Khalik and Moizuddeen, in pledge [/. e. as hostages] and, toge- 
" thcr with Ghiilam Ali Khan and Ali Riza Nurwail, took them away. And on 
" the 5 th of the month Rubbdny, corresponding with the 3d of the month Rujub, 

a " year 

(1) If the year Sehr, A. M. 1220, was meant to refer to the event stated immediately after, namely, 
the appearance of the allies before Scringapalam, the memorandum set out wiih a mistake j since 
ttie event in question did not take place in Schr 1^20, but in Zuburjui 12I(). The Sultan however, 
when he took up his pen, might intend to begin with the mention of some transaction of the year 
Sehr, or 1220, but changing his mind, have passed abruptly to the subject which occupies the 
commencement of the memorandum. With regard to the interlined and erased date, " 5th of the 
month Rubbany," it may be observed, that that was the day (corresponding with the 2(ith of February, 
1 792) on which the hostage princes quitted Seringapalam, and were delivered into the hands of Lord 
Cornwallis. It is probable, therefore, that the 5a/;a« was, at first, about to mention that circumstance ; 
but, changing his mind again, proceeded to relate the previous appearance o